Volume 17, 2008
Онтология, Гносеология, Историзм
The idea of evolution introducing a temporal parameter in the characteristics of the objects of nearly all the branches of the contemporary scientific researches and by this way involving them in a historical movement is confronted with a necessity of the correct definition of the thing submitted to evolutionary process combining substantial and dynamical aspects. In the searches of a solution of this problem one can not count on the history of society, all the more so as in this domain the problem of characteristic of its object is of the same acuteness as in the others domains. In fact, we are facing now a sort of crisis of the idea of the historicism reduced finally to the crisis of the thingness (M. Heidegger), and its expression is quite identical both in the natural and the social sciences. Difficulties of the more general order which are at the basis of that crisis can be described as the difficulties of a conceptualization of the totality and the movement. On the most general level they are presented as two kinds of metaphysics – the metaphysics of substance and the metaphysics of becoming (A.N. Whitehead). G.W.F. Hegel can be mentioned as one who indicated the general way to eliminate (sublate) the difficulties: the forming the concepts capable to support the contradictions, to sublate (aufheben) the antinomies. In the evolutionary biology this kind of solution is given by the notion of species enriched by the results of the genetics (Chetverikov S.S.), in social sciences - by the socio-economical formation (K. Marx).