Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy

Volume 20, Issue 40, November 2012

Ética Animal e Ética Ambiental

António Queirós
Pages 69-94

Campos de Deméter: Da Impossibilidade de Separar a Ciência, a Ética e a Estética na Hermenêutica da Paisagem

Central conceptual terms, such as ‘culture’, ‘environment’, ‘nature’ and ‘landscape’, are far from being neutral scientific objects. They are academic constructions which need to be understood in their emergence across their historic contexts. Morality is a cultural expression determined by social domination and historical context, which gives it a sectary character. We need a moral theory that can be universal, timeless and that is able to guide the individual conduct, science and political ideologies, without considering the man the zenith of Life. Life, with its biodiversity, is only the tip of a complex Cosmos evolution, but we don’t know if our species, bom on planet Earth, are the final link in the Cosmos evolution. To answer all these questions, a new ethical perspective was born, a theory built upon the principles of meta-ethics and applicable to all human activities. Environmental ethics are supported by two principles - the critique against anthropocentrism and the critique against ethnocentrism, giving a universal answer to the macro moral problems of our era - environmental, social, economical and political crisis, war and weapons of mass destruction... And contributes towards rebuilding the human activities in all domains of individual and social life.