Volume 21, Issue 1, 2011
Studies of Civilizations
Marek J. Celiński
The Concepts of Progress and Regress in Relation to Civilizations
History provides us with instances of various societal and economic changes that with a hindsight are interpreted as either indicating progressive or regressive trends. The present paper attempts to define what represents progress and regress by applying psychological constructs to evaluation of the psychosocial changes. Seven principles of progress are applied as criteria for interpreting various historic events. The primary condition for progress is courage to face adversity or, in the cognitive domain, ambiguity, controversy and “unknown”. An overall model of Challenge-Resilience-Resourcefulness is described as the process through which progress can be achieved.