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81. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Knut J. Ims, Gunnar Pettersen, Judith White Business Students’ Conceptualizations of Responsibilities: An Analysis of Results From an Empirical Investigation
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This paper describes how business students in Norway conceptualize responsibility and select objects of responsibilities. The empirical results presented are based upon comparisons between answers by 126 business students from two different schools and 33 participants attending a senior citizen college. The preliminary findings indicate that there are interesting
82. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Sara A. Morris Patterns of Corporate Philanthropy in Company-Sponsored Foundations
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This study used The Foundation 1000 reference book for 1997-1998 in order to examine corporate philanthropy. The purpose was to identify patterns of foundation giving that might generalize to overall corporate giving (i.e., corporate direct giving as well as giving via foundations). Whereas foundations seem to follow norms about the types of activities supported and the proportion of foundation dollars that should be allocated to certain activities, there was considerable variation across industries in foundation expenditures aimed at customers.
83. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
David H. Saiia, Archie B. Carroll, Ann K.. Buchholtz Corporate Philanthropy: A Survey and Analysis of Giving Patterns, Trends and Strategic Implications
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This paper presents the findings of a national survey of corporate philanthropy conducted in 1998-1999 in the United States. The findings indicate that U.S. corporations practice philanthropy across a continuum of orientations and practices that are overall strategic in nature. The corporate giving managers are becoming more professional as giving practice becomes more strategic.
84. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Michael Powell In What Kind of a Society do We Want Business to be Responsible?
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After presenting a local architectural environment as a metaphor, the concept of agencies in and for society is developed in relation to design, business and church. A society which sees behind its own facades and listens to the voices of agencies within itself in which agencies think and live before one another, is one to be worked towards.
85. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Linda M. Sama A Conceptual Model of the Determinants of Corporate Social Response Strategies: Why Do Firms Differ?
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This paper examines the sources of variation among firms’ strategies of social responsiveness. It presents a categorization scheme of four social responses adapted from the literature and suggests how both strategic slack and corporate governance combine to differentiate firms’ social response strategies. The paper establishes a theoretical basis for arguing that market conditions provide the context for management decision-making and thereby constrain the band of strategic choices that management has available to it. Within market-prescribed limits, differentiable responses to social issues are attributed to the social orientation of the governance structure monitoring firm performance.
86. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Paula Silva, Virginia W. Gerde, Henry L. Tosi The Board of Directors and the Stewardship Principle: An Empirical Study of Directors’ Concerns
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Using an empirical study, we examine board composition, institutional ownership, and criteria used in CEO performance evaluation in an attempt to fill the gap in corporate governance literature on the stewardship role of outside directors and the use of qualitative criteria in performance assessment. The role of the board in terms of stakeholder management and the stewardship principle is discussed.
87. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
William P. Smith Understanding Social Investing: Applying the Lessons from the Corporate Social Performance/Financial Performance Literature
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The considerable work in corporate social performance has borrowed and lent ideas from the long-standing practice of social investing. A sample of notable theoretical and empirical work from the CSP literature is reviewed and the interplay with social investing concepts is reviewed. Among the proposals; it may be time for social ratings to follow the more integrated systems suggested in the many theories, and the potential value of including "advocacy" forms of investing in CSP assessments.
88. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Magali Delmas Green Strategic Networks: A Dynamic Capability and Transaction Cost Approach
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Based on transaction cost economics and the dynamic capability approach, this paper proposes a theoretical perspective on Green Strategic Networks. Green Strategic Networks involve several types of partners (suppliers, competitors, regulators, green associations, and research institutions) with the objective of developing environmental technologies. Finns seem still reluctant to engage in Green Strategic Networks fearing exposure of their strategic assets to third parties that may involve high transaction costs resulting from opportunistic and antagonistic behavior. This paper shows the advantages of such networks to develop sustainable and innovative organizations. It demonstrates how trust building could decrease transaction costs according to the type of resources and capabilities allocated to the network as well as the type of governance structure at stake.
89. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Sandra A. Waddock, Samuel B. Graves Assessing the Link Between Corporate Governance and Social/Financial Performance
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Well-governed companies should generate not only stronger financial performance than poorly governed ones, but also better overall corporate social performance (CSP), as well as treatment of their primary stakeholders. Using Business Week's "best and worst" governed companies for 1996 and 1997 we find significant and positive associations between governance quality and overall CSP. In addition, we find significant and positive association for community relations for the year 1997, and employee relations and diversity management for both years. Strongly positive relationships are also found for financial measures including return on equity, return on assets, and return on sales. The market measure, ten-year total relative return to shareholders, is also strongly positively associated with quality of governance. Overall, not only do better-governed companies perform better with respect to several important stakeholders, but they also outperform less well governed companies financially and therefore can.be assumed to be "treating" their owners better as well.
90. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Frances E. Bowen Does Organisational Slack Stimulate the Implementation of Environmental Initiatives?
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Recent research into environmental protection has begun to hint at organisational slack as an initiator and facilitator of the implementation of environmental initiatives. However, theoretical arguments can be posed to suggest that slack may or may not stimulate environmental initiatives. This paper explores these theoretical arguments, and provides an empirical test of the relationships between organisational slack and various types of environmental initiative. The paper concludes that organisational slack facilitates clean technology, and environmental initiatives based at the site or local level. Organisational slack does not stimulate waste reduction efforts or other initiatives undertaken as part of a proactive corporate environmental strategy.