# Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia

## Volume 2, Issue 2/3, Febrero/Septiembre 1987

**Un lenguaje aritmético como instrumento de análisis y de decisión en Lógica y en Derecho**

*An arithmetical language, whose words are natural numbers written in hexadecimal numeration system, is defined and its applications for the representation, analysis and decision of formulae of some logical and normative systems are described and illustrated.
The formulae, operations and relations of the represented system are associated as follows respectively to the numbers and the arithmetical operations and relations of the proposed language:
1. Each well-formed-formula of the system is associated to a number of a set of natural numbers between zero (associated to all tautologies and theses) and the binary supremum Φ of the set (Φ is associated to all contradictions and antitheses and his value is 2n-1, n depending on system’s dimensions and structure).
2. Negation of a formula and disjonction and conjonction of t wo other more formulae of the system are associated respectively to the binary complement Φ-N(f) of the number associated to the first and to the binary infimun and supremum of the numbers associated to the last.
3. The logical relations “f1 implies f2” (f1 -> f2), “f1 is incompat.ible with f2” (f1|f2), “f1 is the contradictory opposite of f2” (f1wf2) and “f1 is alternative to f2” (f1vf2) are true in the represented system if and only if the associated arithmetical relations, respectively “N(f1) absorbs arithmetically N(f2)”, “binary supremum of N(f1) and N(f2) is equal to Φ”, “sum of of N(f1) and N(f2) is equal to Φ” and “binary infimum of N(f1) and N(f2) is equal to 0”, are true.
The applications of the proposed arithmetical language as very rapid and simplified tool of analysis and decision method are shown for the following systems: propositional logic, syllogistic, some deontic and alethic modal systems and some normative systems of statutory law:
1. In the propositional logic, after fixing the maximum of variables considered, the numbers associated to these variables and to the contradictions are calculated. On this permanent basis, the evaluation of a farmula (especially in the case of many occurrences of many variables) is performed by the calculation of the associated number faster as in the traditional way.
2. In the syllogistic, after the calculation of the number associated to each type of premise or conclusion, an arithmetical table of syllogisms shows that a proposed syllogism is valid if and only if the binary supremum of the numbers associated to the premises absorbs arithmetically the number associated to the conclusion. It is well-known that the search of this sort of arithmetization of syllogistic and the study of its possibilitiy has been a recurrent topic in modern logic, from Leibniz to Łukasiewicz and to-day.
3. In a deontic equivalent:ial system who includes Von Wright’s deontic system of 1982 far norms of the first order, the calculation of the numbers associated to an types of permission and obligation sentences allows the im mediate arithmetical verification of an the classical relations between those sentences. The same is shown for an alethic modal system including the modlities of the first order of Lewis’s S5.
4. For normative systems of statutory law, the arithmetical verification of the logical and normative relations is shown in precedent author’s papers -especially in recent “The ‘Ars Judicandi.’ Programme”-, though not yet in hexadecimal numeration system but only in binary and decimal ones.
In all the represented systems, the arithmetical verification of the metalogical properties of the system -consistency and completeness- is performed in a very easy and rapid manner, after the arithmetic representation of the axiomatic basis of the latter by a system of equations.*