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1. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Vladimir A. Kutyrev Владимир Александрович Кутырев
Husserl’s Transcendental Phenomenology as a Philosophical Foresight of the Information Era
Трансцендентальная Феноменология Гуссерля Как Философское Предшествие Информационной Эпохи

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In this paper, we suggest an updated idea about the development of philosophy in the twentieth century. Its historical meaning is in the transition from metaphysics to transcendentalism, from the realistic model of the world to the postmodernist one. We demonstrate that transcendental phe-nomenology is a forerunner of structural and in-formation revolutions. It developed the catego-ries that appear speculative counter-parts of the conceptual apparatus of informationalism. The “keyword” of phenomenology is noe-ma = a thing of consciousness = a mental con-sciousness thing, which is information about a thing. Transcenden-tal-cognitive modelling turns all things into num-bers. It results in a denial of humanity and their life-world by technoscience. Husserl seems to be the first ideologist and, at the same time, the first criticist of the Transmodern era.
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2. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 1 > Issue: 2
M. Weller Мартин Веллер
The Digital Scholar Revisited
Цифровой Ученый: Новое Прочтение

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The book The Digital Scholar was published in 2011, and used Boyer’s framework of scholarship to examine the possible impact of digital, networked technology on scholarly practice. In 2011 the general attitude towards digital scholarship was cautious, although areas of innovative prac-tice were emerging. Using this book as a basis, the author considers changes in digital scholarship since its publication. Five key themes are identified: mainstreaming of digital scholarship, so that it is a widely accepted and encouraged practice; the shift to open, with the emphasis on the benefits that open practice brings rather than the digital or networked aspects; policy implementation, particularly in areas of educational technology platforms, open access policies and open educational resources; network identity, emphasising the development of academic identity through social media and other tools; criticality of digital scholarship, which examines the negative issues associated with online abuse, privacy and data usage. Each of these themes is explored, and their impact in terms of Boyer’s original framing of scholarly activity considered. Boyer’s four scholarly activities of discovery, integration, application and teaching can be viewed from the perspective of these five themes. In conclusion what has been realised does not con-stitute a revolution in academic practice, but rather a gradual acceptance and utilisation of digi-tal scholarship techniques, practices and values. It is simultaneously true that both radical change has taken place, and nothing has fundamentally altered. Much of the increased adoption in academia mirrors the wider penetration of social media tools amongst society in general, so academics are more likely to have an identity in such places that mixes professional and personal.
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3. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 2 > Issue: 3
Julita Slipkauskaitė Юлита Слипкаускаите
The significance of the idea of impetus for the development of natural science
Роль идеи импетуса в развитии естественных наук

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In the discourse around theories explaining scientific progress, natural philosophy of the Late Medieval Period is seen as playing the role of apologetics. For philosophers of science, with their repudiation of metaphysics, the task of providing a rational reconstruction of how scientific progress has occurred is nigh on impossible. Even explanations such as the Popperian and the Kuhnian strain under great difficulty and provide only partly satisfactory results. In his “Logik der Forschung” (1934) Karl Raimund Popper argues that metaphysics plays an accidental part in the emergence of new scientific ideas. Correspondingly, in “Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (1962), by carrying out theoretical interpretations and classification of empirical facts without their metaphysical premises, Thomas Kuhn comes to the conclusion that natural science was formed under the influence of erroneous interpretations of Aristotelian natural philosophy presented by medieval natural philosophers. These are some of the reasons why medievalists are still made to defend late medieval natural philosophy from shallow convictions that at medieval universities nothing of any significance to contemporary science and philosophy took place at all. Seeking to render a fragment of a coherent reconstruction of the development of natural philosophy, I will investigate one idea of late medieval philosophy – the explanation of motion (impetus). The main statement of the paper holds that the ideas of late medieval natural philosophy have a decisive significance for the development of modern natural science instead of accidental or negative one. In the paper, following Aristotelian philosophical approach, premises of Jean Buridan’s theory of impetus will be exposed. Then, debates over the explanation of projectile motion are going to be presented, and finally, the necessary significance of this metaphysical idea on the modifications of natural philosophy is going to be ascertained.
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4. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Joseph Wilson Джозеф Уилсон
Constraints on generality: The (mis-)use of generic propositions in scientific prose
Ограничения На Общее

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Generic propositions are statements that make general claims about ‘kinds’ that are found in a wide variety of written genres and speech. By definition, generics do not include in their structure any reference to the conditions under which they hold true. Their misuse in popular scientific writing, however, can erode the public’s confidence in the process of science itself when they discover that conclusions are highly contingent on certain truth conditions. The language used in scholarly scientific papers often includes qualifiers and hedges, the epistemological consequences of which have been explored by Bruno Latour, Thomas Kuhn, Ian Hacking and others. Some research shows that abstracts, however, of-ten include generic statements that are not warranted by the scientific evidence described in the full text. Similarly, when accounts of scientific discoveries appear in popular media, journalists often remove qualifiers, hedges and context markers that existed in the original study. Studies in anthropology by Joseph Dumit, Annemarie Mol, Harris Solomon and others explore the human reactions to such pronouncements. One possible solution to the over-use of generics in scientific abstracts, especially for studies that rely on human subjects, is the inclusion of a mandatory section entitled “Constraints on Generality,” as suggested by Gutiérrez and Rogoff (2003). Other suggestions include using less nominalized verbs and more past-tense descriptions of what actually occurred in the particular study.
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5. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Christian Dayé Orcid-ID Кристиан Дайé
Fast trade?: Interdisciplinarity under time pressure
Быстрый Обмен?

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This paper addresses two questions. The first is: Do cross-disciplinary teams that exist only for rather short periods of time have a chance to realize some form of dialogue across disciplinary boundaries? To approach this topic, the concept of trading zones is applied, as it has been introduced by Peter Galison and developed by other authors. Empirical data come from participant observation during a workshop on sonification, i.e. the auditory display of data. In this context, a second question is addressed. While there exists a vivid discussion on how to measure outcome or performance of research projects, there has been no attempt to measure the degree of interdisciplinarity within a collaborative structure. I propose a methodology that attempts to transfer concepts found within qualitative frameworks onto a quantitative research strategy. In concluding, I discuss some flaws of this approach and propose further lines of work.
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6. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Marfuga Iskandarova, Elena Simakova Марфуга Искандарова
Technologising the wave: constructing an energy resource in science and policy
Технологизация Волны

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Despite the recent shift from renewable energy to a low carbon policy, the UK policy discourse still recognises marine energy as part of the country’s future energy mix. Production of what we call an “assemblage” of technology and ocean waves triggers complex sets of initiatives that provide the basis for the economic viability and credibility of wave energy extraction. However, questions are rarely asked about how the natural phenomenon being part of this assemblage is construed as a resource to become a key element of promises and assessments of potential of renewable energy. This study sheds light on under-explored aspects of the credibility–economy and valuation practices formed around renewable energy that have not yet been problematised in social studies of energy. Arguing that ocean waves become an energy resource largely through resource assessment practices, we examine such practices in the context of the production of scientific and policy discourses around wave energy. Considering waves as an object of expertise, we examine how “wave data” constituted through measurements, statistical analysis, modelling and visualisation, contribute to the assessment and legitimisation of wave energy developments. We also evaluate the prospects for wave energy to be a “good” in future economic exchange.
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7. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Jennifer Shields Дженнифер Шилдс
Do democracies need knOWLedge?
Нужно Ли Демократиям Знание?

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This paper serves to review the book Why Democracies Need Science, written by Harry Collins and Robert Evans. Of particular interest to this paper is the institution of The Owls, which Collins and Evans propose in their text. A theme which is present throughout the book, a theme which Collins and Evans seek to work through is that of post-truth; the first section of the paper will address the concept of post-truth. Next, the birds of science will be examined, in the second section; this is a classification system Collins and Evans develop, from a borrowed analogy from Richard Feynman. After examining the eagle scien-tists, the hawk scientific fundamentalists, and the vulture philosopher-apologists, attention will be paid to The Owls of science. The third section per-tains to The Owls. The Owls are an institution which Collins and Evans note and which includes social scientists and those with a rigorous under-standing of the social analysis of science [Collins, Evans, 2017, p. 78]. The role of The Owls is to serve to better advise politicians in a post-truth era. The purpose of this paper is to argue that the theorized institution of The Owls is an insufficient mechanism to deal with a post-truth era. After introducing The Owls, the fourth section of the paper considers the neutrality of an Owl, as a consensus does not guarantee truth or correctness. The fifth section then examines The Owls and democracy, as Collins and Evans do not specify the type of democracy in which The Owls would operate. The sixth section notes the exclusivity present within the institution of The Owls, as it is restricted to only two occupations, and is seemingly elitist. Finally, I conclude by asking the question – what does this mean for science and technology studies? As the institution of The Owls seems like an insufficient one to deal with a post-truth era.
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8. The Digital Scholar: Philosopher's Lab: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Alexander Ruser Александер Рузер
The revolutions postponed: scientific evidence, dominant ideologies and the defenders of status quo
Отложенные Революции

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Philosophers of Science have developed sophisti-cated models for explaining how scientific revolu-tions are brought about and more generally how scientists deal with facts that contradict pre-existing assumptions and theoretical concepts. Likewise historians of science and sociologists of knowledge have produced comprehensive studies on how scientific breakthroughs have sparked social revolution and how social factors fostered or hampered scientific developments. However, scientific revolutions and scientific “progress” always seem to be at the center of at-tention. The equally important question of why sometimes new evidence and contradicting evi-dence fail to trigger a scientific revolution has been largely neglected though. Improving our understanding of “called off” or “postponed” rev-olutions not only contributes to analyses of suc-cessful scientific revolutions. Understanding how defenders of the status quo manage to suppress new information and ignore scientific facts is cru-cial to understanding scientific and political con-troversy. This contribution therefore seeks to out-line a conceptual model for probing into the “black box” of scientific revoltions. In addition it will outline a potential framework for analyzing the survival of neoclassic economic theory after the global financial crisis.
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9. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Constance T. Fischer Toward the Structure of Privacy: Implications for Psychological Assessment
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10. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Edward L. Murray Perceptual Psychology, Transactionalism and Phenomenology
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11. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Robert Romanyshyn Toward a Phenomenology of Attitudes
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12. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Robert J. Sardello A Reciprocal Participation Model of Experimentation
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13. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
William Fischer The Problem of Unconscious Motivation
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14. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Rolf von Eckartsberg An Approach to Experiential Social Psychology
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15. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
William F. Fischer The Faces of Anxiety
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16. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Amedeo Giorgi The Experience of the Subject as a Source of Data In a Psychological Experiment
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17. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Rolf von Eckartsberg Toward an Ecological Social Psychology of The Individual and The Idea of Life Style
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18. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Adrian van Kaam The Addictive Personality
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19. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Thomas Francis Cloonan Experiential and Behavioral Aspects of Decision-Making
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20. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology: Volume > 1
Frank M. Buckley An Approach to a Phenomenology of At-Homeness
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