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81. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Jinghua Guo Adaptations of Shakespeare to Chinese Theatre
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In the 20th century, the adaptation of William Shakespeare's classic dramas onto the Chinese stage have attracted great interest. The study of such cross-cultural adaptations has positive significance not only for development of literary theory, literary criticism and literary history, but also in that it promotes unusual forms of innovation with regards to the study of performance in general. Chinese adaptations to performance and opera have allowed Chinese people to understand the essence of Shakespeare's plays, presented in a more forms, and as a consequence, such adaptations function as a bridge for Sino-foreign cross-cultural exchanges and interpretations. These paper traces a panorama of Shakespeare's adaptations onto the Chinese stage in the year that celebrates the 500 anniversary of his death.
82. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Krishna Praveen, V. Anitha Devi Kathakali: The Quintessential Classical Theatre of Kerala
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The term Kathakali has by far become a word that is known widely among theatre lovers all over the world. It is no longer an art intended to perform within the four walls of a temple in Kerala, with only a limited educated upper class to appreciate. In its evolution, it has become a symbol that represents a society, culture and tradition.This paper explores Kathakali art form, tracing its origin and evolution and analyzing how it hasbecome a socio-cultural icon. The paper also intends a comparative analysis of Kathakali with its counterparts – Krishnanaattam, Koodiyattam and Yakshagana – in order to substantiate its pre-eminence.
83. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Cyril-Mary Pius Olatunji, Mojalefa L.J. Koenane Philosophical Rumination on Gelede: an Ultra-Spectacle Performance
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Gelede is a typical Yoruba concept which has evolved into a traditional form of musical performance with its influence has transcend its traditional abode in the Yoruba communities of Nigeria and West Africa to Latin Americas, parts of Europe, Australia and the Black world at large. It also evolves beyond mere localized performance in which members of a community gathered in the town squares, market squares or the typical under the tree arrangements to a wider scale in all aspects of the social, and even religiouslives of the people. This paper combines an expository and comparative analysis with its main objective to sensitise scholarly attention to the phenomenon and to provide supplementary concise and critical source for further studies, philosophic analyses and scholarly interpretations.
84. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
María Vives Agurruza The Cultural Impact of the Nanking Massacre in Cinematography: On City of Life and Death (2009) and The Flowers of War (2011)
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The Flowers of War (2012), based on the homonymous novel by Geling Yan, and City of Life and Death (2009) are recent Chinese films that deal with the so-called 'Nanking Massacre‘ or 'the Rape of Nanking‘. The events which inspired these stories in the context of the second Sino-Japanese War will be analysed through the study and comparison of both films, together with the reasons which led the directors to fictionalise a series of events so many years after they occurred in 1937. This analysis will be carried out based on the testimonies of the foreigners who eyewitnessed the events at the time, and who left written testimony of the facts, and a comparison shall be made between the fictional and factual events.
85. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Qingben Li China’s Micro Film: Socialist Cultural Production in the Micro Era
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During the past ten years, China’s micro film industry has made a rapid development aided by technological changes. Focusing on three types of micro films, this paper reveals some characteristics of China’s micro films within socialist cultural production with Chinese characteristics. This model departs from a past when the government managed everything during the Planned Economy, but is also different from the models of cultural policy in the West. The micro films examined are A Murder Case Triggered by a Steamed Bun, a parody of film Wuji (The Promise 2005), market-conspiracy micro films such asImminent and The Only Choice, and social-welfare micro films likeI will give you happiness when I grow up. All of them bring forth the issue of coordination and harmonization of conflict between social-welfare and market efficiency.
86. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Annette Thorsen Vilslev Following Pasolini in Words, Photos, and Film, and his Perception of Cinema as Language
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Discussing the intercultural reception of Pier Paolo Pasolini, this article looks into the intercultural and medial crossovers of his person and his work. It shows the historical particularities of Pasolini's work, and it traces layers of intermedial references in his movie production, describing the many-layered intercultural interplay. Lastly, it focuses on the discussions of media relations, and the remedialisation inherent in much of Pasolini's work.
87. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Adile Aslan Almond Reading Rainer Fassbinder’s adaptation Fontane Effi Briest
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Fontane Effi Briest by the German director Rainer Werner Fassbinder is arguably one of the greatest adaptations from literature to screen, and the best Effi Briest adaptation. Although the first reception of the movie, when it appeared in 1974, was not without unmixed reviews, most scholars nowadays share the conviction that it is a masterpiece. Elke Siegel defines the film as a success both at the Berlinale and at the box office (Siege, 2012: 378). Kreft Wetzel, however, in an interview with Fassbinder in 1974, refers to the ambivalent attitude of the critics abroad at the time of the movie‘s release, to which Fassbinder replies that Fontane‘s language is the foundation of the movie and, hence, the film works to its full extent only in German (Wetzel, 1992: 157). Forty years after this interview and judging from the scholarly work carried out on Fassbinder in general and Fontane Effi Briest in particular, it is plausible to claim that Fassbinder‘s art has moved beyond the language barriers and appeals to an audience beyond the German culture and language.
88. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Yang Geng, Lingling Peng The Time Phenomenon of Chinese Zen and Video Art in China: 1988-1998
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As a response to the problems of language in Chinese modern and avant-garde art from 1988 to 1998, early video art reclaimed the independence of language from social reality and political influence and established it on the basis of the time phenomenon. By comparing the category of time in the Western philosophical tradition and in Chinese traditional thought, we find that the “immediacy” of Zen provides a hermeneutical approach to the nature of language as a reflective medium, closely related to the silent experience. In line with the three basic principles of transcendental Zen, video media purifies body language into the immaterial language in three ways – through disembodied video movement, the de-objectified video image, and discontinuous video narrative.
89. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Carolina Fernández Castrillo Lyric Simultaneities: From “Words in Freedom” to Holopoetry
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Early 20th century Futurist attempts in visual poetry can be related to technology-based poetic creation and current digital experiences. This essay seeks to enhance the understanding of Media Poetry by identifying the existing connections between the “words in freedom” and Eduardo Kac's Holopoetry. This example of interactive and immaterial creation represents a crucial contribution to redefine poetry‟s relevance to contemporary global networks and also a milestone to understand the future of virtual and immersive writing spaces.
90. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Janez Strehovec Digital Art in the Artlike Culture and Networked Economy
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Contemporary art based on new media is situated at the intersection of art-as-we-know-it, smart technologies, digital and algorithmic culture, networked economy, (post)politics, as well as bio and techno sciences. Contemporary art enters into intense relations with these fields, including interactions, adoption of methodological devices and approaches, changes of the areas of activity, hybridization and amalgamation. This text explores those features of contemporary life and culture which are affected by digital art and the recombination, appropriation, remediation, reusing, repurposing, and transfer of artistic procedures/tools from one context or field to another.
91. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Stefano Calzati Representations of China by Western Travellers in the Blogsphere
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This article adopts a transmedial perspective in order to investigate narrative similarities and differences between print and online travel writing. Texts, which are contemporary and Western-authored, are written either in English, French and Italian and they all focus on China as the travel destination. Drawing upon Gérard Genette and Mieke Bal's studies on the narrative discourse, it is contended that travel books and travel blogs, despite sharing basic generic features (i.e. first-person travel accounts), present substantial differences. In the former, readers are presented with a coherent and self-exhaustive narrative. This means that the representation of both China and the traveller results as a progressive (self)discovery. On the other hand, travel blogs provide fragmented and objectified accounts rich in touristic tips. As a consequence, the narrative loses its internal development and takes on an informative value in which the portrayal of China and the traveller recede to the background.
92. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Horea Avram Shared Privacy and Public Intimacy: The Hybrid Spaces of Augmented Reality Art
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Can we speak about a specific real-virtual spatiality in the contexts offered by the post-desktop technological philosophy and practice? Does Augmented Reality have the potential to produce a different type of space (essentially hybrid) in which private and public converge up to the point of their cross identification? More exactly, to create, what media theoretician Jenny Edbauer Rice names a “zone of public intimacy”? The goal of this essay is to explore the possible answers to these questions. At the core of my analysis is the idea that the hybrid character of Augmented Reality is effected by two conditions. On the one hand, by the process of converging real and virtual spaces into a single – although discontinuous – “multimedia” space-image and, on the other, by the tensions existent between private perception and public engagement (with the setting, with the information and with other users). My conclusion is that by creating a hybrid convergent space of inclusions and exchanges, AR raises not only the prospect of a new sensorium (an expanded corporeality), but, what is more, it confirms the possibility of a distinct aesthetic paradigm as well as of a different way to articulate social relations.
93. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Jinghua Guo, Asunción López-Varela Azcárate Introduction
94. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Jinghua Guo Cross-Cultural Inter-Semiotic Adaptation of Chinese Classics in the West
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This paper explores cross-cultural semiotics in adaptation in order to rethink the relationships between China and the West. The multi-dimensional model of cross-cultural research presented defends a temporal semiotic orientation, rather than a purely spatial approach for intercultural interpretation. The paper insists that in the age of globalization, cultural identity is unavoidably a very sharp question, and that multiple layers of meanings are involved in cultural identity. Thus, it explores differences and parallelisms between Western and Chinese semiotics, conservative and as well as unconventional approaches – misappropriation, transplantation, transfer and transformation – which appear in adaptations such as Journey to the West and Wolf Totem. Adaptations are contemplated as intercultural avenues for learning about the West and exporting Chinese culture to the world, showing the complexity of cross-cultural exchanges which are never merely one-directional and which include temporal mappings.
95. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Qingben Li Marginocentric Beijing: Multicultural Cartography and Alternative Modernity in The Last Days of Old Beijing
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The term “Marginocentric cities” has been used to describe those multiethnic nodal cities “that at favorable historical conjunctions have rewritten the national cultural paradigm from the margin, ascribing to it a dialogic dimension, both internally (in dialogue with other ethnic traditions) and externally (in dialogue with lager geocultural paradigms)” (Cornis-Pope and Neubauer, 2002:26). Whereas this map of marginocentric cities is restricted to East-Central Europe, this paper, focusing on the novel The Last Days of Old Beijing, insists that the concept of “marginocentric city” is also operative for Beijing city as a nodal space of cultural exchanges in which boundaries might be more elusive and national geographies dislocated. At the same time, I propose the constitutive dialectics of being simultaneously central and marginal should be regarded in relation to the complex relationships taking place in Beijing, different from the Western modernity, as it appears in this cross-cultural novel which also combines tradition and modernity.
96. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
I-Chun Wang Spectacle and the Discourse of Empathy in Oriental Versions of Turandot: A Dialogue with the West in Wei Minglun and Lo Kingman
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The story of Turandot originated in the East. It was later transformed into the tale of a merciless princess, and adapted onto the stage. Puccini‟s Turandot has been one of the most frequently restaged operas in the West, but Turandot‟s unreasonable cruelty and abrupt change of character have raised a lot of questions. Since quite a few contemporary playwrights and directors try to interpret Turandot with elements of empathy, this paper analyse the versions of Turandot in the Eastern world in discussion with the Western versions.
97. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Peina Zhuang On Translation of Literary Terminology as Cultural Sign: with focus on translation of literary terms in History of Chinese Literature
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This paper examines the translation of literary terminology as cultural sign in the selected versions of the History of Chinese Literature in the Anglophone world. It argues that classical Chinese literary terminology with its rich connotations and strong prescriptiveness as „symbol‟ in semiotics, holds great difficulty for translators and scholars. Its inherent social and cultural elements in determining the meaning of these terms cannot be transferred across cultures, thus causing problems such as „neutralization‟ either in free or literally translation or transliteration of these terms. The paper points out that an ideal way out for translation of classical Chinese literary terms should be transliteration coupled with proper notes. Although not qualified as translation in the strict sense, transliteration could, in some way, remind the readers of the heterogeneity of the term, thus offsetting the negative effect by the “neutralization” of the term. It could also guarantee the term‟s independency with the ultimate aim to make the term accepted by and integrated into the culture of the new land.
98. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Lingling Peng, Yang Geng Time Symbolism in Gourd Representations used in Chinese Culture and Art
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A gourd is a sort of pumpkin whose shell is frequently used to keep food and water. Gourds are also used as kitchen utensils, musical instruments or decoration. This paper draws attention to the time framework in gourd image representations, which symbolize universality and immortality (primitive time) as well as the positive notions of regeneration and emptiness. By analyzing the artistic expressions in the form of gourd representations reflected in literature and art, this paper reveals the complex notion of time in Chinese civilization.
99. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Shi Yan Cross-Cultural Symbolic Consumption and the Behaviour of Chinese Consumers
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With the spread of cross-cultural communication and the expansion of multinational brands the semantic boundaries of signs is being transcended in various ways. The contemporary global and transnational construction of signs has a different impact on consumer behaviour across the world. Easter consumers have some unique national psychology and purchasing behaviour to Western consumers. This study explores different the characteristics and motivations behind the cross-cultural exchange of signs, their reception, the specific symbolic value, and consumer behaviour in China.
100. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Soon-ok Myong, Byong-soon Chun The Impact of Western Imperialist Collection of Korean Cultural Objects
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This paper investigates microcultural imperialism upon Eastern cultural heritage. In particular, it exposes the loss of Korean cultural artifacts during wars, and also during imperial cultural expeditions, visits of scholarly research groups, and diplomatic encournters. The paper argues that imperialist domination is sometimes concealed in the name of Oriental Studies projects and the assumed superiority of certain nations in terms of knowledge and technology.