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1. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Emily Tajsin The Seven Sages on the Issues of Universal Dialogue: A Message to the Contemporary World
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The Seven Sages (Seven Wise Men) of Plato and Plutarch may well be considered the first symbol of universal dialogue, if not the universal dialogue itself, which seems quite feasible. Not always remaining “seven,” these philosophers who lived in the VII–VI centuries B.C. teach us today the ethics, themes, and goals of the shared general dialogue. Though legendary to a high extent as to the time and locality, their discussions, mainly on philosophical issues, serve quite a realistic and useful example of how communicators, each of which comes from different “city-state,” can bring together people of multiple social and cultural traditions.
2. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Columbus N. Ogbujah Ideals and Values: Pivots to Meaningful Intercultural Dialogue
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Humankind’s natural disposition for social engagement makes the acquisition of interrelationships imperative. Life without ideals and values would utterly be brash and garbled like the cacophony of a “broken record.” This paper highlights the centrality of ideals and values within the spectrum of interactions between peoples, and demonstrates that intercultural dialogue is neither possible nor purposeful without some ideals and values acknowledged by all.
3. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Hisanori Kato Sexual Minorities in Indonesia: The Clash between Muslim Fundamentalists and Liberals
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The social acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) is recently widely debated. Although some Western countries have taken a more favourable course towards these minority groups, we still see a certain level of resistance to same sex marriage and discrimination against LGBT even in normally regarded liberal societies. Islam, which is often believed to clash with so-called Western values, regards LGBT as abhorrent and even apostate. However, we see a new endeavour of LGBT people in the most Muslim populous country in the world, Indonesia. This paper explores the treatment of these minorities in Islam, including the possibility of co-existence of all humans in a future. For this purpose, we consider the activities of this Islamic school in Indonesia and the life history of the students. We also examine both the pro and con of the religious standpoint of the ulamas. We especially pay attention to some of the ulama’s attempts to create a new fiqh (a legal standard for religious rituals and obligations) to accept LGBT.
4. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Victor J. Krebs Poison and Remedy: Some Notes on the Perils and Potentials of the Digital Media
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The Digital Revolution is transforming the way in which we interact with one another and relate to experience. The superabundance and superfluity of the virtual world, the fleeting moment and instantaneous pleasure it provides, begin to prevail as a cultural value and determine an attitude of detachment and indifference that extends to all aspects of our life. For Søren Kierkegaard this is a “demoniacal temptation” that leads to a life devoid of spiritual depth. In the midst of the undeniable bounties of technology, reflection on this paradoxical nature of the technological in our lives becomes an urgent task.
5. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Shiladitya Chakraborty Gandhi Darshan: A Panacea to the Evil of Political Corruption in India
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Corruption is the greatest pitfall of Indian democracy; it gradually erodes the faith of the Indian citizens in parliamentary democracy. Another disconcerting trend is the criminalization of politics which has emerged as a natural corollary to political corruption. The failure to deal with political corruption and criminalization has led to the depravation of political morality in India. It is against this backdrop that the article would examine the issues of political corruption and criminalization of politics in India. The article would end by providing the “Gandhian” solution to this problem.
6. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Nil Avci Inquiry into the Forms of Intersubjectivity in Kant’s Practical Philosophy with a View to the Cosmopolitan Ideal
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My aim in this paper is to argue that the pursuit of the cosmopolitan ideal grounded on the subject’s absolute power of self-determination, which is inherited from the Enlightenment, is a futile project because this idea of subjectivity in its different forms cannot provide the self-other relation which allows the unconditioned openness to and responsibility for the other in its particular individuality, a necessary condition to originate the universal community of world citizens. With this aim, I will elaborate on three different forms of intersubjectivity in Kant’s practical philosophy which I take to be forming three different models of cosmopolitan community in accordance with the Enlightenment principles: the kingdom of ends, the just society and the league of nations.
7. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Katarzyna Anna Klimowicz New Social and Political Movements and the Democratic Ideals
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In response to the political and economic crises, new political and social movements appearing in mature liberal democratic countries (such as United States, Italy or Spain) call for “real democracy” and create strategies for more participatory politics. Groups of academics together with the third sector activists around the world elaborate, test and introduce new forms of participatory mechanisms which allow bottom-up, direct decision-making. Recent massive social movements try to change the dominant, but clearly obsolete model of democracy based on elite groups of political representatives by promoting a new paradigm of inclusive citizen-centered politics. What are the ideological and philosophical bases for political activity of these movements and how their democratic ideals translate into political practice? What does it mean “real democracy”? Why direct participation of citizens in decision-making is so important for the new movements? How technological tools can be used to support participatory processes and democratization of public governance at different levels? How should the new democratic model of doing politics look like? These are several questions on which the paper will try to answer.
8. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Michal Sládeček Can Justice Be Really Ethically Neutral?: Barry on Impartiality and Perfectionism
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In the first part of the article author discusses some objections to Brian Barry’s interpretation of justice as impartiality, in particular those regarding freestanding position of principles of justice. In the second part author offers his own critique of Barry’s conception, according to which Barry does not distinguished two senses of impartiality adequately, conflating impartiality as non-discrimination and equal opportunity with impartiality as neutrality between conceptions of the good. Impartiality as the equal treatment of persons regardless of their characteristics or belonging to groups is compatible with neutrality in the sense of equal respect and acknowledgement of the right of persons to form and pursue their own conceptions of the good. However, it is also compatible with non-neutrality as the unequal treatment of conceptions of the good, insofar as some of them are unreasonable, that is, only reasonable conceptions are considered as relevant in public deliberation.
9. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Marzena Adamiak Escaping from Exclusion: Karen Barad’s Metaphysics of Entanglement as an Answer to the Problem with Oppressive Mind
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Inspired by Karen Barad’s views I search for an answer to the question: how can we include without excluding at the same time? This question brings into view the aporia of the discourse on exclusions, which manifests that struggle against violence invariably causes a violence of another kind. Barad takes the metaphysical point of view, according to which the world is a whole rather than composed of separate objects. From the perspective of category of “entanglement” she proposes to rethink some fundamental dichotomies: nature–culture, object–subject, body–mind, and, perhaps, to change our understanding of the mechanisms of exclusion.
10. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Ruth A. Burch On Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Ideal of Natural Education
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The aim of this contribution is to critically explore the understanding, the goals and the meaning of education in the philosophy of education by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In his educational novel Emile: or On Education [Emile ou De l’éducation] (1762) he depicts his account of the natural education. Rousseau argues that all humans share one and the same development process which is independent of their social background. He regards education as an active process of perfection which is curiosity-driven and intrinsic to each child. Rousseau’s educational goals are autarky, happiness and freedom.
11. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Xiaoyi Zhang How to Become a Decent Person in the Modern World: On Agnes Heller’s Philosophy of Morals
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This paper explores Agnes Heller’s theory of morals. A widespread belief claims that Europe has been in a general spiritual crisis and cultural anxiety since the 20th century. A number of thinkers in Central and Eastern Europe contributed to theoretically dealing with this crisis; they intended to reconstruct and so change European culture. They reflected modernity from the standpoint of cultural criticism with deep moral concern and a high sense of historical responsibility. Among them, Heller deeply analyzes the human condition and dilemma of morals in the modern world, and in effect proposes an ethics of personality.
12. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 1
Karolina M. Cern Questioning Equality for Self-Reflexive Societies
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The article focuses on the issue of equality with regard to the process of European integration. Firstly, the change of the legal paradigm in the European legal culture is characterised, secondly, the notion of self-reflexive societies is introduced, and eventually the paper deals with the issue of equality set as a complex problem, especially with regard to the social dimension. The chief concern of the paper is to develop the concept of the public power of judgement, to unveil the role of moral-discursive competencies, and to explain in what sense the theoretical premise of rationality potentials released in the discourse may overburden an ordinary citizen’s participation in processes of democratic law legitimation
13. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Rev. Mother Marie Pauline Eboh The Exit of a Philosophical Icon: Janusz Kuczyński
14. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Józef Leszek Krakowiak Janusz Kuczyński, A Man of Dialogue
15. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Michael Mitias, John Rensenbrink, Andrew Targowski Janusz Kuczyński: The Philosopher I Knew
16. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Juichiro Tanabe Buddhist Philosophy of the Global Mind for Sustainable Peace
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While violence and conflict are the main problems that must be tackled for a peaceful world, they are caused and sustained through our own thoughts. Though external causes must not be ignored, the most fundamental problem is an epistemological one—our way of knowing and understanding the world. Since its beginning, Buddhism has deepened its analysis of the dynamics of the human mind, both as a root cause of suffering and as a source of harmony. This paper explores how Buddhism's analysis of the human mind can be applied to conflict dynamics, conflict resolution, and building a sustainable peace.
17. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Hisaki Hashi The Values of “Contradiction” in Theory and Practice in Cultural Philosophy
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This article examines contradictions between the theory and practice of comparative philosophy in a global world. Aristotle and Plato had different approaches to these “contradictions” that show a “discrepancy” between these two classical thinkers. The topic unaddressed by Plato is taken up in the topos of Nāgārjuna, the great ancient logician of ontology in Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy (the 3rd century AD). The “contradiction” is a principle that have/had profound influence on creative thought in East Asia. Nishida, the founder of the Kyoto School (20th century), established his philosophy through the principle of “Absolute Contradictory Self-Identity.” This principle may stimulate reflection upon our digitally connected contemporary global world, and the chaos it has to face.
18. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Olatunji Alabi Oyeshile Democratic Elements in Traditional Yoruba Society as a Basis for the Culture of Democracy in Africa and the Global Social Order
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The paper examines democratic concepts or elements in traditional Yoruba society and their implications for the culture of democracy in Africa and the social order at the global level. One of the major problems confronting African states is the problem of governance. Political crises have metamorphosed into problems of ethnic conflict, war, corruption, economic stagnation, social disorder and paucity of sustainable development in Africa and these crises have also resulted in global disequilibrium. This paper revisits traditional Yoruba society, with a special emphasis on the democratic elements. It adopts as its theoretical framework some aspects of the traditional Yoruba socio-ethical values to underscore the importance of democratic elements based on communal values. Such concepts as ifowosowopo (cooperation), agbajo owo (solidarity), amumora (tolerance), and ilosiwaju (progress) are examined to point up their roles in addressing the crisis of (democratic) governance. The paper establishes that the inbuilt democratic elements, based on social ethical values, helped to sustain governance in traditional Yoruba society. It is concluded that democratic elements are much more important than democracy itself.
19. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Yuliya Shcherbina Participative Reason as a Basis of a Decent Human World
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Mikhail Bakhtin’s term “participative reason” (uchastnoe myshlenie) means “reason that acts”—a way of thinking in which a person participates because it is not indifferent to the fate of the Other. The article considers two main trends in the understanding of participative reason. The first is connected with the co-being of I and the Other, the second develops the idea of obligation and non-alibi in being. The article aims to show that the unity of these two interpretations could make “participative reason” a basis for a more decent human world.
20. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 2
Evgeniy Bubnov Methodological Ludism as a Cognition-Denying Paradigm
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The article attempts to analyze methodological ludism—an approach developed by André Droogers, a Dutch scholar studying religion. Droogers relies on Johan Huizinga’s conception claiming that culture (and, consequently, science) is of game-like nature. Game as a methodological principle has two levels: noumenal and phenomenal. The supposition is stated that at the noumenal level (the designatum level) ludism coincides with pantheism. At the phenomenal level (the signifier level) methodological ludism may be compared with its parts: methodological atheism, methodological agnosticism, and methodological theism; also, these components may be compared with one another.