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81. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Max Deutscher “Il n’y a pas de hors-texte”—Once More
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Spivak translates Derrida’s “il n’y a pas de hors-texte” as “there is nothing outside the text.” By considering how the aphorism works within his study of Rousseau on sexual and textual supplements, and by reviewing related expressions in French, a mistranslation is revealed. This is not a simple error, however. The distortion is generated by Derrida’s own broader context. We must not only distinguish signification from reference but also place the aphorism within Derrida's allusion, in the first part of Of Grammatology, to an all-embracing arche-writing. The paper ends in thus opening out the discussion of a textual “inside” or “outside.”
82. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Richard J. Colledge Rethinking Disagreement: Philosophical Incommensurability and Meta-Philosophy
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Set in the context of the current interest among Analytic philosophers in the “epistemology of disagreement,” this paper explores the meta-philosophical problem of philosophical incommensurability. Motivated by Nietzsche’s provocative remark about philosophy as prejudices and desires of the heart “sifted and made abstract,” the paper first outlines the contours of the problem and then traces it through a series of examples. Drawing largely on the tradition of phenomenology and philosophical hermeneutics, a broadly Continental response to this formidable problem is suggested. Disagreement cannot be understood simply in terms of epistemological strategy, but needs to be regarded in a fundamentally hermeneutical light.
83. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Riccardo Baldissone Poetics of Exclusion: Derrida and the Injunctions of Modernities
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In this paper I consider Derrida’s anathematization during the 1992 "Cambridge affair" in the light of the 1270 and 1277 condemnations of unorthodox philosophical theses by the bishop of Paris, Etienne Tempier, the inventor of double truth. In particular, I compare these two occurrences through a reading of modernities as a re-centring on the new orthodoxy of naturalistic ontology, which began to take place in the 17th century. After the Humean attack, Kant recast such a naïve naturalistic objectivity into a more defendable shape, by internalizing the supposed universal spatio-temporal structure of Newtonian physics as transcendental conditions of possibility. Though the Kantian ontological and theological legacy is still detectable in Derrida's quasi-concept of iterability, Derrida's theoretical contributions well exceed metaphysical discourse. More generally, I argue that during the last fifty years these contributions, together with contemporary reconsiderations of modernities, produced an emerging theoretical region. Within this region, the metaphysical chain of substitution of centre for centre is displaced, so that we can evaluate practices of exclusion without having to rely on alternative injunctions.
84. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Marc Champagne Just Do It: Schopenhauer and Peirce on the Immediacy of Agency
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In response to the claim that our sense of will is illusory, some philosophers have called for a better understanding of the phenomenology of agency. Although I am broadly sympathetic with the tenor of this response, I question whether the positive-theoretic blueprint it promotes truly heralds a tenable undertaking. Marshaling a Schopenhauerian insight, I examine the possibility that agency might not be amenable to phenomenological description. Framing this thesis in terms of Charles S. Peirce’s semiotic framework, I suggest a way to integrate the idea of streaming experiences with that of bodily strivings, which, owing to their primitive structure, can never be represented.
85. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Marguerite La Caze Introduction
86. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
W. Chris Hackett Method, Metaphysics, Metaphor (Being after Phenomenology)
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Method, metaphysics, metaphor: three words with a common prefix, which, for philosophy, bear an ancient pedigree. Classically, the last word, as an object of philosophical reflection, has mostly been excluded from bearing any philosophical significance; we will see how this can no longer be the case today, precisely for phenomenology. If the “method” of phenomenology is wholly determined by its goal, namely, "pure" description, and if description is paradoxically only actualized in a figurative mode through guiding metaphors, then we are compelled to ask after the meaning of such a situation for metaphysics, understood as the "redundance" or "affirmation" of existence in its declaration of itself as truth— precisely, I suggest, the work done by metaphor in its strange interlacing of being and human being in the event of language.
87. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Tyler Tritten The Trace as Tautegorical: An Account of the Face in Levinas
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This article explicates the notion of face, which Emmanuel Levinasunderstands as trace, in terms of the tautegorical. In opposition to the allegorical, the tautegorical is neither representational nor referential in the traditional sense. In contradistinction to the tautological, the tautegorical indicates an a-symmetrical and therefore not to be inverted identity between the so-called origin of the trace and the trace itself. Accordingly, a smile is happiness, but happiness—qua origin of the smile—is not reducible to the smile. Now, if the face of the Other is, as Levinas suggests, the trace of the wholly Other, i.e., God, then Derrida’s question arises as to whether God is but an effect of the trace. This essay argues in the negative. Traces condition their origins as after-effects without the origins becoming mere consequences of the posterior; this is the proper way of accounting for Levinas’s notion of the “posteriority of the anterior.”
88. Symposium: Volume > 18 > Issue: 2
Joseph Keeping The Time Is Out of Joint: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology of Grief
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In this paper, I embark upon a hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of the emotion of grief, based upon three experiences of grief I witnessed over the preceding year. I find that grief is best construed not as an emotion akin to sadness or anger, but as an affective-behavioural complex resulting from a discord between the world that we affectively inhabit and the world in which we currently find ourselves. I therefore conceive the process of getting over grief, or grieving, as an active process of readjusting our affective and behavioural habits on both a thematic and a pre-thematic level.
89. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
John Vanderheide A Standstill in Desire: Schelling, Nietzsche, Deleuze and the Idea of Eternal Recurrence
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This essay explores the ways in which the idiosyncratic onto-theogony of Friedrich Schelling's 1815 version of The Ages of the World anticipates Gilles Deleuze’s equally idiosyncratic interpretation of Friedrich Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternal recurrence. As I argue, Schelling’s work presents a sophisticated theory of being and time, a complex account of the genesis of actuality from within a differentiated transcendental field, and a reworking of the doctrine of Ideas, all of which together project a conception of reality as eternal recurrence strikingly similar to the one Deleuze draws out of Nietzsche’s scant and elliptical writings on the subject.
90. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Tilottama Rajan, Sean J. McGrath Introduction: Schelling After Theory
91. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Tyler Tritten After Contingency: Toward the Principle of Sufficient Reason as Post Factum
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This essay argues for the contingency of necessity. The thesis is that contingency constitutes the possibility of necessity, which is always subsequent to contingency, only contingent necessity, a mere modality of contingent being. This study posits the contingency of necessity through a reading of Quentin Meillassoux and the late lectures of F. W. J. Schelling. While Meillassoux argues for the necessity of contingency, Schelling seeks to uncover the contingency at the heart of what is necessary. Although the principle of sufficient reason provides the necessary conditions for something and reason itself derives necessary truths, the fact that there is reason rather than unreason is but the contingency of a fact.
92. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Jared McGeough Schelling "After" Bakunin: Idealism, Anarchism, Post-Anarchism
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This essay reexamines aspects of F. W. J. Schelling’s philosophy in the context of the recent resurgence of academic interest in anarchist theory, with emphasis on how Schelling’s thought relates to founding anarchist thinker Mikhail Bakunin. Through an examination of aspects of Schelling’s ontology and his critique of Hegel, I discuss how Bakunin’s objections to Schelling can be tempered, all while providing the framework for a “philosophy of existence” which informs Bakunin’s own departure from a Hegelian “philosophy of essence.” I then propose how Schelling’s ontology might go beyond Bakunin to speak to the non-foundationalist aspects of anarchist thinking today.
93. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Sean J. McGrath Schelling and the History of the Dissociative Self
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This paper explores the possible therapeutical applications of Schellingian psychological principles. A Schellingian analysis would enable us to retrieve the largely forgotten heritage of Romantic psychiatry, in particular the dissociationist model of the psyche, which was strategically rejected by Freud and somewhat clumsily revised by Jung, but which has its own intelligibility and applicability. Schellingian analysis would be dissociationist rather than repressivist, and would depart from Freud and Jung in being both a metaphysical and a moral therapy. But the open-ended eschatological nature of the model of the psyche employed would prevent the therapy from dogmatizing or moralizing the inner life of the analysand.
94. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Gord Barentsen Silent Partnerships: Schelling, Jung, and the Romantic Metasubject
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Despite Carl Jung’s stated debts to Kant, Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, this paper articulates a more profound yet silent intellectual partnership between Schelling’s philosophy and analytical psychology. Schelling’s metaphysics navigate the aporias Jung often encounters in his psychology; Jung provides Schelling’s metaphysics with a therapeutics and mode of being in the world. This paper reads the actants’ dynamism in Schelling’s First Outline and the potencies' work of yearning in the 1815 Ages of the World forward to Jungian metapsychology, which thinks Schelling within a topography of the non-Freudian productive psyche. I end by developing the Romantic metasubject as the non-Freudian subject emerging from this ideational countertransference.
95. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Joseph Carew Reading Schelling Psychoanalytically: Žižek on the Ground of Consciousness and Language
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What are the origins of consciousness and language? Why are so many driven to see them as epiphenomenal to a metaphysically more primordial phenomenon when we have good reasons to think they are irreducible to such? Drawing on the work of the Slovenian psychoanalyst Slavoj Žižek, and in particular his reading of the German philosopher F.W.J. Schelling, I suggest a provactive but nuanced thesis: that at the basis of human subjectivity there is norhyme or reason for its emergence and to protect ourselves from this insight we build various fantasy-constructions of its ground as defensive mechanisms.
96. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Bruce Matthews Schelling in the Anthropocene: a New Mythology of Nature
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I explore how the "synthesis of history and nature" that defines the Anthropocene might signal the advent of the “new mythology” Schelling hoped would emerge from his Naturphilosophie. The epistemological dimension of this new mythology is to be understood through Schelling’s idea of Mitwissenschaft, in which humanity is the essential active agent in the reflexive system of the world. Such an inquiry derives not from a sentimental longing for an enchanted world, but from the impending “annihilation of nature” Schelling foresaw in 1804. The resulting organic episteme introduces a new realism in which nature, because absolute, becomes normative.
97. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Daniel Whistler The New Literalism: Reading After Grant’s Schelling
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In the wake of post-hermeneutic refusals of interpretation in recent continental philosophy, this essay returns to Schelling as a means of understanding what such a renewed reading practice of philosophical fundamentalism might look like. I argue that recent impetus for a Schellingian conception of literalism can be found in Grant’s attack on the metaphorizing tendencies of previous Schelling scholarship, and the ground for such literalism is to be located in the concept of tautegory that Schelling proposes in the Lectures on the Philosophy of Mythology. Schelling is a philosopher of form, and the form of the word remains as inviolable as any other natural form.
98. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Iain Hamilton Grant Everything is Primal Germ or Nothing Is: The Deep Field Logic of Nature
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In Schelling’s “On the Relation between the Real and the Ideal in Nature" (1806), not only does the titular copula bond real and ideal, but it is itself bonded in and by nature. If the copula doesn't merely bond nature and judgment, but bonds the latter to the former as an instance of the nature from which is derives, what relation does the essay's search for nature's primals bear to the universalism of logical law? What, moreover, is the relation of the copula to its environing nature? I here aim to explore the claim that, for Schelling, something is logically exhibited when the nature in the judgment differs for that reason from the nature in which it is itself contained or conceived.
99. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Gabriel Trop The Aesthetics of Schelling’s Naturphilosophie
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This paper investigates the implicit aesthetics of Schelling’s early Naturphilosophie. Within the framework of Naturphilosophie, Schelling naturalizes the categories of the beautiful and the sublime, making not only the purposiveness of the beautiful, but also the disorder and perturbation of the sublime into part of the internal dynamic of nature. A disequilibrium between the transcendental forces of attraction and repulsion conditions all systems of differentiation, thus giving rise to an aesthetics of production inherent within nature that moves throughout the order and disorder of signs, things, and conscious states.
100. Symposium: Volume > 19 > Issue: 1
Tilottama Rajan Evolution and its Resistances: Transferences between Disciplines in Schelling’s and Hegel’s Systems
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According to Novalis the "encyclopedization" of a field occurs when it is not just fitted into a larger architectonic of knowledge, but also reconfigures this whole. This paper begins with Hegel's encyclopedic ambitions and Schellin's parallel—if less systematic—project in his 1803/4 lectures on the method of academic study. It takes up Schelling's First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature (1799), so as to look at the encyclopedic effects of the life sciences on a philosophy that has inevitably become interdisciplinary by trying to organize or at least interrelate all knowledge that matters in an “encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences”: an interdisciplinarity that makes Idealism a first version of "Theory." More specifically, it focuses on the concept of "evolution" in Schelling's First Outline: a word that did not have its current, Darwinian meaning, and that therefore allows us to think about more than one model of development, and more than one developmental paradigm for knowledge. In this text Schelling experiments with a model in which Nature evolves from the lower to the higher through a series of graduated stages (Stufenfolge), but he also explores a number of resistances to it. Given that the Stufenfolge provides the prototype for the evolutionary histories that both Schelling and Hegel project in other domains (history, art, mythology etc.), I conclude by taking up the consequences of these resistances for one such area: namely aesthetics as discussed by Hegel.