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81. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Carmen Cozma A Pathway towards Music Art: the Meloethics. - Some Connections with the Phenomenology of Life -
82. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Daniel Garber Religio Philosophi
83. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Tim Lankester International Aid Experience, prospects and the moral case
84. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Traian D. Stänciulescu La pensée cosmologique, entre mythos et logos: une approche herméneutique
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Mediated by a hermeneutic/semiotic reading of symbols, searching out and finding some similitudes between mythical constructions concerning the genesisof the world and scientific hypotheses can be considered fruitful from at least two viewpoints, since: (a) it allows the validation of a truth which is difficult to prove through other means, that early humans had intuitive-cognitive resources much more profound than appearances seem to allow; (b) it enables the utilization of some of the suggestions offered by the mythic language in the scientific language context. Using such correspondences, the author proposes the integrative model of a structurally named "Cluster Universe" or the functionally named "Pulsatory expansion", able to solve some major difficulties of the cosmological thinking.
85. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Manuela Mihoci Esperienza religiosa e verita
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Being experienced (Erfahrung) means living. Around these two concepts: experience and living, I created this paper, as an approach to a pretty sensitive field of study, the religious one.The place of truth here can be read between the lines, but this issue stays open and needs more profound study. There is still a question: what is thepriority in studying religious experience: living as an inner and outer manifestation of a person, the analysis of a psychological report between the human being and the divine, the sacred, a research of a belief's truth or all these taken together.It is obvious that Truth stays in itself and its basis is in itself, and the report with the human is found through the act of living.
86. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Mathias Grote Die „Kräfte des Organischen" Transformationen des Naturbildes in C.F. Kielmeyers Karlsschulrede
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The so-called .Karlsschulrede. (1793) of the German naturalist Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer can be considered as a keystone to the understanding of"Naturphilosophie" both in German idealism (Schelling) and the romantic period.Kielmeyer's work considers life as the result of specific forces in the organic realm and thereby searches to explain the harmony of organic existence anddevelopment. Taking into account Kant.s outlines for a lifescience in the "Kritik der Urteilskraft" (1790), Kielmeyer's notion of teleological processes in nature is sketched. The historical and epistemological relevance of this "vital-materialistic" (Lenoir) theory of life can be characterized by three major transformations in the understanding of nature in the "Karlsschulrede": First, the development of a holistic, organological view on the world, second, the emphasis on phenomena of life as historical processes and third the analogy between organism and mind. These issues found the strong influence of Kielmeyer's text on philosophy and science in the early 19th-century.
87. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Alexandru Gelan Classification and the problem of nature values in Nicolai Hartmann writings
88. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Ludmila Bejenaru, Vladlen Babcinetchi L'icône russe: depuis l'école novgorodénne à la "Céne" d'Alexandr Ivanov
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The Russian icon was always related to the soul of the Russian painter, his anxiety and his emotions. Through the icon the russian has always expressed his faith and mentained the bundle with God. The icon has been considered by the russian people a bridge between human and divinity. The Russian people belive into an russian Christ. The Russian icon embodys the russian nature, his strength of creation and of adaption, but especially the russian soul. It is been capitalized the icon painting of the greatest painters: Andrei Rubliov, Teofan Grecul Dionisie, as well as icon painting, starting from the novgorodiana school (the 11th century) till the 20th century, when big names of icon artists appared, such as Kondrafiev, Filatov, Zubov, A. Ivanov.
89. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Ana-Maria Pascal International AID From the Moral Case, to Everyday Life Experiences
90. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
David Freeman Shakespeare and Philosophy
91. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Christian Möckel Krisis der Wissenschaftlichen Kultur? Edmund Husserls Forderung nach „Besinnung"
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Phenomenological philosophizing is practiced out of a sense of responsibility for contemporary culture, which is experienced as existing in a profoundcrisis. The first part of this contribution contains a systematization of the theory of crisis, a theory developed in many of Husserl's works: the description of the main phenomena of the consciousness of crisis, the explanation of crisis with regard to its causes, and the demands raised in order to overcome the crisis of scientific culture (»reflection«). Husserl's teachings on crisis are placed into close relation with his idea of science and science's Greek origin, an origin from which, according to Husserl, modern science has tragically distanced itself. It is argued, however, that Husserl was not at all a philosopher of decline or decay. The second part of this contribution represents an attempt to provide a critical and complex answer to the question as to the modern relevance and usefulness of Husserl's theory of crisis.
92. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Till Kinzel Johann Georg Hamann - ein Sokrates des 18. Jahrhunderts
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Johann Georg Hamann, a contemporary of Kant and Herder, was an important German philosopher of the 18th century, whose significance, however, is not sufficiently recognized today. His cryptic and short writings full of allusions and deep scholarship do not make him an easily accessible writer. He was a sharp critic of sophistry maskerading as philosophy, thus taking over the role of Socrates for his time, connecting a defense of Christian beliefs with a radical re-interpretation of enlightenment, thereby trying to enlighten enlightenment about itself. Hamann's concept of reason as language is an important contribution to the understanding of human nature as such, stressing the concreteness and historicality of human reason. Contrary to earlier interpretations, though, Hamann is no irrationalist, but a thinker who ridicules the absurdities of enlightenment rationalism and proved to be an important source of inspiration for writers like Sören Kierkegaard and Ernst Jünger.
93. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Teresa Castelão-Lawless Metaphysics and Ideologies in Science
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What counts as scientific ideology for Canguilhem and Kuhn is functionally distinct. However, in this article I argue that metaphysical and other non-scientificbeliefs brought about by scientists into their research traditions and that Kuhn sees as generating scientific change coincide closely with Canguilhem’s conception of scientific ideology. Kuhn failed to describe clearly those ideological and metaphysical elements influencing the work of science. He chose to focus on psychological factors intrinsic to paradigms and present in paradigm shifts and in scientific revolutions and also in the internal mechanisms of science itself such as the discovery process. Canguilhem triangulated scientific ideologies with the traditional demarcation criterion between science and non-science and with the intertwining of practice, theory, and external (social) beliefs in scientific thought while distancing himself from the psychological dynamic in science characteristic in Kuhn’s work. Their views are complementary.
94. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Mobeen Shahid A Phenomenological Analysis of the Psyche in Ideas II and A Phenomenological Psychology
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In Ideen II Edmund Husserl delineates the three spheres which constitute the reality which human being is and this way introduces us to a different anthropologywhich is fruit of his phenomenological analysis. The tri-partite analysis of the human subjectivity, in Ideen II provides us with an anthropology which is a sound foundation for a new psychology (phenomenological psychology) where the analyses of the lived-experiences is an instrument to understand the psychic acts. Husserl after having known the psychology, a science of the subjectivity and which is interrelated with the corporeality, proposes a psychology which is in connection with the nature and only in this connection it can be realized fully. In this way the concept of purely phenomenological psychology serves also to clarify what the fundamentally transcendental science i.e. transcendental phenomenology is. The phenomenologicaly transcendental psychology developed by Husserl is completely a new science of consciousness in respect to all the other historical forms of psychology and other sciences which study consciousness. As phenomenological psychology moves in its natural attitude towards the world (Welteinstellung), it has access to all the positive sciences and in this way it can be called science of all sciences.
95. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Fernando Cipriani Un Dibattito Socioantropoplogico nel Settecento. Il Mito del Buon Selvaggio
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A socioanthropological debate in the 17th Century. The Myth of the Good Savage. The myth of the Good Savage was born and developed especially in the17th century, but it already had its ethnological bases in the geographical discoveries of the 15th century and in the colonial conquests. The French Enlightenment questions about the Occidental civilization and the moral principles that were the bases of the colonial expansions of the European powers. The cultural debate, extended by the anthropological science, was directed to the attempt to knowledge the submissive populations who became the colonial populations. Any kind of reduction of the social debate to the superiority of the Occidental human being is progressively surpassed by the comparison of two worlds, initially opposed and than more and more close to one another: the civilization world and the primitive one. In Voltaire’s stories the moment of the overtaking of the natural state, specific to the savage, is more important, through one necessary acculturation, while in the autobiographic and traveling stories, under the impulse of the ethnical similarities reminded by Rousseau and by the anthropological philosophers, is asserted the equality of people’s rights. In this way the natural condition is „sweetened” by the knowledge of the nature and of its laws, which is inspired from the recognition of the equality between social condition and birth. To fallow the laws of nature means to surpass the social conventions and to give back to the civilized man the naturalness of his own feelings, the innocence and the purity of his customs. In the rational way, to fallow the laws of the nature means the reconciliation between Rousseau’s principles and Voltaire’s ones. In this way the paradoxes of the civilized world and the ones of the primitive world are eliminated through the integration of the two in one united concept.
96. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Gloria Vergara La Experiencia Estética en el Pensamiento de Roman Ingarden
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The Aesthetic Experience in Roman Ingarden’s thinking . In this article we study the ideas of the Polish philosopher, Roman Ingarden, as an essential key inthe discussion on literary reception. The notion of "aesthetic experience" is revised, especially in The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art. Ingarden begins aesthetic discussion, trying to answer two fundamental questions: How is the literary work structured? and Which procedure will lead to an understanding of the literary art work of art? These questions, besides serving in his defense against psychologism and positivism of his time, also help him develop his two most popular works in Spanish: The Literary Work of Art and The Cognition of the Literary Work of Art, in which the Polish philosopher clarifies the principles that of the Reception Theory. Nevertheless, the importance of the aesthetic experience in the linguistic and phenomenology dimensions of the literary text is only understood when we study both works. Ingarden, as his translator to Spanish, Gerald Nyenhuis recognizes, presupposes in his second book the first one where he performs a constant trip from ontology to phenomenology in the literary work of art. It is precisely in this search where he nails his concept of aesthetic experience that we study today in relation with other concepts, such as the aesthetic attitude, the pre-aesthetic knowledge, the role of the aesthetic values and the aesthetic object.
97. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Ovidiu Balan Betrachtungen über die Anfänge der altgriechischen Lehre der Seelenwanderung
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In this article I argue that attendant on the acceptance of the idea of an immortal soul is a legitimate question concerning the soul's status before the individual's birth and after its death. Whether the Greeks were the originators of the doctrine of the transmigration of souls or this was an influence from another culture is still open to debate.
98. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
David Cornberg Humanimality: An Exploration of Human/Animal Fusion in Nature Poetry
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From the Greek satyr to the American Mickey Mouse and from the Chinese dragon to the Egyptian Sphinx, animals and animal/humans have come throughhuman imagination into myth, legend and story. This combination or fusion of animal and human in literature presents a double signification. At the same time that our attention goes to the animality of the human, we may also entertain the human(al)ity of the animal. Besides blending of physical and psychological characteristics, these ancient and modern characters of world texts may embed authentic experiences of communion or communication between humans and animals. The texts may be understood as signifying the limits of both the human and the animal and the possibility of the humanimal. Humanimality signifies the fusion of human and animal which dissolves the ordinary dualism of human subject and animal object and allows for intersubjectivity unmarked by specific biological limitations. This kind of intersubjectivity occurs in the contact of communication and is often an occasion for awe on the part of the human if not of the animal. We may understand such awesome communication as imitation, non-verbal cooperation, and as teaching and learning. Three poems by the author, reproduced in the Appendix, “The Ravens Fly Yet,” “Neighbors,” and “The Lesson,” provide the literary fields in which humanimal phenomena may appear.
99. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Alexandru Boboc „Pragmatic Turn” dans la Pensée Contemporaine
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The “Pragmatic Turn” in Actual Thinking . The study of a pragmatic dimension to semiotics appears only late in the history of the discipline. „Pragmatic” seems the last one called into the dispute of signs. The study capitalizes on semiotics and the theory of action, with the distinction operated between „pragmatism” and„practical” matters within this philosophical discipline. The theory of the speech acts is investigated and related to the perspectives opened in the semiotics in order to highlight further avenues for research.
100. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Nancy Mardas Billias Listening to Language: the Possibility of Translation
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This essay examines the itinerary of the word in translation. How does the process of translation unfold? When a work is translated, what is lost, what is gained,what is left behind, and what is carried forward? Is there some quality peculiar to poetic language that makes translation more difficult – or easier? In this essay I articulate the stages that I go through when translating a poem. The work is heuristic in part, but rooted in Heidegger’s essays on Hölderlin and Rilke.