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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 63
Koyo Fukasawa A Basis of the Interconnection of Athletes in Interpersonal Athletics: From the Perspectives of Nishida’s ‘I-Thou’ Relationship
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In this paper, I aim to explore a basis of interconnection of athletes in interpersonal athletics. The respect for their opponents needs a certain mutual understanding. The founder of Judo, Jigoro Kano (1860-1938), advocates the ideal of ‘mutual prosperity for self and others’. In order to assume that athletes confronting each other realize this ideal, we have to find out the possibility to connect athletes in some way. And we can name Kitaro Nishida(1870-1945) as one of the pioneers of Japanese philosophy, who developed an unique philosophical investigation based on Eastern philosophy. I will interpret the interconnection of athletes from the ‘pure experience’ and ‘I-Thou’ relationship which he referred. Empathy, which is an example of interconnection, means to assume an event occurred on the other (object) as that on the self (subject). This framework of this understanding, however, seems to have some methodological limits, e.g. solipsism or dualism. Nishida attempts to overcome this theoretical difficulty by introducing ‘pure experience’ into the issue of identifying subject with object. For example, Judoka is required to react as swiftly as possible to the opponent’s attack. In that moment he/she could perceive the opponent’s state and react to the attack at the corporeal level regardless of his/her consciousness.
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 63
Filip M. Bardzinski ‘Who are we? Fanatics, that’s who’: On how Polish Sport Fans Undertake Neo-conservative and Communitarian Criticism of Post-modernity
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The Polish football fans community has been recently in the scope of several academic studies, concerning – mostly – numerous deviations presented by its members. What has been left underestimated is the formal and practical capacity the football fans community to influence both the public opinion, as well as local and national governments. Albeit controversial, the “fanatic” football fans characteristics are inherently inscribed in the personal identities of the group’s members; they exceed simple “friend-foe” distinctions, rather consisting of a complex set of social and political views, rooted in communitarian and neo-conservative philosophies. In my lecture, I wish to discuss how the football fans community reacts to both theoretical projects of the post-modern society and its practical implementations. By stressing out the declared criticism of the changes taking place in modern society (especially those concerning morality, education and the so-called “weakening of social ties”), I wish to evoke the neglected dimension of the football fans society – that of a conservative educator and political actor.
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 63
Masami Sekine, Takayuki Hata Sport as Thought
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Sport exerts such broad and deep influence on human beings that it is comparable with religion and science. Sport is not limited to physical acts in a physiological sense. It is rather related to the human spirit. Compared with this breadth and depth of sport, very little has been said on the thought connected with sport. It is as if popularization and intensification (escalation of breadth and depth) have been left to run rampant. In this paper, we would link sport with the human spirit and discuss it from the perspective of its role in the modern world. Aiming at sustainable societies in terms of energy and the environment through our own individual efforts is one of the major challenges we face today. At the same time, we would like to highlight the challenge we face of realizing societies that allow the sustainability and continued existence of achieved joy and cooperation with others. In relation to this challenge, we believe that the thought on sport will help in shaping our futures. Sport has functioned in a way that inspires independent actions in humans, and it will no doubt continue to do so. When doing so, we need suggestions for the types of thought that will give meaning to everyone’s sporting acts, from top-level athletes to ordinary people of all ages, and that will counter the type of external threats about which Karl Jaspers and Johan Huizinga were apprehensive. We believe that the possibility for a philosophy of sport lies in completely overcoming the etymological sense of ‘recreation.’
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 63
Jerzy Kosiewicz The Ethical Context of Justifying Anti-doping Attitudes: Critical Reflections
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The reflections presented in the paper are not normative (in general, it can be said, that they do not create moral values and demands). The presented reflections particularly stress the sense, essence, meaning, and identity of sport in the context of moral demands. A disquisition pointing out that sports and sport-related doping can be situated beyond the moral good and evil must be considered precisely as metaethical, and leads in a consciously controversial way to fully defining the identity of sport in general, as well as the identity of particular sports disciplines. These reflections also refer to the issue concerning the identity of sports philosophy, i.e. general deliberations and specific issues concerning, for example, the factual and cognitive status of normative ethics in sport.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 63
Heather L. Reid The Ethics of Efficiency: Ergogenic Aids and Respect for the Game
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Ethics in sport demand not only that we respect ourselves and others, but also that we respect sport itself. But the question of respecting sport seems to create a kind of moral dilemma between the obligation to “play one’s best” by maximizing performance, and the obligation to follow rules and traditions that ban the use of ergogenic aids. It is often argued that bans on performance-enhancing substances, equipment, and training techniques are paternalistic and violate athletes’ liberty to rationally accept risks in their pursuit of excellence. Against advocates for the legalization of ergogenic aids, however, I argue in this paper that such bans must be respected because they are an essential part of the nature of sport. Whether one understands sports metaphysically to be Suits’ “voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles” or a MacIntyrean social practice, inefficiency of means is an essential component sport that demands respect from all participants. The performance principle in sport is ontologically posterior to the prescription of inefficiencies upon which sport depends, so ethical respect for sport demands that we limit the efficiencies provided by ergogenic aids
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 63
Yosuke Hayashi The Problem of Health and Bodily Movements on Descartes an Educator
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An attempt is made to clarify the meaning of bodily exercises and the role of the passions on bodily movements from the viewpoint of René Descartes (1596-1650), as an educator. In the field of Cartesian philosophy, some attempts are being made to identify Descartes as an educator, however, there is little on bodily movements and exercises. However, his remarks on them seem to offer some beneficial suggestions to a philosophy of sport. So it is useful to examine his understandings of exercises, bodily movements and the passions in the context of education and health. It’s possible to identify Descartes as an educator. From his The Passions of the Soul, he indicates us the goal of education, to achieve Generosity. And we may reach to it through a good “upbringing”. Besides, Descartes points out that it is good for our health to do exercises, which makes us aware of our “perfection of the body” and could lead us to the pleasure of the soul which constitutes happiness. In addition, the passions are important incentives to our bodily movements. In conclusion, he was already conscious of the role of the passions on bodily movements and the meanings of exercises.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Mikhail Epstein The Art of Virtual World-Making and the New Vocation for Metaphysics
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The power of technology is extended to the fundamental properties of existence, metaphysics becomes increasingly active in its ability to change these properties. This paper discusses a new relationship between philosophy and the advanced technologies that I call onto-technologies, because they change the foundations of being, the structure of existence and the way in which we experience it. In the past, technology was preoccupied with material particulars, while taking care of concrete human needs, such as food, shelter and transportation. Philosophy, in its turn, was preoccupied with big ideas, the first principles, essences and universals. Technology used to be utilitarian, while philosophy was speculative. Today technology and philos-ophy are moving ever closer towards each other: the power of technology is extended to the fundamental properties of the Universe, while philosophy becomes increasingly active in its ability to define and change these properties. Onto-technology has the power to create a new spatio-temporal continuum, a new sensory environment and modes of its perception. As a result, technology is now moving not away from, but towards, metaphysics; this way, the two of them are meeting at the very core of being, where the principles and universals traditionally considered the prerogative of philosophical study can be found.
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Susana Raquel Barbosa Instrumental and Technical Utopias
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While utopia seems to have low esteem in current philosophical theory, technique, conversely, is increasingly followers. Utopia, as the original creation of the Renaissance, currently taking shape in different configurations to classical. Although the technique on permanent open spaces philosophical discussion, in some interpretations of the original elements remain τέχνη. From two operational definitions of utopia (Horkheimer) and technical (Bloch) I propose a division of utopias to display the proper place to instrumental uto-pias and, within them, to technical utopias. We describe Bloch’s proposal, we point his limitations and propose overcome it with the critical theory of technology approach
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Henry Flantrmsky e-Democracy: Rethinking Democracy Under ICT’s Light
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This paper is an effort to remark the importance of re-conceptu-alize what is democracy considering the importance that the new technologies, especially concerning to the information and communication. It is important to redefine the model of political action according to the technological advance of our era, and for that is necessary a discussion in which the philosophical aspect get in touch with technology to re-dimension the scope of democracy nowadays. To prepare the field for this new concept of e-Democrcy, first of all I present the case of an earlier attempt to revitalize democracy with new technologies, it is the case of cable TV, and after that I show the reason for its fail. After the exposition of the cable TV case, I show some of the conditions that are necessary to make the transition from analog democracy to digital democracy or e-Democracy.
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Charalampos Kokkinos Technology and Public Life: Aspects of a Framework for a Critical Theory of the Technological Society
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In our everyday lives, we come into contact with a series of technological objects and use a lot of technologies. Usually, the “relation” we develop with these objects works, on a first level, for our benefit. On the other hand, we actually know little about the technologies we use in order to accomplish various activities. Technologies have neither been developed, nor do they exist independently, even though we tend to perceive them as natural objects in themselves. Perhaps they are as much defined by causal laws, which are relevant to their “behavior” as specific artifacts, as they obtain ad hoc characteristics through our significations, which already belong to a specific social system. This ignorance of common sense often leads to the exclusion of a number of topics that are intertwined with the technological phenomenon from the everyday agenda of political debate. Moreover, the errors that stem from our unsophisticated or even unconscious attitude towards these artifacts have important consequences on various areas, including “development” and “work”, education, the environment, and human communication itself. This short article will try to present elements of a critical theory of technology (highlighting topics and themes that emerge in the works of Andrew Feenberg) in order to illustrate the need to link the technological phenomenon with everyday political practice.
11. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Vitaly Gorokhov Galileo Galilei as Philosopher of Technology and Technology Assessment Expert
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Three main features of engineering thought have formed over the centuries: artistic, practical (or technical), and scientific. Galileo chose an approach unusual for scholastic science: technology began to depend on mathematical knowledge and models. At the same time, he criticized the craftsmens’ approach to technical activity, which overlooked scientific knowledge and the laws of nature in building machinery. Galileo’s works paved the way for the formation of engineering thinking and activity in practice as well as theory. He personified a new figure, the engineer-scientist. His geometric-kinematic theoretical schematic model of the machines was a beginning and precondition of the application of the natural scientific theory to the first special engineering science – the theory of the mechanisms and machines or kinematics. Galileo elaborated not only a new scientific methodology oriented to technical needs, but also a new philosophy of technology based on scientific knowledge.
12. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Neb Kujundzic Does the a priori Belong to Science and Technology?
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In this paper, I intend to support a currently controversial approach to the a priori -- the one that respects its fundamental role in science, and I furthermore suggest the relevance of the a priori may be expanded to technology. I shall address the following three issues: a priori in scientific and technological methodology, a priori and the essence of science and technology, and a priori in the assessment of science and technology.
13. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Aristides Gogoussis How is Engineering Design of Operation Possible?: The Role of Causal Unilateralization and the Conception of Praxiological Methodologies
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The framework of engineering design for operation as a problem that seeks a satisfactory solution calls for a thorough consideration of issues such as the partial ignorance of lawfulness, of interdependence as well as of unmodeled dynamics of subsets of reality. Moreover the consideration should account for the inability of the complete and exhaustive mathematical representation of such subsets. A key element in the resolution of this problem is the possibility of causal unilateralization. This element is not innate in physical phenomena but is brought to the surface for exploitation by ingenious engineering contrivances. In conjunction with a guiding principle projecting the achievement of accuracy despite the unavoidable inaccuracy of the means, and along with conforming praxiological methods, the whole design procedure renders the goal of achieving any well-defined operation feasible. In addition, it follows that this line of approach leads to the distinct characteristic that for any desired outcome what is sought after is not the derivation of the necessary but rather the sufficient conditions which will guarantee an admissible manifestation of it. On the way it becomes apparent that engineering design of operation is a process that involves possible realities.
14. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Viorel Guliciuc From Wisdom to Digital Wisdom as Negotiated Identity
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When the Technological Singularity (Bostrom, Kurzweil, Smart) is more and more near, the human-machine interaction covers various merging processes. Yet, in the Digital Era, we have to deal with and manage an amazing plethora of different identities (plural, multiple, alternative, concurrent, divergent, virtual, and so on). This engages us in a discussion on the criteria of the identity and it leads us from ‘no entity without identity’ (Quine) to ‘no identity without a process’ (Boyd). We also have to deal with the problem of what the “wisdom” is nowadays. In the last decades, we have continuously passed from the classical wisdom – word and face to face based, toward a multi-channelled, digital wisdom (Prensky) – a symbiotic, non-generic and non-unitary wisdom (Guliciuc). The analysis of those merging processes and multi-faceted, processual identities engages us in the search for a classification of our “merged identities” in the Digital Era, toward identities that are continuously negotiated.
15. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Nikolaos Smyrnakis Plato, Facebook and the Reversal of Utilitarianism
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Facebook is one of the most controversial and well-known social networking sites. This website indicates a possible form of surveillance of the activities of each user through appropriate software controlled by its creators and their associates The analysis of this surveillance is in direct relation to the ethical and political perceptions of Plato and of the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham specific to the ideal State and the prison model Panoptikon This comparison brings to light the similarities and thorny differences of these three forms of surveillance and demonstrates the difference of the guardians’ transparent lifestyle of the state as opposed to the supervisors’ opaque mode of action on Facebook. We also try to pin-point the reversal of the theory of utilitarianism that takes place on Facebook, providing food for further thought and consideration.
16. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Golfo Maggini Dreyfus and Borgmann on the Late Heidegger
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Albert Borgmann’s account of modern technology is considered to be one of the leading positions in the American philosophy of technology which is informed by continental philosophical “paradigms”, such as hermeneutics. In particular Martin Heidegger’s late hermeneutics of the technological world has been a powerful source of inspiration for Borgmann, as has become evident in his Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life. In our paper we will argue that, despite the strengths of Borgmann’s analysis both in the 1984 book as well as in his more recent studies, its obvious weakness pertains to the negligence or underestimation of Heidegger’s leading phenomenological line of thought. This negligence or underestimation compromises his approach to Heidegger’s account of technology, as becomes evident in the critiques addressed to him by phenomenologists, such as Hubert Dreyfus, and “postphenomenologists”, such as Don Ihde and Peter-Paul Verbeek.
17. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Rosa Rantanen Aging, Death, and the Ethics of Life Extending Technologies
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In his paper “Is Ageing Bad for us?” (2011) Michael Hauskeller claims that because aging and death are not bad for us, we are in no hurry to develop means for radical life extension. Looking into this claim, I argue that Hauskeller’s conclusion is too strong. Even if we accept that aging and death are not bad for us, it does not follow that we could not still appreciate a long life over them. More important, accepting the harmlessness of aging and death does not imply that we should restrict the development of considerable life extension technologies. I suggest that even though Hauskeller’s argument is interesting, it is not enough to make any statements about the overall desirability of developing life extension technologies. He ignores several other lines of argumentation (such as the meaning of individual freedom) that might change the way we see the technologies. The badness of death and aging are metaphysical concepts that are not very well adapted to a more practical context; they are not sufficient tools for dealing with the practical ethical challenges that we face when discussing considerable life extension technologies.
18. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Edgar Patiño Barreto Technological Artifacts and Complexity: Components Heuristic for Conceptual Basis of Technological Artifact
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If we assume that the artifacts have framed their functional level low the conceptual construction, under the planes defined from intentional functions and duties provided as givers of meaning, which has reduced its conceptualization instrumental for the design process. In this paper, we will focus on discussions of technological artifact referring the concept of the interface, which is defined in the processes of interaction with complex objects with their context. From approach defined the construct of technological artifacts from heuristics, beyond levels of functional troubleshooting framed isolated artifact in interaction, in from interaction with their technological context. This paper aims, first, interpreting technological artifacts from heuristic factors provided by the sciences of complexity. That interface defines the process as interactive relationship with the context and with the construction of heuristics that solve problems of varying degrees of complexity.
19. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Qian Wang Dao from the Perspective of Philosophy of Technology
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Dao in traditional Chinese philosophy references not just “the way” or nature (in Daosim) or human social order (in Confucianism) but also the way for best performing certain technical activities. Understanding the meaning and value of this aspect of Dao can be of use to philosophical reflection experience in the development of modern technology.
20. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 64
Wei Zhang Can Morality be Materialized?
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The idea of “materialization of morality” is now attracting increasing attention in the field of philosophy of technology. It bears great theoretical and practical meanings. In terms of theoretical aspect, it provides a “material answer” to the traditional ethical question “how to act” for the disciplines of ethics; for philosophy of technology, it transforms the externalist study approach to the internalist study approach. In terms of practical aspect, it provides a material way on disciplining human being’s actions. Furthermore, it expands the view of industrial design, adding the new dimension of morality into design activity. However, it also confronts several challenges. One is that, if the choices of human are decided by technology, then, where is the free will? In what sense can we still be human? Should we still be responsible for the bad results in some special situations? If so, how much responsibility should we take? The second is that it may lead to technocracy. Last but not lest, But if the designer becomes the leading character in “doing’’ ethics, then what can ethicists and philosophers do? What is their new role? So, new answers must be figured out to solve these questions. In this paper, I will introduce the principle or method of “libertarian paternalism” and “field philosophy” into this approach.