Displaying: 81-100 of 155 documents

0.074 sec

81. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 51
Муху Гимбатович Алиев Глобализация и Международный Терроризм
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
В докладе анализируется причины и сущность терроризма, возникшего в период глобализации, основные подходы к его научному изучению. Дается критика сведения всех форм борьбы c терроризм только к силовым. Показано множество источников неудовлетворенности, ведущих к терроризму – несогласие с модернизацией, отнесение себя к цивилизации, которая ущемлена, психологические черты – фанатизм, склонность к экстремизму и характерное для глобализации ослабление роли государств.
82. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 52
Надежда Дмитриевна Субботина Коэволюция естественного и социального
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Сложность утверждения коэволюции общества и природы обусловлена, во-первых, несовпадением скорости естественной и социальной эволюции, их разнонаправленностью, во-вторых, тем, что общественное сознание и индивидуальное сознание большинства людей консервативно и не спешит признать необходимость такой коэволюции. В-третьих, общество и каждый человек не являются однозначно социальными системами, а представляют собой сложное диалектическое единство естественной и социальной сторон с выраженным, но не абсолютным господством социального начала. Поэтому коэволюция общества и биосферы возможна только при существовании коэволюции естественного и социального внутри общества. Социальное является продуктом природы, результатом самосовершенствования таких свойств естественных образований, как адаптация, передача и переработка информации. Поэтому социальное – явление родственное естественному. И в то же время социальное качественно противостоит естественному, так как подрывает полное господство одного из фундаментальных его свойств – стихийность, заменив её частичной осознанностью. Условием существования общества является господство социального начала, которое обеспечивается в процессе непрерывного снятия естественного содержания своих природных предпосылок. При этом снятие никогда не бывает абсолютным. Наиболее сложным является подчинение социальным отдельного индивида, что осуществляется при помощи суггестии в процессе социализации.
83. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 52
Tadeouch Adoulo Социум Как Объект Постигающего Сознания: От Классики К Современности
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
В докладе рассмотрены основные исторические этапы становления философии истории как важнейшего раздела философской науки, начиная с эпохи Античности и заканчивая ХХ веком. Обращено внимание на причины, вызывающие у исследователей затруднения в процессе постижения человеческой истории. Дана характеристика некоторых проблем, возникших в постсоветской философской науке, связанных с определением дисциплинарного статуса социальной философии, ее предмета и проблемного поля. Социальная философия, пришедшая на смену историческому материализму, трактуется как составная часть философии, которая представляет собой предельно общую теорию исторического процесса, исследует сущность, направленность, движущие силы, закономерности и методы его познания, т.е. как философия истории.
84. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 52
Vladimir Shevchenko The Revolution of Spirit as a Category of Philosophy of History
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The most important concept of philosophy of history is con-sidered in connection with the contribution made by Karl Kantor, a well-known Russian philosopher, into solving the problem in his book titled “A Double Spiral of History. Historiosophia of Projectism” (M.: 2002). Three revolutions of spirit which occurred in the history of society correspond to three paradigmatic projects of history. The 1st revolution of spirit was the phenomenon of Christ and the first project of history became Christianity. The 2nd revolution of spirit was Renaissance and the second project of histo-ry was an aesthetical art project. The third revolution of spirit was K. Marx and his scientific project of history which synthesizes, absorbs the religious and the aesthetical projects. The issue of an uncompromising, antagonistic struggle between history and sociocultural evolution is also discussed. The revolution of spirit strives for radical transformation of socium which resists transformation and thus leads to a historical deadlock. A way out of the dead-lock is inevitably connected with the beginning of a new revolution of spirit. The prospects of revolution of spirit continuing in contemporary world in-cluding Russia are also outlined.
85. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Elizaveta Speshilova Quine’s Dispositional Approach to the Language
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
This paper examines the dispositional approach to the language introduced by the W. V. O. Quine. The author consideres the naturalistic understanding of the meaning and criticism of “mentalistic theory of ideas”. Dispositional approach to the language is characterized by the fact that: first, language statements are understood as a verbal reaction to the current stimulations or to situations, which are only potentially; second, stimulus meaning is subject’s detailed disposition to agree or disagree with the sentence in response to the stimulation. It is said that Quine’s ideas of ontological relativity, indeterminacy of translation and reference associated with dispositional approach to the language.
86. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Владимир Плохотнюк Современный миф как форма посттеоретического мышления: семиотический анализ
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Современный миф является неотъемлемой частью коммуникативного и познавательного процессов. Современная культурная ситуация, характеризуемая как “постмодерн” породила феномен “посттеоретического мышления”, обнаружив ограниченность теорий и их влияние на образ мира. Миф как форма целостного мировосприятия есть средство защиты человеческого разума от распада на отдельные теоретические версии, в конечном счете, от социальной шизофрении.
87. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 54
Владимир Иванович Бурлаков Философско-антропологические основания риска в пространстве правопорядка
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
This paper is an attempt to identify the foundations and sources of risk environment, describe the ontological, anthropological sources of risk in the sphere of Law. Definitions of forms of risk that occur in sphere of Law are introduced. On the basis of the conflict between order and self-organization (the ontological conflict) an attempt is made to suggest a brief philosophical definition of risk environment. The anthropological source of risk is described, the incompleteness of human nature, and the desire for recognition. The ontological system echoes the axiological characterization of Erich Fromm’s and V. B. Ustyantsev’s mode of existence.
88. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 55
Irina Ivanova Неклассичность логики и неклассичность науки
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Logic as a phenomenon of science has been historically denoted by the set of close synonym terms – “canon”, “dialectics”, “epagoge”, “maieutics”, “synagoge”, “analytics”, “epilogizmos”, “organon”, “logic” – while the word “logic” is only a homonym. Since, in relation to logic itself, the logical ideal of unambiguity in natural language is not achievable, the limitations of logical science, imposed by it primarily upon itself, are always important. Especially this concerns the use of the terms “formal logic” and “non-classical logic”, as well a broad understanding of logic that makes it equivalent to (and not only) thinking as such. The paradigm of modern post-nonclassical rationality suggests that logic should be considered responsible for the appearance of non-classical thinking and non-classical science. Thus, rationality even in science, acquires an almost exclusively praxeological nuance. As a consequence, the basic trends of modern science – interdisciplinarity, synergy, syncretism – and the reduction of rationality to pragmatics lead to the abandonment of the undelying principles of rational thinking, the essence of which lies in differentiating analytics, and sometimes – even to the abandonment of thinking as such. This gives rise to a paradoxical situation: the rationality of science, in fact, becomes the negation of the rationalist approach and the rationalistic thinking, which initially determined the nature of scientific knowledge, not only ceases to be the main value of science, but is no more included among its essential features.
89. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 55
Larisa Demina Теоретические проблемы изучения аргументации и стратегии развития общества
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
In standard logical definition of the proof the concept of truth is used. To prove some thesis – means logically to bring it out of other true judgments. But there are the statements which haven’t been connected with truth, not having a truth conditional assessment: these are questions, requests, councils, promises, estimates, etc. It is obvious that, operating with them, we need also to be logical and evidential. Thus, there is a question of expansion of concept of the proof, that is of creation of wider model of the argument. Logical modeling of the argument generates a set of its models in which it is reproduced by means of logical systems: formal and semi-formal. Problem of logical modeling is creation of formally correct system of dependences between arguments and the thesis. It is also necessary to consider and reproduce its pragmatical aspects in model and argument rules: orientation to the addressee, providing acceptability and clearness of arguments and conclusion procedure. But there is also one more moment – social – which we also have to consider at a choice of model of the argument. The changes happening in society, find close connection of language with forms of life, human existence. This circumstance caused increasing interest to the argument, as forms of human rationality, the critical thinking capable to an independent and free reasoning, a way of research of mistakes and delusions, illusions and conscious manipulations, justification of own views, the points of view and ability to convince of them others.
90. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 56
Василий Перминов Системный подход к решению проблемы Вигнера
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Theories which born during interior development of mathematics later obtain empirical interpretation and become a part of applied science. The reasons for this are still not clear, although many mathematicians and philosophers (E. Wigner, M. Steiner, R. Hersh and others) put forward their hypotheses. We believe that solution the problem should involve investigation of mathematics as a sort of evolving system. Two systems may be subordinated; that is, if the first one is a primary and fundamental one, then the other one is secondary and adjusted to the first. We propose that substantial sciences are primary and formal sciences are secondary. There are reasons to think that mathematics in its interior development has intention to physics. Secondary system may have changes of two sorts: those which are requested by the primary system, and those which are free of the requests of the primary system. Analyzing biological systems we see that interior changes of the system, which are not caused by its current needs, are determined by its further purposes. Each living system carries a “model of future” in itself, and it tends to this future by its free changes. We think that the living systems development logic may be transferred to conceptual systems, also. If we consider mathematics as a conceptual system which is secondary in relation to physics, then we receive a natural explanation of the possibility of mathematical anticipation.
91. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 56
Игорь Леопольдович Алексеев Математизация научного знания и ее проблематика
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Применение математики в механике, астрономии, физике, биологии, социологии, психологии и в других областях научного знания, способствовало проникновению в научный аппарат указанных областей знания таких понятий, как число, функция, производная, дифференциал, интеграл, структура, система и т.д.. Математизация процесса научного знания становится определяющим фактором того, что теория той или иной сферы научной сферы может называться научной. В процессе математизации научного знания должны соблюдаться необходимые условия, как в содержательной теории, так и в выбранных математических методах. Они отражают реальность и тем придавать высокую точность предсказанию и описанию процессов.
92. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 56
Анатолий В. Чусов Математика как объективация: развивающаяся онтология предмета
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The features of development of the subject-matter of mathematics can be viewed from the standpoint of the study of mathematics as objectification in Marx’s sense – as a relatively independently self-reproduced sphere of activity. For an explication of this development it is necessary to define concepts of “world”, “object”, “subject-matter”, “subject-actor”, “reality”, “structure”, “model”, “objectification”, “ontology”. In the process of objectification of the domain of objects of mathematics takes place a transformation of forms of existence and creation of new ontologies, with respect to new types of realities. The development of mathematics as a sphere of human activity necessarily contains subjectification (reproduction of a type of subject-actor as necessary substructure of every social objectification). The results of mathematical activity are fixed as objects and reproduced in the intersubjective, objectivized domain of mathematics, because the subject-actor itself is practically incorporated into the structure of the world as an object. Mathematics as practically realizable objectification of knowledge is modelling of ontologies. The immediate subject-matter of mathematics is the (realized in representation) manifold of abstract structures of subject-actor, whereas the mediated object of mathematics is the manifold of object structures of the world.
93. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 57
Vladimir Iakovlev Сознание как метафизическая проблема современной физики
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
In this paper the modern scientific cognitive programs are analyzed. The article discusses the possibility of building an information and synergetic model of mind. The author introduces a principle of ontological reality of information – primary information in relation to material and energetic (or physical) reality and reality of meanings (or ideal reality). The author suggests a new approach to understanding an anthropic principle and interpretation of a philosophical category “mind-consciousness” as a concept of information reality theory. The consciousness is a fractal of an objective information reality with the certain relationships of cause and effect (so-called information, or mental causality). Physics and metaphysics synthesis is possible at the approach to mind as to certain level of the information reality including a phenomenon of a life. The principle of an ontological reality of the information – primacy of the information in relation to a reality substance-power (physical) and realities semantic (ideal) is essential. On the basis of this principle construction of new model of consciousness, using a mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics (G. Everett, R. Penrouz, V. L. Ginzburg, M. B. Mensky) looks very possible.
94. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 58
Вячеслав Александрович Ильичёв Глобальные вызовы и доктрина градоустройства
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
There are major global challenges: the technogenic pollution of the globe, the climate change, the rising of the sea level, the decrease of resources, primarily oil, and others. The rapidity of the subsequent negative changes requires fast, cardinal and principally innovative approaches to the formation of urban life. Most modern cities have become major pollutants of the biosphere and, thereby, entail degradation of population. This paper examines the principles and methodology of urban transformation in biosphere, which are compatible to human development. We suggest a hierarchy of methodological principles of urban management, which embraces all issues from the interaction with the biosphere up to the creation of conditions for favorable, comfortable and safe life.
95. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 58
Elena Zolotykh Уникальные объекты геологического знания в постнеклассической парадигме
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Geological knowledge is needed for a comprehensive approach in describing their objects. Ancient Greek philosophers noticed that layers contain shells, similar to the ones that are stay at the shore of the sea, but raised high in the mountains. And it is required a comprehensive response, which couldn’t do one branch of scientific knowledge, to explain this phenomenon. So the logic of Geology may not be reflected logic of physics or chemistry. Therefore the methodology of geological knowledge of nature should be reflected with holistic approach. Heterogeneity of the matter of the Universe, which date back to the fundamental (Planck’s) length and have the dimension lf *ene. So heterogeneity of the Earth is stacked in sizes from 10-8 cm (the radius of the Atom) to 1010-1011 cm (dimensions of the planet). And the geological objects are characterized by the data of different levels of organization of a substance. As a result any geological object should be described in its integrity and uniqueness due to the holistic nature of their. Geology is a complex of Sciences and has its own methodology of interdisciplinary approach. Therefore, with full right, we can mention the geological knowledge of science, based on the post-non-classical paradigm.
96. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 58
Anna Y. Guseva Modern Forms of Philosophy of Nature: Environmental Glamour vs. Aesthetics of Philosophy of Science
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Экологические проблемы неоднозначно оцениваются в философии – от признания их экзистенциальной значимости до иронического отношения. Амбивалентность оценок заложена в имманентной противоречивости гуманитарного экологического проекта (термин А. М. Пятигорского). Неклассическая философия природы в современной культуре также проявляется в формах, крайне противоположных. С одной стороны, это гламурные спекуляции на экологических темах, характерные для массовой культуры и создающие поле экологического гламура. С другой стороны – философия естественнонаучного исследованSя, сохраняющая фундаментальные мистико-эстетические смыслы постижения гармонии природы через проживание единства с нею.
97. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 6
Pavel Chelyshev The social philosophy of St. Symeon the New Theologian
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
In the XIX–XXth centuries materialist philosophy made a seri-ous attempt to explain the process of social development proceeding from the economic factor. But in practice, this doctrine revealed its historical ground-lessness making researchers go from the analysis of economic realities over to spiritual life of man. Creative works of Byzantine ascetic-mystic, poet and phi-losopher St. Symeon the New Theologian (949–1022), developing St. Augus-tine’s idea about coexistence of «the city of God» and «the city of man» in so-ciety set an example for this. St. Symeon speaks about Church and anti-church, which in everyday life oppose each other. Their opposition is of spiritual and moral character that defines all other differences, including economic and political ones. The philosopher considers the Church to be the community of peo-ple united in Christ by means of church sacraments, faith, hope and love into a single big organism. Anti-church, the community of people under tyranny of devil, is opposed to «the city of God». Devil draws people into peculiar net of social relations, «the body of Satan», through moral depravity. But neither technological progress nor social humanism and liberalism weaken the power of «the Prince of this world» over people, because their slavery is based on immorality and spiritual impoverishment. Opposition of these communities defines the character of historical process that will be completed in the last act of spiritual conflict, when Church wins a victory. Without this eschatological perspective history ceases to be history and loses its inner metaphysical sense.
98. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 61
Тамара Леонидовна Белкина Основные принципы в эволюции христианства
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
This paper examines the history of Christianity from the stand-point of the development of the concept of universal evolutionism. It is shown that the emergence of new trends, organizations and communities in Christianity takes place in accordance with the basic concepts and laws of synergy: divergence, convergence, bifurcation, and self-development.
99. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 61
Сергей Сергеевич Чистяков Ценностно-смысловая сфера представителей православной веры
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
This paper is a survey of research in psychology and religious studies, which examine how religion (through human’s involvement in religious practice) determines the value-semantic sphere of the believer. Our study concerns the differences in value-semantic orientations of the represen-tatives of the Orthodox faith and the secular people. The hypothesis under examination is that there are differences in the value-semantic orientations of the representatives of the Orthodox and the secular people.
100. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 61
Андрей Мишучков Образовательный дискурс межрелигиозного диалога
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The specificity of interreligious dialogue through the phenomenon of the intersection of different discourses in education - scientific, philosophical, educational, religious (Christian and Muslim), revealed the role of interreligious dialogue in the development of a tolerant individual student and in the formation of an interfaith social stability.