Volume 55, Issue 1, 2018
Olga E. Stoliarova
Philosophical approaches to classifications of sciences: biology
This paper analyzes the phenomenon of classification of sciences as a subject of philosophical investigations. What is going on at the object- and the meta- levels of classifications of sciences? What is the structure of the meta-level of scientific classifications? The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of philosophical approaches to the construction and analysis of scientific classifications. Social epistemology and historical epistemology have shown to be the most effective in analyzing both scientific classifications and classifications of sciences. The paper discusses substantive, methodological, cultural, and historical criteria of scientific classifications as they are applied to contemporary biology. Some of the contemporary problems of scientific classifications are considered through the reading of biological disciplinary classifications. It is shown that the classification disciplines in biology is organized according to the ontological, epistemological and social frameworks.