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81. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 59 > Issue: 2
Helena Pavlincová Helena Pavlincová
Rádlova Útěcha z filosofie na stránkách Křesťanské revue
Rádl's Consolation from Philosophy on the Pages of the Christian Review

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82. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 59 > Issue: 2
Ivana Holzbachová Ivana Holzbachová
Brněnská Jednota filozofická
Brno Philosophical Society

83. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Lenka Hořínková Kouřilová Pelikánova reflexe Hoppeova díla
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This article presents how Pelikan reflected Hoppe’s work in Ruch filosofický. Pelikan dealt with Hoppe’s philosophical development and simultaneously noticed philosophers that were inspiring for Hoppe’s philosophy. Pelikan appraised the significance of Hoppe’s work in Czech philosophical thinking of the first half of the twentieth century and his acccent of spiritual life. Pelikan agreed with Hoppe’s extension of the doctrine of intuition although his conception of intuition was different from Hoppe.
84. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Jan Zouhar Existencialismus a české myšlení 1945–1948
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After 1945, Czech philosophy and culture were first introduced to existentialism. First it was the original works of French existentialists (Sartre, Camus, Marcel), later by means of the journal Letters (1947) and Václav Černý (The first book on existentialism, 1948). The acceptance of existentialism in Czech context was not univocal. Besides factual analyses (J. Patočka, V. Navrátil, V. T. Miškovská), existentialism met with criticism and rejection mainly from Marxists and Catholic scholars for its rational weakness, pessimism, helplessness and intellectual decline.
85. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Klaus Vieweg Morální světový názor. K Hegelově kritice praktického rozumu transcendentální filosofie
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The transition from morality to the morals involves the dissolution of the antagonism of the moral, the overcoming of the antinomy of constant obligation. In his Wissenschaft der Logik, Hegel focuses on the logical defect of endless progress “mostly in its ap­plication to morality“ (RPh, § 268). Pure will and the moral law on the one hand, and nature and empiricality on the other “presuppose each other as fully independent and mutually indifferent“, and thus the opposition is postulated as an axiom, which excludes its overcoming the antagonism. The antagonism “does not dissolve in infinite progress. It is, on the contrary, depicted as unsolved and unsolvable, and thus confirmed“. The result is “the very same antagonism that stood at the beginning“ (RPh, § 269 an.). The progress ad infinitum exhibits itself as antagonism that unjustly points to itself as a solution of what contradicts itself (WdL 5, p. 166). The real overcoming of this antinomy fails; the idea of the Judgment Day solution owes the answer and is only an expression of excessive gentleness towards the world. Antinomies and collisions in moral action in the end separate, which implies the persistence in insuperable antinomy. Another topic would be a detailed exposition of Hegel’s solution proposal. In any case, Hegel sees the naturalness of speculative thought in the necessity to think the ideality of both of the opposing sides, that is, to understand them beforehand as the moment of the concept of moral action, see them as opposing in their moving unity and think them as the transition from morality to the moral action, the morals, in which the antagonism of the moral is not abstractly lost, but elevated, guarded and overcome.
86. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Helena Zbudilová Spásná trýzeň: Miguel de Unamuno a nesmrtelnost
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The study deals with the conception of personal immortality in Miguel de Unamuno’s works. The starting point of his reflections is a particular person of “flesh and blood“ and his authentic existence. Unamuno’s “hunger of immortality“ is inspired by man’s confrontation with the phenomenon of death. For Unamuno existential phenomena of suffering and anxiety seem to be the keyword to the authentic existence and God then becomes a guarantor of individual immortality. The study concentrates on Unamuno’s conception of God in the spirit of panentheism and Spanish Krausism. It observes Unamuno’s philosophical sources of information when discussing the question of immortality from Pythagoras to Platon while opposing the views of impersonal immortality (e.g. B. Spinoza). His theological argumentation is based mainly on S. Kierkegaard, St. Paul and Spanish mystics. His philosophical ideas are extracted especially from his works The Tragic Sense of Life, The Agony of Christianity and The Intimate Diary. His novella Saint Emmanuel The Good, Martyr serves as a fictional illustration of his ideas. The study concludes with the evaluation of Unamuno as an author writing “philosophizing literature“ and as a predecessor of existentialist literature, who was orientated towards Christian personalism.
87. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Jesús Padilla Gálvez Euklidovský prostor a zorný prostor jako estetický problém
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The aim of this article is to reconstruct the contributions that Wittgenstein made to the field of aesthetics. The focus of interest lies on the theory of sensory perception. This theory is characterized as a program of “minimal visibilia” and will be analyzed by employing the phenomenological method. Three problems are addressed in the context of the visual space, such as blurredness, indistinctness and sensory impressions. A distinction between the visual space and the Euclidean space can only be made by comparing their respective typical structures. We will particularly analyze the relation that exists between the perceiving human being on the one hand and the visual space on the other hand. In order to get a deeper insight into this problem the visual space shall be compared to a two-dimensional picture. Moreover the role and function of the colours have to be clarified to establish a “minimum visibilia”.
88. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Vladan Hrdlička F. A. Hayek a náboženství. Liberalismus na hranici mezi vědou a vírou
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The essay deals with the religious and moral elements in philosophy of F. A. Hayek, as well as his personal attitude to religion. The topics are discussed on the background of liberal ideology, the relationship of cognitive sciences to the determination of human action and approximation of critical rationality to dogmatic authoritarianism in its enforcement. Attention is also paid to the scientific concept of Hayek’s defense of liberal ideology.
89. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Miloš Dokulil Sémantika a překlad (nejen Lockova „understanding“)
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Terms do not always cover the same meaning all the time. While translating into another language we have to take care of possible shifts in meaning in each of both languages. Some examples have been shown here from the new translation of Locke‘s Essay into Czech.
90. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Karel Říha Rozvoj akce na individuálně-personální úrovni dva komentáře k l’action Maurice Blondela
91. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Erika Lalíková K slovám Dominika Tatarku
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Dominik Tatarka, Slovak (Czechoslovak) writer, philosopher, social and political thinker. His literary and philosophical works are firmly linked with his personal experience, combined with socio-political events in Czechoslovakia. They are based on several principles of which the most important is respect for democratic principles and the rule of Christian universalism, which returned in the end of the 70th last century. The article is focused on the modification of the key problems of Slovak author: the freedom of the individual and the freedom of the community. Tatarka in his texts and also in his life always tried to understand an individual, not judging him. That was his moral strength and reason behind the superiority over many opponents. When comparing his views with the ideas of other authors (M. Bátorová, M. Hamada, Vaclav Havel, C. Miłosz, S. Marais ...), this article will highlights the uniqueness of texts, as well as the importance of the interpretation of the concept of freedom in the context of Central Europe marked by two totalitarian ideologies.
92. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Ivana Holzbachová Tainovo pojetí vědy
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Ačkoli je Taine znám především jako estetik a historik umění i politiky, zabývá se autorka spíš metodologickým předpokladem Tainova díla, a to jeho pojetím vědy. Ukazuje, že v Tainově díle nacházíme Hegelův vliv, který se však silně mísí s odlesky Comtových názorů, i když v oblasti ontologické lze spatřovat podobnost i s E. Machem. Taine chtěl aplikovat na duchovní vědy metody věd přírodních, i když si byl vědom zásadního rozdílu – nekvantifikovatelnosti v duchovních vědách. Podobnost spočívala ve snaze vysvětlit duchovní díla z jejich skutečných příčin. Ty Taine viděl především v oblasti psychologické. I ona je však pojata nikoli jako introspekce, ale jako věda, která má formulovat zákony a předvídat. Fakta hledá v literárních dokumentech. Zkoumání začíná od jednotlivých faktů, pokračuje přes zobecnění k jejich hlubšímu pochopení (vytváření zákonů) a pak se opět k jednotlivinám vrací a pomocí nalezených zákonů je vysvětluje. Konečné příčiny Taine nehledá. V rozboru aplikace tohoto obecného pojetí na dějiny umění a politickou historii se do popředí autorčina zájmu dostává známá Tainova teorie rasy, momentu a prostředí. Rozbor se věnuje především jeho pojetí rasy. Zabývá se i jeho pojetím vztahu mas a velkých osobností. V závěru připomíná reakce dobových i nynějších autorů na Taina.Although Taine is primarily known as an aesthetician and historian of art and politics, the author focuses on the methodology of Taine’s work, particularly on his conception of science. She shows one can trace Hegel’s influence in Taine’s work, which nevertheless mingles with reflections of Comte’s views, even though one can find similarities with E. Mach’s views in ontology. Taine attempted to apply the methodology of natural sciences to spiritual sciences, even though he was aware of a major difference – the unquantifiability in spiritual sciences. This involved an attempt to explain spiritual works on the basis of their real causes, which Taine mainly thought of as psychological. Psychology was not taken as introspection, though, but as a science the goal of which was to formulate laws and predict. Taine sought facts in literary documents. He began his investigation with particular facts, went on to generalize and state laws and then returned to the particular facts to explain them by the discovered laws. Taine did not seek final causes. In analyzing the application of this general approach to the history of art and politics, the author emphasizes Taine’s conception of race, moment and environment. She particularly focuses on the concept of race and also considers the relation of masses and great figures. In the conclusion the author adds the reactions of Taines contemporar­ies and current authors.
93. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Jindřich Veselý Jan Patočka a křesťanství
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In many of his writings Jan Patočka dealt with christianity. This article presents his meditation as it developed since beginnings of his work till the famous texts he wrote in last period of his thinking. We interpret the whole philosophical move as the way from polemic to interpretation and from periphery to center. In his first writings Patočka mostly argues with theologians about mainly marginal themes, but soon he turns to the core of christianity and tries to interpret it according to his phenomenological philosophy. In his last works Patočka considers the strictly demythologized christianity as one of the most potent forms of care for the soul, which for him meant the tradition of european spiritual life. So the christianity, especially the idea of sacrifice, gets into the very center of Patočka’s thinking. Our article advises of the crucial, but probably also the weak point of Patočka’s approach: his reluctancy to ideas of personal god and revelation.
94. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Matthias Riedl Modernita ako imanentizácia eschatónu. Kritické zhodnotenie gnostickej tézy Erica Voegelina
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Eric Voegelin formulated one of the most challenging theses about the theological foundations of modern progressivist and revolutionary thought: the character of modernity is essentially Gnostic. The aim of this essay is to show why the early version of Voegelin’s Gnosis-thesis, as proposed in his New Science of Politics (1951), is not convincing. I argue that processes of immanentization can be fully explained within the development of Western ecclesiastical thought, without invoking Gnostic sectarianism. From a historical-empirical perspective Gnosticism is, in fact, principally opposed to immanent eschatologies. Joachim of Fiore, who, according to Voegelin, is the originator of modern Gnosticism, aptly illustrates this incompatibility. This essay also aims to show how Voegelin became increasingly aware of this problem and, accordingly, formulated a much more adequate and convincing version of the Gnosis-thesis in The Ecumenic Age (1974). The final section of the essay returns to the question of the relation of Gnosis and revolution.
95. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Veronika Ježková Genealogie diagnostiky. Michel Foucault a Zrození kliniky
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Text se věnuje genealogii metod diagnostiky podle Michela Foucaulta, s využitím interpretace několika jeho hlavních děl, zejména Zrození kliniky, Abnormal: Lectures at the College de France 1974–1975, Archeologie vědění, Dějiny šílenství v době osvícenství a dalších. Je rozdělen do několika částí: první analyzuje Foucaultovu archeologickou a genealogickou metodu zkoumání historie, část druhá se zaměřuje na tři medicínské diskurzy existující ve Francii od konce osmnáctého století do poloviny století devatenáctého tak, jak je Foucault popisuje ve Zrození kliniky. Jsou jimi medicína druhů/klasifikační medicína, medicína symptomů a medicína orgánů. Přestože Foucault uvádí jednotlivé diskurzy v chronologické následnosti, jsou ve skutečnosti propojeny a společně tvoří základ současného medicínského diskuru. Třetí část textu rozvíjí Foucaultovu koncepci normálního a nenormálního jedince v kontextu zdraví a nemoci a zvláštní pozornost je věnována fenoménu stigmatizace těch, kteří jsou společností považováni za nenormální či nemocné. Foucault ve Zrození kliniky popisuje mnoho diagnostických metod, které vedou ke zjištění pravdy o nemoci. Současné lékařské usuzování a diagnostika sestávají podle Foucaulta z analyzování prostorových aspektů nemoci, analýzy významu jednotlivých symptomů, techniky interview s pacientem a dalších, a tyto techniky nelze chápat jako nadčasové a univerzální, ale naopak je nutné je nahlížet v širších souvislostech diskurzů minulých. Poslední část textu zkoumá vztah medicíny a psychiatrie u Foucaulta, zejména historické začleňování psychiatrie do medicíny. V závěru textu se pokouším odpovědět na otázku, zda je toto začlenění legitimní a zda může být příčinou stigmatizace duševně nemocných, či naopak může napomoci toto stigma sejmout.
96. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Takashi Kato Filozof pod půlnočním sluncem
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To celebrate the 85th birthday of the Czech-American philosopher Professor Rudolph W. Krejci, the founder of the first Department of Philosophy and Humanities at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks, we bring a paper by his student, currently an associate professor in California, Takashi Kato, who shows how respected Professor Krejci is even by people far away from his homeland.
97. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Břetislav Horyna Když nás vesmír začal brát na vědomí. Příspěvek k lepšímu pochopení metaforologie Hanse Blumenberga
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The goal of this work is to popularize the philosophy of the German philosopher Hans Blumenberg (1920–1999) in Czech context. Even though he is gradually becoming one of the most discussed authors in the Anglo-Saxon world, Blumenberg is still largely ignored here. This work focuses on a key theme from Blumenberg’s theory of metaphorology and analyzes the history and development of human defensive reactions against alleged expressions of cosmic powers and their impact on human lives: heavenly signs, unnatural signs at birth or death of important figures, religious miracles, etc. In order to defend themselves against absolute forces of the universe, people have developed magic (homo magus occurred in human history) as a tool of prevention from cosmic interference, created new myths and escaped into their mythical shelters by means of further metaphors. In the final part, the work deals with the phenomenology of the metaphor of „stream“, used by E. Husserl.
98. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Slavomír Lesňák K niektorým nedostatkom vybraných environmentálnych prístupov
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The author aims to evaluate various approaches of environmental philosophers to several specific problems from the standpoint of ethics of survival. He points to weaknesses and risks of conceptions of F. Capra, A. Naess, P. Singer and J. Šmajs. The author accepts using irrationality only as a complement of education, not as its main principle. He rejects ethics not based on ontological ground and promotes process thinking in ethics. The author criticizes rejection of anthropocentric approach. He analyzes the connections between evolutionary ontology and totalitarianism. He questions Naess’ application of nonviolence, links irrationality and ecological terrorism.
99. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Hana Řehulková Literatura a poznání
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The goal of the paper is to reconsider two incompatible stances on a possible cogni­tive gain from belles-lettres stories. Cognitivism is based on the fundamental state that a value of work of art is proportional to the degree of knowledge it brings. It is presupposed that a reader´s mental state before reading such stories is, in a way, poorer then thereafter. What kind of properties does such cognitive gain have? Is it a moral piece of knowledge? Or is it a piece of knowledge at all? A role of truth is mentioned. Two pros et cons arguments – namely Graham’s (argument about the cognitive value of the arts) and Stolnitz´s ones (argument about cognitive triviality of art) – are briefly examined. In the last part, a natural view of a literary cognitive gain is offered.
100. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Ivana Holzbachová Tainovo pojetí společnosti a státu
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The author presents Hippolyte Taine´s conception of society and state, which are, in her interpretation as well as Taine´s theory, deeply interconnected. It is quite obvious, however, that Taine was a committed liberal. This follows from his explicit ideas on the function of the state, his ruthless criticism of the Jacobin phase of French Revolution and Napoleonic conception of state as well as the state in which he lived, because that state stemmed from the Napoleonic conception. In the second part the author focuses on Taine´s description of the English system. Taine sees both its advantages and drawbacks. Generally speaking, he finds the English system preferable to the French one. However, on the basis of the theory of race, moment and environment, it was not possible to imple­ment the English model in France.