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Volume 12, 2012

George Varvatsoulias
Pages 159-183

Moral Orientations of Males and Females on Justice and Social Exchange, and Care and Kin Reciprocity
An Evolutionary Psychological Approach

Objectives: The present study questioned the moral orientation between males and females. It was hypothesized that males will score high on justice and social exchange, whilst females high on care and kin reciprocity. High scores on justice and care were found in a respective continuum with social exchange and kin reciprocity. Design: A between-participant independent t-test design of differences was carried out to search for the moral orientation of males and females. The dependent variable (DV) was the scores participants rated on justice and social exchange, and care and kin reciprocity, whilst sex was the independent variable (IV). Method: Three moral vignettes were given to participants followed by questions/state-ments (Appendix C). Participants were asked to respond to those vignettes by using a Likert Scale scoring system rated 1 to 5. Results: The results have shown that males score high on justice and social exchange, whereas females high on care and kin reciprocity. Through the t-test were found significant differences between the sexes on moral reasoning orientations, and the hypothesis was supported. Conclusions: It was concluded that males demonstrate a just moral reasoning, whereas females a caring moral orientation. The continuum between justice and care with social exchange and kin reciprocity portrayed interpersonal relations in view to group dynamics as well as a maintenance of balance through cooperation

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