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81. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Linda K. Elksnin Using Cases to Improve the Critical Thinking Skills of Prospective Teachers
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This essential that prospective teachers develop critical thinking skills. However, they cannot develop these skills simply by reading the assigned text, taking notes during lecture, and completing exams. The case method of instruction (CMI) relies on real-life situations to teach students general problem solving and decision making through active participation in the leaming process. Thus, CMI offers an effective means of developing the critical thinking skills of prospective teachers. This article presents guidelines teacher educators can follow to create case-based classrooms. Specific recommendations are offered regarding case selection, case presentation, case writing, and case evaluation procedures.
82. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Richard K. Murray, Kay D. Woelfel, Gerald M. Bullock Making the ‘Case’ for Performance Appraisal
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Accreditation requirements for schools of education across the country have changed dramatically in recent years. Accreditation bodies are no longer willing to accept a proclamation that a particular standard or guideline is being addressed in a course through lecture or course requirements. Performance assessment is the current concept requiring schools of education to demonstrate student mastery of a standard and to provide data demonstrating this mastery. Case studies present a teaching and learning opportunity to demonstrate students have the ability to master a particular accreditation standard or guideline while also providing a method to ensure an opportunity to develop higher order thinking skills.
83. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 3
Kenneth T. Henson Introduction
84. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 4
Fran Hagstrom Creating Creative Identity
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The construction of creative identity from a Vygotskian perspective is explored in this paper. A theoretical link is made between Vygotsky’s (Smolucha, 1992) claims about the development of creativity and Penuet and Wertsch’s (1995) use of Vygotskian theory to address identity formation. Narrative is suggested as the link between culturally organized activities, mediated mental functioning, and the storied self. Data from semi-structured interviews about creativity conducted with a second grade child and his parents illustrate how discourses from home and school come together during the development of imagination and are used to construct identity.
85. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 4
Julia M. Matuga, Heidi L. Styrk Children’s Speech-Drawing: External Manifestations of Critical and Creative Thinking
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Vygotsky (1997) coined the term speech-drawing to describe what he saw as the most significant moment in intellectual development, the moment when two psychological tools intersect each other. This paper resurrects the utilization of speech-drawing as a methodological tool to investigate children’s thinking. Specifically, this paper will examine children’s drawings of make-believe houses and the private speech, or spontaneous self-directed speech, children produccd while drawing. These instances of speech-drawing will be utilized to illuminate critical and creative thinking from a Vygotskian perspective. The future use of speech-drawing, as a promising methodological tool to study children’s thought processes, will also be presented and discussed.
86. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 4
Suzanne Miller The Dialogue of Creative and Critical Thinking: Vygotskian Perspectives on Mediated Leaning on a Literature-History Class
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In this paper I argue that creative and critical thinking operate in tandem in the mind as a purposeful dialectic of generative and evaluative dimensions of sense-making. The complementariness of these two forms of thought are dramatized through a case study in an innovative literature-history class, by tracing thc development of critical and creative thinking in one students process of authoring. In the class the teachers mediated students’ thinking by engaging them in open-forum conversation about varied cultural-historical perspectives and then providing strategies for both generating interpretations and questioning/critiquing them. As multiple conflicting perspectives from literature and history interplayed in the class, the student was prompted to construct a point of view by considering opposing lines of thought in a dialogue of creative and critical thinking. He appropriated these new tools, internalizing strategies for and a disposition toward creative and critical thinking to make sense of complex texts and social issues. Vygotsky’s notions of problem-solving, play, mediation, ZPD, and internalization are used to explain how student thinking developed in this context.
87. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 4
Julia M. Matuga Introduction to the Special Issue on Vytgotskian Perspectives of Critical and Creative Thinking
88. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 24 > Issue: 4
Bert van Oers The Potentials of Imagination
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Starting from a Vygotskian analysis of imagination as “image formation,” this paper explores some emergent qualities of the phenomenon of imagination in the play activities of young children. In the context of the early grades of Dutch primary schools (4-7-year old children) different activities of children were studied while they were making symbolic representations of real or imaginary situations. Observations in two activity settings show that the children got engaged in two types of imagination: an ‘etc-act of imagination’ and a ‘production of alternatives.’ It wIll be argued that these types of imagination are basic modes of thinking that relate to respectively abstract thinking and to creative thinking.
89. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
William Peirce World Wide Web URLs for Resources for Teaching Reasoning and Critical Thinking
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A selective compilation of 24 useful websites likely to interest a practicing teacher of thinking; it is not directed at scholar-researchers in any particular discipline. Hence, Web resources in philosophy, psychology, and cognitive science are not included. Also excluded are well-known general Internet comprehensive lists of resomces in the various disciplines and the many sites helpful to students writing researched persuasive arguments which can be found in any recent writing handbook. Included are general comprehensive resources in higher education, communication (including writing) across the curriculum, resources on teaching critical thinking, problem-based learning, and publishers specializing in critical thinking.
90. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
John Miller Critical Thinking and Asynchronous Discussion
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Among the claims made for online learning is its potential to foster critical thinking, particularly by engaging students in asynchronous discussions conducted in writing. This paper reviews and critiques these claims. It first examines the uses of writing and classroom discussion in modeling and encouraging critical thinking. It then reviews some of the arguments for the possible advantages of online interaction over face-to-face discussion. Finally, it critiques these claims by comparing the specific features, which distinguish the experience of participation in asynchronous written discussions from synchronous oraldiscussion. This comparison illuminates the role of oral discussion in modeling and developing students’ critical thinking skills and points out difficulty of doing so through asynchronous computer-mediated discussions.
91. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Haithe Anderson DiscipIining Education and Educating the Disciplines
92. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 19 > Issue: 3
Mary-Jane Eisen Peer Learning Partnerships: Promoting Reflective Practice through Reciprocal Learning
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Peer learning partnerships are voluntary, reciprocal helping relationships between individuals of comparable status, who share a common or closely related learning / development objective. These dyadic or small group partnerships often occur incidentally or are confused with mentoring; hence they are easily overlooked and / or misunderstood. Yet they warrant the attention of professional developers,classroom teachers, and others as an intentionallearning strategy because of their potential to foster bi-directional learning through joint reflection.Using her qualitative case study of peer learning partnerships in an innovative statewide community college faculty development initiative - the “Teaching Partners Program” - the author draws on participants’ first-hand perceptions of this alternative modality to demonstrate how it fosters reflective practice, leading to enhanced discovery and professional development. The study’s findings highlight the benefits of using peer learning partnerships to promote reflective practice, as well as barriers to utilization. Recommendations for applying this approach and for future research are provided.
93. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 2
Bruce Waller Judicial System Resources: More Fun and Better Understanding in the Critical Thinking Classroom
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The legal system – from the jury room to the deliberations of the Supreme Court – offers an abundance of rich resources for the study and teaching of critical thinking.The courts have (often for centuries) struggled with many of the issues central to critical thinking. The courts not only provide fascinating examples and exercises for students to examine, but in many areas – the appropriate use of ad hominem arguments, the distinction between argument and testimony, the proper placing of the burden of proof, the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions, the legitimate (and fallacious) use of appeals to authority, the nature of arguments by analogy – jurists and legal scholars have analyzed these issues carefully, and their insights are of great value to anyone concerned with rigorous critical thinking. Study of those legal resources has also had an impact on my views concerning the moral responsibility system.
94. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 2
Frank Fair From the Editors’ Desk
95. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 2
Lawrence A. Lengbeyer Critical Thinking in the Intelligence Community: The Promise of Argument Mapping
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It is unfortunate that so much turns on the practices of argument construction and critique in intelligence analysis, for example, because these practices are fraught with difficulty. However, the recently developed technique of argument mapping helps reasoners conduct these practices more thoroughly and insightfully, as can be shown in an extended illustration concerning Iraqi nuclear activities circa 2002. Argument mapping offers other benefits, as well. Its ultimate value, though, will depend on how its advantages compare to those of competitor reasoning methodologies.
96. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 2
Scott F. Aikin, Robert B. Talisse Why We Argue: A Sketch of an Epistemic-Democratic Program
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This essay summarizes the research program developed in our new book, Why We Argue (And How We Should): A Guide to Political Disagreement (Routledge, 2014). Humans naturally want to know and to take themselves as having reason on their side. Additionally, many people take democracy to be a uniquely proper mode of political arrangement. There is an old tension between reason and democracy, however, and it was first articulated by Plato. Plato’s concern about democracy was that it detached political decision from reason. Epistemic democrats attempt to show how the two can be re-attached. What is necessary is to couple the core democratic liberties with norms of rational exchange. Thus epistemology and argument provides a basis for democratic politics. Why We Argue (And How We Should) makes a case for the connection and develops a toolkit for maintaining it.
97. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 2
Benjamin Hamby Review of Diane Halpern’s Thought and Knowledge, 5th Edition
98. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 2
Louise Cummings Circles and Analogies in Public Health Reasoning
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The study of the fallacies has changed almost beyond recognition since Charles Hamblin called for a radical reappraisal of this area of logical inquiry in his 1970 book Fallacies. The “witless examples of his forbears” to which Hamblin referred have largely been replaced by more authentic cases of the fallacies in actual use. It is now not unusual for fallacy and argumentation theorists to draw on actual sources for examples of how the fallacies are used in our everyday reasoning. However, an aspect of this move towards greater authenticity in the study of the fallacies, an aspect which has been almost universally neglected, is the attempt to subject the fallacies to empirical testing of the type which is more commonly associated with psychological experiments on reasoning. This paper addresses this omission in research on the fallacies by examining how subjects use two fallacies – circular argument and analogical argument – during a reasoning task in which subjects are required to consider a number of public health scenarios. Results are discussed in relation to a view of the fallacies as cognitive heuristics that facilitate reasoning in a context of uncertainty.
99. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 3
Mark Battersby The Competent Layperson: Re-envisioning the Ideal of the Educated Person
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This article argues that the goal of an undergraduate liberal education should be to educate a competent layperson rather than a disciplinary specialist preparing for graduate school or employment. A competent layperson is someone who has a broad understanding and appreciation of the intellectual landscape, someone who has strong generic intellectual abilities such as critical thinking and research skills which enable them to make inquiries into any area of specialization with efficiency and appropriate confidence. The goal is to develop the skills and understanding necessary for thoughtful citizenship and an intellectually empowered life.
100. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines: Volume > 29 > Issue: 3
Linda Behar-Horenstein Dental Education and Making A Commitment to The Teaching of Critical Thought
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Less than two decades ago, Halpern (1998) presented a convincing approach for teaching critical thought. However, nowhere in her article did she explain how to “get” faculty to teach to thinking skills to transfer across domains of knowledge using: “(a) dispositional or attitudinal component, (b) instruction in and practice with critical thought, (c) structure–training activities, and (d) a metacognitive component used to direct and assess thinking.” (p. 451) It is an open question as to what type of strategies will faculty need to demonstrate to create productive, knowledgeable, thinking citizenry? In this paper I focus on the faculty’s role in promoting the teaching of critical thought, that is, critical thought processes, with particular reference to dental education. Many students can develop processes of critical thought with frequent practice involving the active use of multiple types of ill-structured problems and situations designed to require the ability (1) to recall useful information, (2) to use pattern recognition, (3) to discern pertinent information, (4) to think ahead, and (5) to anticipate outcomes and problems while (6) remaining composed enough so that their emotions do not hinder decision-making skills.