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1. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Abdul Rashid Moten Social Justice, Islamic State and Muslim Countries
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A content analysis of the Qur’an shows that it lays utmost importance on the realization of justice and conversely the eradication of injustice in society. A historicalanalysis found that social justice was prevalent in Mecca under the leadership of Prophet Muhammad and was also practiced during the period of the first fourrightly guided caliphs (Khulafa-e-rashidun). Since then, the successive Muslim majority states have not taken the issue of social justice seriously. These states have failed in taking an active role in uplifting the ethical and moral standards of society. The documentary analysis of the existing 49 states in the Muslim world found majority of these states to have deviated from the real spirit of Islamic social justice falling within the category of “failed states.”
2. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani Politico-Religious Values in Malaysia: Comparing Asian Values and Islam Hadhari
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Malaysia has developed its own distinct value system that is accommodative to the country’s rich tapestry of different ethnicities and religions. It is no coincidence that previous Malaysian premiers have actively promoted such system. Leading the way is Mahathir Mohamad, the country’s fourth Prime Minister, who was a vocal advocate of “Asian values,” followed by his successor, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who championed the idea of Islam Hadhari. These two sets of values are not entirely incompatible to each other but rather share some similarities. The concepts of “Asian values” and Islam Hadhari are premised on several fundamental tenets, which include: promoting Islamic values, championing the Malay agenda, protecting cultural values, and challenging Western cultural imperialism. Their origin can be traced from the aggressive attempt by the ruling power – the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) – Barisan Nasional (BN) to strengthen and consolidate the political supremacy of the alliance. Inevitably, both of these value systems have been subjected to many criticisms, predominantly under the pretext of misguided and ill-properly constructed values by the ruling regime to justify its autocratic rule. The very nature of such value systems has often triggered political debates in terms of defining Malaysia as a nation. The espoused agenda of Islamisation and possibly assimilation have stirred profound uneasiness among the country’s significantly large population of non-Muslims. The value system brought by “Asian values” and IslamHadhari can lead to one understanding of Mahathir’s and Abdullah’s leadership and administration in governing Islam and politics in Malaysia.
3. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Mohd Faizal Musa Axiology of Pilgrimage: Malaysian Shi’ites Ziyarat in Iran and Iraq
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The religious rites of Shia remain a mystery to Malaysia’s Sunnite majority. One such rite is the ziyarat (visits to sacred sites). This essay highlights the ritualsconducted and performed by Malaysian Shi’ites during their seasonal pilgrimage to Iran and Iraq. Their rituals and behaviors during these pilgrimages to holy shrines in Iran and Iraq were documented from the standpoint of a cultural anthropologist. Rites from two sites, Mashad and Karbala, are presented in this study. Applying Herbert Blumer’s symbolic interactionism as a conceptual framework, and Charles Brooks’s methodology through social interaction and participant-observation, this essay aims to analyze and understand their rites, and the values and significance of these rites. By doing so, the axiological aspects of the rites were observed and clarified, thus enabling non Shi’ite Muslims to perceive greyest area of Shia rites, as performed by Shi’ites from Malaysia in their pilgrimage to Iran and Iraq.
4. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Haggag Ali Secularism: from Solidity to Liquidity
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In contemporary Western and Arab cultural critique, secularism as a worldview is believed to have experienced inherent transformations from solid rationalmaterialism (the emphasis on reason, science, progress, emancipation, industrialization, and nation building) to liquid non-rational materialism (the celebrationof the body, sex, global markets and consumption). This paper explores the arguments of both Zygmunt Bauman and Abdelwahab Elmessiri who advocate this thesis in the light of the major manifestations of these transformations.
5. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Suwan Kim Framing Arab Islam Axiology Published in Korean Newspapers
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Mutual interest and cooperation between Korea and several Arab countries is increasing. Each country’s perceptions of each other serve as critical factorsin the development of mutual success in business and trade fields. Their perceptions also affect diplomatic and cultural affairs in the public and private sectors. The news media serve as the public faces of these countries’ daily lives. The news media also serve as primary information sources that determine these countries’ national images. This study attempted to discover whether news coverage related to Arabs published by Korean newspapers contributed to the Korean public’s negative perceptions of Arab axiological images. The results revealed that the strongest news coverage published in Korean newspapers related Arabs with “war, terror, and dangerous region.” The majority of the articles published in both newspapers were negative. However, the results revealed that, in general, Korean respondents did not possess negative perceptions of Arabs and Arab culture. Korean respondents were well aware that Arab individuals are kind, affectionate, well-mannered, and easygoing. In fact, the results reinforced the notion that Koreans possessed positive perceptions of Arab individuals’ “devout Islamic religious lifestyles,” as well as Arab individuals’ efforts to “inherit and develop Islamic cultural traditions.”
6. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Maszlee Malik The Role of Religion for an Alternative Sustainable Governance Theory
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In post-modern times, there has been much empirical evidence to indicate that religions and faiths play a pro-active role in the field of civil society but more importantly in the development of societies, which is a major factor in political and economic development of a country, as well as its governance. Accordingly, the contemporary reality of plurality demands a fresh look into the narratives of different civilisations, cultures and ideologies, rather than imposed meta-narratives of modernity. Hence, explorations of religion and faith to develop an alternative notion of “good governance” from “other’s” worldview are also necessary. Much could be learned from cultures, religions and faiths in the realm of governance studies from the phenomenological perspective. This paper is an attempt to explore how religion could play its functional role to create a sustainable governance concept based on values and ethics. It will look into the situation of religion at present, and how it fits into the framework of governance, and the arguments will be supported by examples and evidence of the viability of the relation between religion and governance.
7. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Maximiliano E. Korstanje Preemption and Terrorism. When the Future Governs
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The present paper explores not only the psychological effects of 11 September in the political fields, but also connects with the risk of pre-emption in USinternational affairs. What is important to discuss in this work is the role played by the media in portraying news, and a pejorative image of Islam. This ancient religion is presented as being backward and barbaric in many senses. Beyond having an encompassing understanding of the history of Islam, the media dissuades public opinion the preventive war is the only valid resource. The project of Enlightenment has been gone forever. It was replaced by modernity. As civilization West developed a technophile sentiment of superiority that fulfilled the gap given by secularization. It is hypothesized that 9/11 represents the encounter of two civilizations whose cultural values are at odds. This belief is oriented at creating a demonization of Islam. First and foremost, both religions, Islam and Christianity have coexisted in peace over centuries. Secondly, Arabs even supported Judaism in its attempts to achieve independence from Rome. This begs a striking question, to what groups these stereotypes are conducive? While demonization paves the ways to reduce the sentiment of culprit, preemption give a reason to act.
8. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Mahdi Dahmardeh, Hossein Parsazadeh Language and Culture: Can we shape what the future holds?
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The role of culture in a field as vast as applied linguistics is so pronounced and vital that even a highly selective overview might not be sufficient to be comprehensive. What follows might be a synoptic account of the role of culture in the realm of applied linguistics. The enigmatic point which even makes the vast field of applied linguistics goes to unbeaten tracks is the similar nature of culture. Due to the aforementioned point, here the canonical overlap of them is emphasised. Moreover, as culture and language are intrinsically intertwined, we decided to have a more cultural stance rather than a linguistic one. Therefore, first, we go through the major studies in connection with language and culture. These studies might fall into three broad categories, namely those relating to epistemology of culture, those relating to its relation to language, and finally those relating to its presentation through a given language. Then, we touch on the trends, and in the end we try sum up and to unravel, or better to say, to come to grips with this enigmatic riddle, culture. In other words, in conclusion, we attempt to portray what culture will be.
9. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Weilin Fang Anoixism and Its Idealistic Pursuit
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Anoixism is a new contemporary philosophy which has spread from Asia to Europe in recent years. Anoixism lists openness as its first principle, accepting and acknowledging every doctrine and philosophy in the world. Phoenixist liberalism and Anoixist naturalism are two main parts of Phoenixist ethics. It starts from human nature and respects every individual's human rights through Phoenixist Constitutionalism. Phoenixist ethics insists on respecting freedom to the maximum degree through its principle of openness, supporting "ethics with the least amount of norms" and "government with the least amount of control (violence)," although it proposes a non-violent liberalism which places reservations on violence so as to respect the value of nature, life and humanity. With the Anoixist concept of being open to nature, life and humanity, Anoixism achieves Buddhist Non-being, Taoist Tao, Humanist liberty and any other possible ultimate value.
10. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Georg W. Oesterdiekhoff Evolution of Democracy: Psychological Stages and Political Developments in World History
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There has been a long history of discussion whether intellectual or socioeconomic factors caused the rise of constitutional state and democracy, replacing the previous authoritarian forms of government. Some authors emphasized the role developmental psychology could play in illuminating the intellectual causes to these political phenomena. According to Piagetian researches, modern humankind has run through a psychogenetic evolution during the past several centuries. This psychological transformation entails higher forms of socio-moral consciousness decisive to the loss of legitimacy of authoritarian forms and to the erection of more humane political forms such as constitutional state and democracy.
11. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Alexandru Petrescu Cultural - Philosophical Debate concerning the German Origin, the Specificity and the Evolution of Analytical Philosophy
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In the following lines, we consider the current debate concerning the origin, the specificity and evolution of analytical philosophy. We will try to motivate the idea that the origins and evolution of analytical philosophy are not entirely due to the British philosophers; in fact, this problem cannot be properly explained in terms of a single tradition, which would come true by the removal of another one. Regarding the evolution of analytic philosophy, we identify aspects of the German tradition, the British tradition as well as some new elements generated by the interaction between positivism and American pragmatism.
12. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Corneliu C. Simuţ Promoting Ancestry as Ecodomy in Indigenous African Religions
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This paper is an attempt to offer a concrete contribution to the study of indigenous African religions and in particular to the support of creating a set of traditions from whose perspective one could engage in the study of indigenous African religions as well as of African spirituality in general through the unifying theme of ecodomy. Defined in terms of a constructive process, ecodomy seeks to provide families and communities with a common element, that of ancestors, which is not only specific to African spirituality but also potentially capable of strengthening and improving the life of African people. Thus, this methodology based on working with ancestry as economy is applied to four distinct scholars and their specific approaches to indigenous African religions: John S. Mbiti, who believes that ancestors have mainly social, not religious roles; Issiaka P. Laleye, for whom ancestors make a connection between the social and religious aspects of life; Jacob K. Olupona, who restricts ancestors to religion, and Israel Kamudzandu, in whose philosophy ancestors can provide African societies with the possibility of moving beyond their indigenous religions into accepting other religious beliefs, such as those provided by Christianity.
13. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Mariana Momanu, Nicoleta Laura Popa Nationalism and Europeanism in Education: A Critical Analysis of Alternatives
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Nationalism is inextricably connected with the modern history of nations and nationstates, and reflects the axiological sets derived from the aspirations of young nations. However, recent political, economic and social developments at the global level have determined the resurgence of nationalism, and signs of the pheno¬menon are also visible in Europe, although the old continent has enabled principles of cross-border solidarity and cohesion through transnational constructions such as the European Union. Europeanism, European identity and identification with Europe are still fragile, and rather indefinite, and at the same time challenged by new and powerful types of nationalism. The present work argues that national education emerged and developed as a natural response to the formation and affirmation of nationstates, whereas multicultural, respectively intercultural education may answer the needs of contemporary societies, which face pressure to balance complex national and transnational mutations. This paper's contribution is to focus on the European context, and it stresses the necessity of transnational agreement on terms and semantics connected with intercultural education, given its potential role in supporting equity, solidarity and social stability.
14. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Gulbakyt Shashayeva, Zhakhan Z. Moldabekov Hospitality in Kazakhstan: The Empire Sings Back
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The paper inquiries into the changing patterns of national construction and the importance of hospitality and music in Kazakh culture. In particular, the argument presented here unveils the fundamental role of folk cultural practices and Kazakh nomad heritage in the making of the new nation after independence from the Soviet Union. The paper argues that aspects of the Kazakh hospitality and music tradition serve the purpose of postcolonial national construction. Scholars such as Benita Parry (1994), Partha Chatterjee (1986), or David Lloyd (1997) have argued that nationalism may be a strategy of emancipation from colonial rule. This paper takes this perspective.
15. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Cristian Iftode The Ethical Meaning of Foucault's Aesthetics of Existence
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In order to grasp the true ethical meaning of Foucault's aesthetics of existence, I begin by explaining in what sense he was an anti-normativist, arguing that the most important thing about the "final" Foucault is his strong emphasis on the idea of human freedom. I go on with a brief discussion about Foucault's sources of inspiration and a criticism of Rorty's kindred plea for "aesthetic life". I strongly reject the interpretation of Foucault's aesthetics of existence in terms of narcissistic individualism, arguing, on the contrary, that it has a definite communitarian dimension. I also claim that it is rooted in the Socratic and Stoic understanding of "care of the self," at the same time allowing new challenging developments fitted for our "post-duty" historical age, by way of analogy with the process of artistic making. I conclude with some short answers to a few questions regarding the status of this aesthetics of living.
16. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Ove Skarpenes, Rune Sakslind, Roger Hestholm National Repertoires of Moral Values
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The aim in this article is to widen the understanding of the significance of morality in the Norwegian social formation by comparing it with the French and the American case. After the introductory discussion of the new sociology of morality, previous findings from a study of the Norwegian middle class are reported. A short presentation of republicanism in France and Americanism in USA is followed by an analysis of the cultural and structural peculiarities of the Norwegian case, arguing that the content of the Norwegian middle class morality should be seen in light of the egalitarian tradition. Finally, by way of comparison the article points to possible ways the different configuration of values might be transferred institutionally.
17. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Mădălin Onu The Barbarian as Agent of History
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Herder, the German humanist from the end of the 18th century, a representative of Weimar classicism and of the Sturm und Drang movement, man of letters, philosopher of history, defender of popular cultures, advocate of the uniqueness and importance of every civilization. The ways in which one may summarize his legacy extend even further. The present paper will focus on the philosophy of history. We will prove that his writings reveal a complex and solid theory of barbarianism, topical for 21st century Europe. First of all, we aim to clarify the multiple meanings of this concept, identifying both the historical data and the theoretical principles behind it. In this way, the grounds on which Herder executed a radical overthrow of the Enlightenment conception (closest to that held nowadays) upon the barbarian will be revealed. Subsequently should derive the relativity of the “civilization–barbarism” opposition, as well as the anticipation of Hegel’s idea that history necessarily continues through the barbarian. Finally, we aim to provide reasonably founded answers to the questions generated by this thesis: 1. What are the qualities that confer on the barbarian the possibility of creating history? – in other words, what turns him from supporting actor into a collective agent able to change the course of history? 2. Is there a law of history that decides whether some barbarians are doomed to perish, while others build empires?
18. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Vuk Uskoković Punk Philosophy as a Path to the Summits of Ethos
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Elaborated in this discourse is the idea that identifying with a punk persona is a necessary step in the ethical development of an individual. Offered are various ethical corollaries of standing on the punk philosophic grounds, including: (I) abomination of the art of following, (II) appreciation of creative aspirations more than the technique, (III) the necessity for the constant shift of the epistemic grounds on which one stands, (IV) revival of the aesthetics of Speer’s theory of ruin values, (V) revitalization of language via its destruction, and (VI) embracement of anarchic revulsion of the concept of authority as a pathway to excellent educational efforts. It is also mentioned that science is inherently a systematic rebellion against stale, prejudiced thinking, and that, as such, it is intrinsically the endeavor of intellectual punks. The final summersault in the course of the philosophical gymnastics class of the hour pertains to realization that the anarchistic ideals underlying the punk culture foster ultimate freedoms that make even the abolition of these very same freedoms and obedience to any rules or principles legitimate. The failure of all the ideologies of the 20th century has been in favor of the anti-ideology of authentic anarchism, and yet this ideology not only insists on ruining the relevance of any ideologies out there, but also calls for the deconstruction of itself, wherefrom the freedom to follow any ideologies under its umbrella naturally emanates.
19. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Devendra Nath Tiwari Spiritual Ecology and Environmental Ethics
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This article is about a spiritual response to environmental crisis, an emerging field of ethics that joins ecology and environmentalism with the awareness of sacred within the creation2. It investigates into the Vedic texts for finding out the philosophical attitude about the earth and our spiritual obligations and responsibilities to the planet in resolving environmental issues. In the vedic-tradition3, it is the course of experiencing nature as spiritual presence and the awareness to it about our conduct as the moral and rational being. It is a world view that values all that in totality is called “nature” that is, generally, taken as “other” in contrast to human, as existence or spirit. The ethics of respect to “others”, against the effects of imperialistic, ideological conflicts, religious terrorism, industrial, atomic and corporate pollutions, must be worked out as a remedy. The basic argument of spiritual ecology lies in the view that we can find no God more than the spirit abiding in all units of the globe. One must have the view of spirit as ubiquitous principle in treating with and enjoying our needs with the things that the nature permeates as gifts of his care to it. Thus, spiritual ecology of the Vedic tradition has a therapeutic importance; it helps in cultivating our conduct and overcoming the fear of a risk against living on the earth. I am of the view that the rationality of a man and that of a nation is to be determined in proportion to the cultivation and progress of attitude and treatment with “other” but not the vice versa.
20. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Janina Sombetzki How “Post” Do We Want to Be – Really?: The Boon and Bane of Enlightenment Humanism
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Popular posthumanist theories are revealing a lot about their origin from enlightenment humanism. In this paper I will firstly have a closer look on the history of the enlightenment-humanistic concept of human nature and its roots in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh. Afterwards I will show how this notion of human nature will be broadened in transhumanist thinking, turned upside down as a modern enlightenment humanism, or even deformed and perverted in the popular posthumanist vision of the immortal and from its body completely abstracted mind in the Singularity of a computer interface.