Volume 17, Issue 5/6, 2007
The European Spirit of Polish Culture in the Perspective of Universalism
Jan Ryszard Błachnio
The Universalism Philosophy of Seweryn Smolikowski (1850–1920) and Early 21st-Century Universalism
Generally speaking, philosophical reflection can assume two extreme forms: it can either be based on metaphysical reflection which gives it the traits of a universalistic philosophy, or empiricism, in which case it can be called philosophical minimalism. There are no others alternatives, and the above categories apply to all philosophical systems. Smolikowski’s philosophy is maximalistic and metaphysical, hence he was right to call the system universalism philosophy. As W. Tyburski writes, Smolikowski’s universalism philosophy has two main goals: to provide firmer ground for metaphysics and stand in opposition to both positivism and German pessimism philosophy.