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Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy

Volume 11, 2018

Environmental Philosophy

Antonio Queiros
Pages 123-128

From Bento de Espinoza (Benedict Spinoza) to Antero de Quental

This paper analyses the contribution to environmental philosophy of the twentieth century philosophy transformation and the historical contribution of Portuguese philosophy, Bento (Baruch) de Espinosa (born in a Jew Portuguese family)and Antero de Quental, Portuguese philosopher from XIX century. Both built their philosophy of nature in a critical perspective of the thinking of Ernest Haeckel; and also Jorge de Sena, philosophical poet and writer of the XX century. Their analytic perspective is that the fundamental pushes of environmental philosophy reflection, from Espinosa to Antero and Sena, were the ethical issue and the moral problems. Unlike the history of philosophy, whose core problems are the human condition, the environmental philosophy drive their thoughts to the “raison d’ être” of the world and their phenomenology, without becoming a philosophy against the man, because the nature of the Human being, the nature of all entities and beings from the universe is the same “star dust”. The article postulates two fundamental theses: Environmental philosophy built a new ontology in criticizing anthropocentrism, but only in articulation with a new epistemology, founded in criticism of ethnocentrism, it could lead to a new ethics universal theory

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