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81. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Bernard Reber Garder ouverte la question de la technique pour penser l ’éthique environnementale
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Environmental ethic depends on technological ethics. We must therefore think of the technique with all its virtualities and not merely as an instrument. Heidegger’s approach to technique avoids this reduction. Brought closer to the language it questions its essence. With modem technology that essence does not advance production but provocation, by which nature is ordered to deliver an energy that can be extracted for maximum utilization and lower costs. The way of producing poetry remains open yet. This article reads again this difficult text, indicates some limitations, and tries to take the better of its wealth for contemporary debate crossing environmental and technological ethics.
82. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Manuel B. Dy Jr. An Environmental Ethics from Teaism
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This paper is a modest attempt to derive an environmental ethics of Teaism from Kakuzo Okakura’s The Book of Tea and Daisetz T. Suzuki’s Zen and Japanese Culture, for as both authors assert, Teaism is not just aestheticism but also religion and ethics with regards to the whole point of view about man and nature. The first part presents the main features of the Teaism, its brief history, the tea room and tea ceremony, and the philosophies behind it. The second part applies Max Scheler’s axiological ethics, particularly his notion of love as a movement towards the enhancement of the value inherent in the beloved to the love of Nature expressed in the tea ceremony. An environmental ethics from Teaism would then mean developing a habit of harmonizing, revering, purifying and being joyful in poverty before the ephemeral, the ever-changing and self- forgetfulness of Nature, including our human nature.
83. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Patrice Canivez Éthique et environnement chez Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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This paper deals with the relationships between ethics and the environment in Rousseau’s thought. The concept of environment is understood in its various dimensions. What is at stake is the natural, as well as the social and political, environment of human beings. The notion of ethics is also understood in a broad sense. We do not set ethics, understood as the search for happiness (or for the good life) against morality, understood as the fulfillment of duty. However, we take up two main questions. The first question concerns the influence of the environment, both natural and social, upon the ethical development of human beings. The second question concerns the responsibility of human beings towards nature. We examine what Rousseau teaches us regarding these two questions. Finally, we envisage liberty from the point of view of the relationships between nature and the political order. Human liberty is a matter of rights. It depends upon the republican nature of the state. However, liberty is also a sentiment that is intimately related to the living experience of nature. In order to understand what Rousseau means by liberty, we must grasp this intimate relationship between nature and politics.
84. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Richard Kearney Between Flesh and Text: Ricoeur's Carnal Hermeneutics
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This essay explores how Paul Ricoeur analyses the body as both flesh and text. Beginning with a phenomenology of embodiment and life in his early philosophy of the will, after his hermeneutic turn in the 1960s he concentrated more on the mediation of flesh through textual interpretation and language. This led Ricoeur beyond Husserl and Levinas and closer to the work of Merleau-Ponty. His later writing opens horizons for rethinking the ‘flesh of the world’ in new ontological and ethical ways.
85. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Jean-Luc Amalric L 'articulation de l'éthique et du politique dans l'horizon d'une philosophie de l'acte (2e partie)
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The aim of this paper is to show the anthropological resources of Ricceur’s philosophy of the act, in order to elaborate a living articulation of ethics and politics that avoids the deadlock which represents the idea of a complete divorce between moral idealism and political realism. In this second part, it defends the thesis that the reconquest of an “ethical-political teleology” is only possible to the extent that, in Ricceur, the reappropriation of the “ethical originary affirmation” takes a radically critical form. Then it tries to show how this critical approach is likely to lead to a release of the mediating power of social imaginary, which always complements and precedes our acts.
86. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Pierre-Antoine Chardel Quand la communication perd la parole: Lecture d ’Emmanuel Lévinas
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If Emmanuel Lévinas does not develop a criticism of audiovisual technologies, sometimes even granting them hermeneutical virtues, he remains mindful of the risks incurred by societies that are increasingly determined by these technologies. In this article we want to underline the fact that, for Lévinas, considerable distraction can be generated by information technology, which risks neutralizing the experience of living speech. Compared to these risks, a certain ethical urgency must serve as a reminder that, if the responsibility is not just a figure of speech, it demands we question the way in which we understand images in our societies that may be fully configured by the flow of information, and the way we understand how the other is revealed to us through screens.
87. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Peter Kemp, Noriko Hashimoto Preface
88. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Tilman Borsche (Wie) lässt sich ethische Verantwortung für die natürliche Umwelt begründen?
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Nature doesn’t need our care, the environment does. “Our” environment is a relational term implying surroundings that are inhabitable, allowing us not only to survive but to live good lives. For ages our “natural” environment was understood as that part of our environment that was given by nature and, therefore, not accessible to human actions as are our cultural and social environments. We had to accept it and adapt to it. Nowadays we are faced with the fact that more and more parts of our natural environment can be and are altered or prevented from altering by human manipulations. So ethical responsibility is extending beyond the traditional fields of social and cultural environmental conditions. We will have to find answers to the new question of what kind of nature we want to preserve, to cultivate, and to build, and for whom and to whom we are responsible.
89. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Peter Kemp, Noriko Hashimoto Editorial
90. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
The Authors / Les Auteurs
91. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Robert Bernasconi Lost without Words: The Justice That Surpasses Blind Justice
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Emmanuel Levinas can be read as challenging the legal principle that everybody must be treated in the same way without fear of favor, no matter who they are or what status they hold. He did so by highlighting the private suffering that goes unnoticed if justice is blind, as is suggested by the image of Iustitia wearing a blindfold. What this unspeakable suffering means for justice is explored through a reading of Jean Améry’s At the Mind's Limit and Jill Stauffer’s Ethical Loneliness: The Injustice of Not Being Heard.
92. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Sang-Hwan Kim Confucian Golden Mean as Justice
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The Confucian concept of Jhongyong corresponds to the Western idea of metaphysical justice, and encompasses similar ideals to the Aristotelian golden mean. Herein is an approach to this Confucian concept from the perspective of comparative philosophy, its aim being triple: to expound on the central or representative position that the concept of Jhongyong takes in Confucian philosophy, to analyze various semantic spectrums of this Confucian concept, and to clarify the complex relationship it has with other Confucian ideas and principles.
93. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Abstracts / Résumés
94. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Peter Kemp Justice dans un monde de violence.: Sur la gouvernance mondiale selon la rose des vents
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The question is: how shall we conceive the idea of justice in the world of violence of our time? It takes up the old symbol of justice: the scales that symbolise an equilibrium between different ambitions. The author traces this idea in Western philosophy since Plato and Aristotle through Kant to Rawls, Ricoeur and Delmas-Marty for whom it becomes the symbol of global justice. By using the wind rose as another symbol, Delmas-Marty expresses the ethical necessity of a global justice between the philosophical, legal, social and political ambitions that blow across our whole world. All these winds have their rights in globalization, but none of them have the right to dominate the others.
95. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Tilman Borsche Aequitas — Abbild der unendlichen Gerechtigkeit im Recht
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Enquiring the sources and the legitimacy of Derrida’s statement “Law {droit) is not justice” from his essay “Force of Law: The ‘Mystical Foundation of Authority’ ” (1990), the paper analyses the three notions of “justice”, “equity” and “concordantia” (in Cusanus). Part I explains historically how the difference between the limited and changing human laws and the eternal justice of God was gradually being perceived and acknowledged in Antiquity. Part II illustrates how the virtue of equity was called upon to compensate for the insufficiencies and contradictions of human laws, mainly by Aristotle. Part III explores the conditions how and argues for the possibility that the notion of “concordantia” as developed by Nicolaus Cusanus for the Council of Basle could work as a mediating principle of legislation among conflicting interests and thus provide for temporary justice by means of an equitable procedure of legislation.
96. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Manuel B. Dy, Jr. Social Justice in Sun Yat-Sen ’s The Three Principles of the People
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The intent of this paper is to derive an understanding of social justice from Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s San Min Chu I, The Three Principles of the People. Sun Yat- sen, the founder of modem China, gave a series of lectures in 1924, setting the goals of the revolution against the Qin dynasty and the foundation of a modem China. The word “justice” is mentioned only once in the lectures and it is paired with “faithfulness,” or trust referring to the ancient moral character or virtue. And yet underlying the whole programme is a notion of justice that is not interpersonal but social. The first part of the paper gives a summary of the meaning of the three principles: nationalism, democracy and people’s livelihood. The second part attempts to draw the meaning of social justice from the three principles, hopefully showing the relevance of Sun Yat-sen’s ideas to our time.
97. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Zeynep Direk Ricœur, Personalism and Personal Justice
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This essay explores the personalism underlying the ethical dimension of Ricceur’s discussion of the institutional justice. According to Ricoeur, “public justice” refers to civil society’s critical response to the judicial acts of justice, with reference to ethical values as negotiating or mediating between the principles of justice and concrete practices, i.e., how things are done in the world, the existing state of affairs. Public justice can force institutional justice to function when it is not functioning well because of political interference and manipulation. In case the public justice is obstructed, for instance in a totalitarian regime, which intimidates the public debate, all we are left with is “personal justice,” a virtue in the Aristotelian sense that exceeds justice in the institutional sense. If institutional justice collapses and public discussion is silenced, personal justice is the only remaining relation to the third, which is irreducible to friendship.
98. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Noriko Hashimoto The Lack of a Concept of Justice in Japan: How to Recognize the Balance Between Opposite Views
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In the case of Japan, we accepted the Chinese philosophy of morality when we received the Chinese character Yi: it means responsibility to Heaven (vertical) and, at the same time, responsibility to community (horizontal). An act having this structure might be our responsibility as human beings: yi means “justice”, keeping balance between Heaven and Earth. The Japanese people had such a balance until the Edo era. In 1868, when the Meiji Restoration occurred, the Japanese government tried to accept Western ideas. Cyoumin Nakae introduced the Western philosophy of law and the constitutional system. He translated Rousseau’s The Social Contract into Japanese and gave a series of lectures on the social contract. The fundament of his thought is concentrated in the “rights of Liberty”. He emphasized transcendental liberty beyond personal, phenomenal liberty and found the same structure in Mencius. His idea of ft suggests the way of justice. Unfortunately, this idea was crushed with the death of his talented disciple in prison. After the book of Bushido, ft was only translated as “duty” for the community (horizontal), and we lost the vertical perspective: transcendental liberty.
99. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Jayne Svenungsson Justice in the Prophetic Tradition
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This paper explores the idea of justice in the prophetic strand of the Jewish and Christian traditions. First, a brief description is given of the context in which the prophetic idea of justice first evolves. Second, focussing on the historical and prophetic literature Hebrew Bible, an analysis of the defining characteristics of this idea of justice is undertaken. Third and finally, the relevance of this prophetic tradition for our contemporary politico-philosophical debates on justice is discussed in relation to the discourse on law and justice initiated by Jacques Derrida in the 1990s and followed up by Giorgio Agamben during the last decades.
100. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Patrice Canivez J.-J. Rousseau et l ’idée de justice
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La question de la justice est partout présente dans l’oeuvre de Rousseau. S’il aborde tout d’abord la question du juste et de l’injuste en rapport avec la loi de nature, la justice n’est cependant pas seulement pour Rousseau un problème de droit. S’interroger sur la justice, c’est poser la question de l’homme et de son rapport au monde. Pour autant, l’idée rousseauiste de justice ne se déduit pas d’une philosophie « compréhensive » du monde et des affaires humaines. La théorie rousseauiste de la justice est en elle-même une théorie compréhensive. C’est une philosophie des rapports humains et de la manière dont ils s’inscrivent dans Tordre du monde. Ce chapitre s’efforce de rendre compte des différentes dimensions de cette théorie. Il commence par montrer comment Rousseau traite de la justice dans le cadre du droit naturel. Puis, il traite successivement du principe intersubjectif de la justice et de la justice comme principe d’un ordre « objectif » du monde, de la société et de l’État.