Why is online access to some journals available to institutions but not individuals?

Decisions about online access options are made by each journal or its publisher. There are two main reasons why a journal might only permit access to institutions but not individuals:

1. Some journals are sponsored by membership organizations that include print subscriptions as benefits of membership. Before these journals can offer online access to individuals, they must first decide what benefits of membership they want to offer their members. Some groups prefer to send print copies to their members and therefore do not want to offer online access to individuals.

2. Some publishers are primarily focused on reaching users at libraries, and therefore only give us permission to provide access to their journals to institutions.