Environmental Philosophy

Volume 3, Issue 2, Fall 2006

Alan Drengson, Tim Quick
Pages 17-27

Gestalts, Refrains, and Philosophical Pluralism
A Response to Toadvine

This paper is a response to Ted Toadvine’s article “Gestalts and Refrains: On the Musical Structure of Nature,” in Environmental Philosophy 2.2 (2005). We propose a more generous interpretation of Naess’s gestalt ontology, one that we believe mitigates Toadvine’s criticisms. Gestalt ontology and refrain ontology offer two different yet compatible ontologies for environmental philosophers searching for viable alternatives to scientific reductionism. Encouraging many ontologies also encourages a rich philosophical pluralism.