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81. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Annmarie Adams, Shelley Hornstein Can Architecture Remember? Demolition after Violence
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Th is paper uncovers how demolition has served as a collective way of forgetting violent pasts. It explores several examples in Canada, including the 1992 demolition of the notorious Mount Cashel Orphanage in St. John’s, Newfoundland, a building we claim was purposefully razed to the ground in order to forget egregious crimes of sexual abuse that had taken place on the site. We contend that as with other sites associated with difficult memories, this was a valiant effort to forget by removing all traces of the setting. We note that even when buildings are not demolished following violent events, echoes of their architectural forms are often recast in the forms of memorials, both real and virtual.
82. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Katrina Simon Re-casting the Past: Re-instating Once Broken and Tuneless Bells and the Recalling of Past Urban Landscapes
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Th is paper explores the perception of urban landscapes through sound, using two case studies of cities where bells played a significant role in the city, where a particular dramatic event silenced these bells, and where the act of remaking broken or tuneless bells re-creates an engagement with the lived places of the past. At Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, newly cast bells recreate the melodious peal last heard before the French Revolution, and ChristChurch Cathedral in Christchurch, New Zealand, bells damaged by destructive earthquakes of 2011 will eventually ring out their familiar tones in an urban landscape that is physically almost unrecognisable. Both case studies demonstrate the ways that the inadvertent and the deliberate transformation of soundscapes continually interactswith ideas of place and meaning within the constantly changing city.
83. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Matthew G. McKay Reflecting on Access to Common Property Coastal Resources via a Case Study along Connecticut’s Shoreline
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Public access to the commons is often restricted, thus leading to implicit regulations (in addition to explicit barriers that exclude who can and who cannot utilize the commons). This is relevant toward spatial systems, as an important geographical issue is access to various sites over space (Heatwole and West 1980), and this paper presents varying degrees of accessibility in different places (i.e., municipal and state jurisdictions in the United States, with a particular emphasis on Connecticut’s coastline). There is a dialectic struggle to enhance access to the commons as a fundamental right of the public, with the need to balance tourism and recreational uses of coastal resources with conservation and preservation eff orts. This paper will aid policy makers and those concerned with beach access in Connecticut (and beyond) better understand the nature and complexity of how citizens and officials within coastal municipalities have come to perceive, in a collective sense, their beaches/ municipal parks as common property resources to be utilized for recreational purposes while balancing environmental conservation efforts simultaneously. Various legal frameworks, as well as federal and state efforts in coastal zones in key states (including Connecticut), in addition to historically recent court cases in Connecticut resulting in legal enhancements toward increasing public access to nonresidents of specific municipalities, have shaped who can and who cannot access the commons.
84. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Natasha Lushetich Private Reconstructions of Past Collective Experiences: Technologies of Remembering-Forgetting
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This article queries the notion of performance as a sustained act of commemoration, and, thus, implicitly, atonement and forgetting. Laying aside potentialconsiderations of guilt and/or victimisation inherent in the spatio-temporal superimposition of a World War II modality of existence on an affluent, and, by comparison, peaceful part of the world, my investigation focuses on three mutually related areas of performance: the body’s hidden somaticity, the co-becoming of the self and time; and walking as a mnemonic mechanism. Aided by the Japanese philosophers’ Shigenori Nagatomo’s concept of the hidden body and Kitaro Nishida’s theorisation of the relationship between the temporalised and the atemporal, the actual and the virtual, the spatial and the non-spatial as the continuity of discontinuity, I argue against the idea of performance as a cumulative, sedimentary and implicitly restorative poiesispraxis. Instead, I seek to articulate the ways in which the actional, interoceptive and psychogeographic schemes generated by eating and walking intertwine to create complex patterns of individual-collectiveremembering-forgetting.
85. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Karl Benediktsson, Edda R.H. Waage Taskscapes at Sea: Trawler Fishing and the Experience of Fluid Nature
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Recent interest by scholars in the ocean and its complex geographies has not been directed much towards the everyday life of those on board fishing vessels and how they sense the nature around them. A large trawler for oceanic fishing is a highly efficient industrial production machine, carrying an array of equipment that mediates the connection between crew and nature. This article presents results from an experimental research project, where one of the authors joined a fishing trip on an Icelandic factory trawler. The resulting rich set of ethnographic material reveals much about the particularities of being at sea. It is argued that the ship can be understood as a series of distinct taskscapes, each of which affords certain relations between human and non-human nature.
86. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
M Jackson Representing Glaciers in Icelandic Art: A Spatial Shift
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Glaciers in Iceland are disappearing, and this article investigates how such glacier change might be transmitted into Icelandic culture, specifically, in art oriented around Icelandic glaciers. Utilizing cultural climatology as an approach, this article analyzes changes in spatial properties of glaciers as represented in older and newer artworks. Three central spatial characteristics of glaciers emerge and provide insights into how glacier loss can be represented and understood: 1) the compression of traditional distance; 2) the use of multiple perspectives; and 3) the structural representation of the glacier body. Analysis suggests a re-positioning of glaciers in the cultural imaginary and the fluctuating nature of how individuals and societies understand themselves and their place within the glaciated landscapes.
87. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
C. Patrick Heidkamp On Nordic Place-making: Introduction to the Themed Issue on Nordic Environments, Nordic Places, Nordic Spaces
88. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Jordan P. Howell, Todd Sundberg Towards an Affective Geopolitics: Soft Power and the Danish Notion of “Hygge”
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Affective geographies examine the emotional dimensions of space and spatial relationships; (critical) geopolitics seeks to understand the role of space and geography in international relations. In this paper, we consider a hybridization of these concepts in the context of the Nordic countries, and in particular Denmark. Nordic countries have shifted attention to the wielding of “soft power” as a tool in seeking to achieve international relations and economic goals. We argue that in the case of Denmark, these soft power tools bear an interesting affective dimension through an emphasis on “hygge,” or, “coziness.” Through media analysis, we illuminate the components of soft power in the Danish case and highlight the role of affect as a key element of these soft power tools.
89. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Jennifer Grace Smith, Catherine Patricia Chambers Where Are All The Fish?: Local Fish Networks in the Westfjords of Iceland
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We used a paper-based survey to explore dynamics of Local Food Networks (LFNs) for fish in the Icelandic Westfjords. Preference for local fish remains high, and fish consumption is largely embedded within a gift network, rather than typical commercial channels off ering costly, frozen, and non-local products. Individuals lacking personal connections to the fishing industry obtain fish from these commercial networks. LFNs for fish in rural Icelandic communities are therefore expressions of power dimensions that are symptomatic of the larger inequalities built into the fisheries management system, designed for globalized food networks. The disconnect between large-scale production mechanisms and local consumption patterns highlights the lack of responsiveness of the fishing industry to local Icelandic consumers and demonstrates the impacts national political structures can have on LFNs.
90. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Victor Counted Making Sense of Place Attachment: Towards a Holistic Understanding of People-Place Relationships and Experiences
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The article is an attempt to make sense of the different interdisciplinary perspectives associated with people’s attachment to places with a view to construct a holistic template for understanding people-place relationships and experiences. The author took note of the theoretical contributions of Jorgensen & Stedman (2001), Scannell & Gifford (2010), and Seamon (2012, 2014) to construct an integrative framework for understanding emotional links to places and people’s perception and experience of places. This was done with the intention of illuminating the meaning of place and the different “places” people get attached to. The paper concludes by incorporating different place frameworks with the intention of establishing a holistic model for understanding the various attributes and perceptions of people-place relationships and experiences.
91. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Winnie L. M. Yee Fashion, Affect, and Poetry in a Global City
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Everyday life is a central theme of Hong Kong poetry. Many Hong Kong poets use the quotidian as a starting point for the exploration of history and alternative imaginings. This mundane focus, unlike the colonial dreamscape of Hong Kong as an economic miracle, allows writers to reflect upon Hong Kong as a post-colonial and global space. The Hong Kong writer Natalia Chan examines the complex nature of everyday life within the space of the global and post-colonial city. Chan’s poems deal with the essence of everydayness and use commodities to conjure up the vivacity of the urbanscape of Hong Kong. Unlike the political and economic discourse that is usually used to define Hong Kong, Chan’s work portrays Hong Kong as a city that offers the possibility of daily re-creation against the background of history. In this article, we will examine Chan’s use of the circulation of commodities in the global world and explore the way fashion becomes a point where high and popular culture, private and public domains, and local and global interests clash, negotiate, and fertilize each other. Chan’s works do not conform to the economic and prosperity discourse that has repressed Hong Kong; rather, she guides her readers to re-experience the everydayness of routines, to celebrate alternate ways of understanding the urbanscape, and to open themselves to the potentialities of art and the everyday.
92. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Jeffrey B. Webb Watershed Redesign in the Upper Wabash River Drainage Area, 1870-1970
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The Huntington, Salamonie, and Mississinewa reservoirs in northern Indiana control seasonal flooding in the Upper Wabash River drainage area. They appeared in the 1960s after a long period of study and planning in response to large-scale flooding in central and southern Indiana in the first half of the twentieth century. Their construction disrupted the pattern of human ecology along the Wabash and its tributaries for many of the watershed’s inhabitants. Supporters touted the projects’ economic and recreational benefits, while opponents experienced the change as a desecration of sacred space. The projects saved millions in property damage and perhaps many human lives, but at the cost of an enduring sense of place amid the advent of a new regime of scientific watershed management and state control over natural resources in the region.
93. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Emmanuel Yewah African Documentaries, Films, Texts, and Environmental Issues
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This study draws from theoretical environmental debates as well as a selection of films, documentaries, and texts to discuss Africans’ approaches to environmental and ecological problems. Furthermore, it highlights the various strategies that Africans have developed in their attempts to provide holistic and much more comprehensive responses to environmental challenges. Informed by African indigenous knowledge, those strategies do involve community-based micro-level initiatives, grassroots organizations, ancestral spirits, and use local languages or lingua franca to educate as well as prod the people’s consciousness about environmental and ecological issues.
94. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Roger Paden Landscapes and Evolutionary Aesthetics
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This essay examines the possibility of developing a more complete evolutionary aesthetics that can be used to appraise both natural landscapes and works of landscape architects. For the purpose of this essay, an “evolutionary aesthetics” is an aesthetic theory that is closely connected to Darwin’s theory of evolution. Two types of Darwinian evolutionary aesthetics seem possible; a theory of evolved tastes, such as that developed by Dennis Dutton, and an aesthetics of evolving nature based on Carlson’s positive aesthetics. After, exploring both theories, I argue that, while the two positions approach aesthetics from different directions, they support similar aesthetic judgments concerning landscapes, and this suggests that the two positions might be incorporated into a broader theory of evolutionary aesthetics. That theory is briefly outlined and applied to both natural landscapes and parks.
95. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Stephen B. Hatton Elemental Earth: Heidegger, Trakl, and German Poets: “Something Strange is the Soul on Earth”
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Philosopher Martin Heidegger and German poets who evoke nature offer excellent introductions to elemental earth. Those poets privilege earth among the elements using their earthy language. Heidegger views earth as the hidden ground of things. The article approaches elemental earth through Heidegger’s analysis of what he views as Georg Trakl’s crucial line of poetry about earth: “something strange is the soul on earth.” Heidegger stresses the soul as the stranger. In contrast, this article argues that on the basis of a contextual analysis of Trakl’s poetry and some other German poetry, it is the earth that is strange. Forgotten earth is the background out of which and the foundation upon which things manifest themselves. Elemental earth makes possible human experience of space and place.
96. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Richard Smith Multicultural Commemoration and West Indian Military Service in the First World War
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West Indian military service in the First World War is recalled in many settings. During the war, race and class boundaries of colonial society were temporarily eroded by visions of imperial unity, but quickly restated through post-war assertions of imperial authority. However, recollections of wartime sacrifices were kept alive by Pan-African, ex-service and emerging nationalist groups before being incorporated into independent Caribbean national identity and migrant West Indian communities. During the centenary commemorations, West Indian participation has increasingly been mediated through literature, theatre and broadcasting. Spheres of conflict which provided more heroic visions, such as the Middle East or the Taranto mutiny, have acquired particular symbolic importance, contrasting with the more tragic representations of the war as a whole.
97. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Anna Menyhért The Image of the “Maimed Hungary” in 20th-Century Cultural Memory and the 21st Century Consequences of an Unresolved Collective Trauma: The Impact of the Treaty of Trianon
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The visual images, textual expressions, and rhetorical figures related to the image of the wounded, mutilated, and maimed country have become the cultural legacy of the Treaty of Trianon in Hungary, shaping collective identity. These representations have been influential in cultural memory throughout the 20th century until today in preventing Hungarian society from processing the collective trauma of Trianon. This process is linked to the present through many threads, among them the “Day of National Unity”, commemorating the signing of the Treaty of Trianon, introduced by the Hungarian government in 2010. As the well-known images of wounds and violent rhetoric have become available in the new media, commemoration practices applied in schools may transmit the unresolved historical trauma yet again to younger generations.
98. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Robert Howes The Cultural Legacy of the First World War in Brazil: Roberto Simonsen and the Ideology of Development
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The article examines the impact of the First World War in Brazil through contemporary cartoons and press comment. It shows how the war disrupted trade and undermined the optimism of economic and political liberalism. The war dispelled the myth of the superiority of European civilisation, leading Brazilians to re-evaluate their own cultural heritage and their relationship with the outside world. The result was a critical nationalism concerned to identify the causes of Brazil’ problems and find new solutions to them. One solution, proposed by the industrialist Roberto Simonsen, was development based on industrialisation to combat underdevelopment. The article argues that the origins of this ideology lie not in the Great Depression of the 1930s but in the cultural legacy of the First World War.
99. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Ingo Heidbrink Claiming Sovereignty Where There can be no Sovereignty--Antarctica
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According to the regulations of the Antarctic Treaty System (signed 1959 and entered into force 1961) all claims for sovereignty over certain parts of Antarctica are indefinitely suspended. Since the treaty went into effect Antarctica has become a space where the traditional concept of national sovereignty does not apply any longer but has been replaced by an international governance scheme. Nevertheless it can be easily observed that some nations are preparing themselves to substantiate possible future claims for national spaces in Antarctica and are engaging in a wide range of activities to support such future claims. The article describes and analyzes these activities as an Antarctic ‘thumb war’ on national claims in Antarctica and showcases how nations are using certain activities that might be considered as of low importance to prepare and substantiate potential future claims in a post Antarctic Treaty regime. While this thumb war is mainly occurring in the Antarctic Peninsula Region, it is also going on in an area where there are overlapping suspended but not abandoned national claims and where space is limited, at least in Antarctic terms.The article analyses what is required to claim potential future national sovereignty in an area where there can be no such sovereignty according to international treaties and how nations are positioning themselves for such claims with activities that need to be understand as borderline in the context of the current system of international treaties.
100. History of Communism in Europe: Volume > 1
Caterina Preda Looking at the past through an artistic lens: art of memorialization
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During the communist regimes art was both a reflection of the political (politicized art), a critical reflection and partially at least a replacer of politics. At the moment of transition to democracy the watchwords seem to be: concord, consensus, forget the past, look to the future, build the future, and so on. Paradoxically enough, once the process of democratic consolidation is set in place, the societies – that seem/desire to have been created at the exact moment when the regimes change their names from dictatorship to democracy – begin to look to the past.Romanian post-communism has thus also seen slowly the desire to recuperate a lost past and it is only in the years 2000 that what I call “art of memorialization”is seen developing. The reclamation and reinterpretation of past symbols and the evocation of the previous period as a means of healing still present wounds is seen in different artistic supports and is somehow situated between legacy and nostalgia.The question I address is: What and how do we artistically remember? Are there patterns, symbols, common elements that appear in artistic discourses; how are these perceived by the public, what is their impact. Thus, I explore the question of artistic invocation of the past – as a means of construction of an artistic memory (art of memorialization). For that I shall address the discourses of Romanian visual artists (Vlad Nancă, Dumitru Gorzo, Dan Perjovschi) and the most important films part of what is called the “Romanian Nouvelle Vague” and which include: 12:08 East of Bucharest (Corneliu Porumboiu, 2006), The paper will be blue (Radu Muntean, 2006), How I spent the end of the world (Cătălin Mitulescu, 2006), Tales from the Golden Age (Cristian Mungiu, 2009). Although taken as a corpus, these films have quite different standing points on the communist period. I will also compare this recent new wave of Romanian cinema to the earlier look of Romanian cinema onto reality, the cinema of the early 1990s. Moreover I intend to take into account official attempts to artistically memorialize: public monuments, statues, public places and parks, museums and discuss the “why” of the absence of a Museum of communism in Romania.