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61. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анна Лактіонова Anna Laktionova
Квайн, Ґудмен, Патнем: Гарвардська філософська школа
Quine, Goodman, Putnam: the Harvard Philosophical School

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This article offers formal and doctrinal reasons that prove the existence of the "Harvard Philosophical School" as a real historico-philosophical phenomenon. The author includes Willard Van Orman Quine, Nelson Goodman, and Hilary Putnam in this school. The aim of this article is to compare the conceptualism, relativism and anti-realism of Quine, Goodman and Pantem, on the basis of (neo)pragmatic tendencies in their philosophical studies. All these philosophers were professors at Harvard University; in addition, Quine was a teacher of Goodman and Putnam, Goodman was a teacher of Putnam. Quine, Goodman, and Putnam, each in his own specific pragmatic way, stood on the positions of relativism, anti-realism, conceptualism, and tried to separate themselves from “cultural relativism”. Common touchstone concepts and tendencies in particular in their philosophical investigations are: conceptual scheme, indeterminacy of translation, internal criteria, ontological relativity and others. The obvious analogy between Quine's standards of similarity, Goodman's standards of correctness, and standards for Putnam's conceptual schemes. The role played in their doctrines by the ideas of William James, who also taught at Harvard, at least hypothetically allows us to expand the boundaries of this school.
62. Sententiae: Volume > 41 > Issue: 1
Анастасія Стрелкова Anastasia Strelkova
Поняття «страждання» в буддизмі: онтологічна проблематика
The Concept of «suffering» in Buddhism: Ontological Problematics

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In this paper the philosophical problematics of the ontological dimension of suffering in the Buddhist philosophy is raised. Many modern scholars are inclined to think that a more adequate translation for the Sanskrit term duḥkha is “unsatisfactoriness”. However, from the material presented in the article it follows that this rendering does not underlie the sense of the notion of duḥkha when it is examined in the ontological plane, and thus the traditional translation “suffering” in this sense remains more adequate. It is also shown that the etymology of the Sanskrit term duḥkha as a «improperly installed» axle of the wheel of a cart has strong connotations with the metaphor of the wheel and the symbol of swastika in the Buddhist cultural tradition (wheel of being, three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma etc.). In this paper the main causes of suffering (self, body, ignorance, desire and other afflictions) exposed in Buddhist texts and scholarship are revised, and on the example of the Cūḷasuññata-sutta it is demonstrated that the real final cause of suffering in the Early Buddhism is our body and not our “self” and ignorance. While in the Mahayana Buddhism based on the philosophy of emptiness and the principle of nonduality, the dichotomy of soul and body is removed, the attainment of nirvana becomes possible in this body and the real cause and source of suffering becomes the ignorance. On the other hand, the paper argues that just the ontological view on the problem of suffering (under the angle of the principle of nonduality) provides us with understanding of the fact that the suffering can be overcome despite its indestructible ontological status.
63. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Олена Щербина, Наталія Щербина Olena Shcherbyna
Джон Лок про мовчання як аргумент і прояв поваги в аргументації
Silence as an Argument and a Manifestation of Respect in the Argumentation in John Locke's Works

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In the article, referring to the method of rational reconstruction described by R. Rorty, an analysis of some works of J. Locke has been made in order to identify new prospects in John Locke's philosophy researches. As a result, it’s been demonstrated the presence of silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect J. Locke’s research of realms of cognition, political philosophy and philosophy of education. This is not covered in modern John Locke's philosophy researches. The authors emphasize that J. Locke, although not directly exploring silence as an argument, however, describes the argument ad ignorantiam, the wording of which in the work «An Essay Concerning Human Understanding» and his understanding of tacit consent in the work «Two Treatises of Government» are related to silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect. The position that silence as an argument is present in all four arguments (argumentum ad verecundiam, argumentum ad ignorantiam, argumentum ad hominem, argumentum ad judicium) described by J. Locke is substantiated. Additionally, the argument ad ignorantiam can be considered both as an argument from silence (ex silentio argument) and as a kind of argument to silence. Considered arguments can serve as an argument to silence for the proponent and/or the third party, that is, anyone who is not directly involved in the dispute. Basing on J. Locke's explanation of the characteristic feature of tacit consent, that is, the absence of the expressed consent/disagreement, the possibility of distinguishing the indirect connection between tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam is demonstrated, since both tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam in J. Locke's works rely on the absence of expressed statements on the consent or disagreement of the opponent. It is established that the ideas of the education of children described by J. Locke also correlate with silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect. Applying the classification of the types of respect proposed by S. Hudson and complemented by R. Dillon to the use of the term «respect» to the various texts of J. Locke, it is substantiated that described by him respect covered almost all kinds of this classification.
64. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Марина Ткачук Maryna Tkachuk
Філософська проблематика в рукописних кандидатських творах студентів Ки- ївської духовної академії (1819‒1924)
Philosophical Issues in Handwritten Candidate Works of Kyiv Theological Academy Students (1819‒1924)

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The article for the first time presents the powerful historical and philosophical potential of the collection of handwritten candidate works of Kyiv Theological Academy (КТА) students, which is kept at Manuscript Institute, V. I. Vernadskyi National Library of Ukraine. According to the analyzed manuscripts, despite the church-confessional and specialized theological orien-tation of the theological academies, as well as the system of rigid regulations and control by the Most Holy Synod in the subject matters and content of the final works, the students showed a persistent research interest in philosophy. The author identifies more than 150 candidate works of KTA students that are directly relevant to philosophical topics and issues. Most of them are research on the history of Western (from Classical antiquity to the beginning of the 20th century), Eastern and Russian philosophy. At the same time, the handwritten works available in the col-lection express the interest of students in the problems of epistemology, philosophy of history, social philosophy, axiology, ethics and aesthetics, philosophy of religion, as well as their attrac-tion to complex interdisciplinary studies, combining the issues of philosophy and history of phi-losophy with theology, psychology, pedagogy and literary studies.
65. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Андрій Вахтель Andrii Vakhtel
Сучасна українська феноменологічна термінологія і підходи до перекладу «Картезіанських медитацій» Едмунда Гусерля
Modern Ukrainian Phenomenological Terminology and Approaches to the Translation of Edmund Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations

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The article is a translator’s commentary to the Ukrainian translation of E. Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations. The task of this article is twofold: On the one hand, to reveal the historical context of the writing and publishing of Cartesian Meditations, on the other hand, to outline the strategic and terminological aspects of the Ukrainian translation of this work. The first part of the article is devoted to the history of creation of the text of Cartesian Medita-tions. In particular, the author answers the question of why the German text of Cartesian Medita-tions was not published until 1950, almost twenty years after the French translation of the book was released. The historico-philosophical investigation conducted in the article shows that Husserl considered the publication of Cartesian Meditations as an opportunity to systematically present his phenomenological philosophy and, eventually, recognized the impossibility of embracing the com-plexity of his doctrine within this work. The difficulty of this systematic presentation led to the enhancement of the role of Husserl’s assistant, Eigen Fink, in the editing of Cartesian Meditations and, ultimately, to the creation of Fink’s Sixth Meditation. The latter, as the author of the article demonstrates, puts previous developments in the phenomenology of static and genetic types into a new theoretical perspective, mainly by introducing the method of constructive phenomenology. In the second part of the article, the author offers one of the possible strategies for translating Husserlian texts that consists in structural simplification and stylistic improvement of the text. This strategy is proposed to be implemented by using simpler grammatical structures, by supplementing the text with translator’s comments, as well as by consistent usage of the Ukrainian phenomenological terminology. During the analysis of the terminological discourse of contemporary Ukrainian phenomenology, the author revises some of the established Ukrainian translations, such as the translation of the phenomenological terms Ausschaltung and Zeitbewusstsein and introduces the translation of new terms, such as Vergemeinschaftung, Person, reell and ideell.
66. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Роланд Піч Roland Pietsch
Божественна премудрість як цвіт світла з божого серця. Огляд загальних рис софіології Якоба Бьоме
The Divine Wisdom – The Blossom of Light from the Heart of God. A survey on the essentials of Jacob Boehme’s Sophiology

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The article examines the sources (visions and inspirations) of Boehme’s mysticism and theosophy. Subsequently, it offers an outline of the principles of his sophiology: God as the will of wisdom and wisdom as his revelation; the role of divine wisdom or the eternal wisdom on the noble Virgin Sophia in the creation of the world and man; and finally their participation in the salvation and rebirth of humankind.
67. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Сергій Йосипенко Serhii Yosypenko
«Більше ніж інтерв’ю». Огляд тематичного блоку «Усна історія філософії» часопису «Філософська думка»
“More than an interview”. The review of a special issue The Oral History of Philosophy in Filosofska Dumka journal

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The article analyses how the oral history of philosophy can be conceptualized as a genre and a discipline of the history of philosophy. The need for this kind of conceptualization arose due to recent spreading of interviews in the genre of the oral history of philosophy, which in turn became a subject for the special issue The Oral History of Philosophy in Filosofska Dumka. Analysing this issue, the author proves that the “dialoguing” nature of the interview builds inflated expectations about the oral history as well as its boundaries as an approach in a historical-philo-sophical study. He also suggests distinguishing the interview as a genre of oral philosophy – dialogue, which is a traditional philosophical literary form, from a tool in historical-philosophi-cal study. In the latter case, it is important to determine who will play a role of a historian: an author of historical narration, an interviewee or an interviewer. Depending on the answer to the previous question, the author distinguishes three possible perspectives of the oral history of philosophy development: an interview as a self-sufficient study in the history of philosophy, an interview as a self-sufficient source for historical-philosophical research and an interview as one of sources for historical-philosophical research. Each of them has its opportunities for a historian of philosophy and plays its role in recruiting students and doctoral students (who often are involved as interviewers) to research work.
68. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Barbara Cassin, Vsevolod Khoma, Amina Khelufi, Daria-Asenia Kolomiets, Olga Simoroz Barbara Cassin
“…You have to bear to be measure”
“…You have to bear to be measure”

69. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Сергій Секундант, Ілля Орехов, Катерина Устименко, Марія Шевчук Sergei Secundant
Історія філософії як покликання
History of Philosophy as a Vocation

70. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Анатолій Ахутін, Ксенія Зборовська, Всеволод Хома, Руслан Мироненко Anatoly Akhutin
Життя думки: акт мислення за часів тоталітаризму
Life of Thought: the Act of Thinking in the Times of Totalitarism. Part I

71. Sententiae: Volume > 38 > Issue: 2
Аміна Кхелуфі Amina Khelufi
Науковий семінар Студентського товариства усної історії філософії
Scientific Seminar of the Student Society of Oral History of Philosophy

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On November 25, 2019, a scientific seminar organized by the Student Society of Oral History of Philosophy was held at the Department of the History of Philosophy of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. The main topic of discussion was the status of the oral history of philosophy (OHF) as a scientific discipline: its research goals and place among research practices. There were two main points in the discussion: OHF as a set of empirical interview-based methods and OHF as a separate historico-philosophical discipline with its own area of research. Were also discussed the criteria of distinguishing between "philosophical" OHF and OHF, which is a simple application of oral history techniques in the realm of interviewing philosophers.
72. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Михайло Якубович Mykhaylo Yakubovych
Онтологія ібн Арабі та Садр ад-Діна аль-Кунаві в інтерпретації кримського мислителя Ахмада бін Абдаллаха аль-Кримі
Ontology of Ibn Arabi and Sadr ad-Din al-Qunawi in the Interpretation of Crimean Thinker Ahmad bin ‘Abdallah al-Qrimi

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The study is dedicated to the work of Crimean scholar Ahmad bin ‘Abdallah al-Qrimi, who was one of the most advanced interpreters of the Ibn Arabi’s and Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi’s Sufi philosophy. Ahmad al-Qrimi employed Ibn Sina’s views on division of essence and existence, as well as some concepts of Maturidi kalam. His manuscript work “Advise for the Perplexed and Key for the Exigent” shows main dimensions of Ahmad al-Qrimi’s thought as following: 1) The notion of Being in the works of Ibn Arabi and Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi is interpreted as the idea of necessary existence, as suggested by ibn Sina; 2) the conception of the identity of the absolute and necessary being is understood as the only right approach for the solution of polemics between adepts and critics of Sufism; 3) conception of “correlation” is considered as solution for the problem of relations between mind and reality.
73. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Юрій Федорченко Yurij Fedorchenko
Кантова таблиця суджень і вчення про судження в німецькій логіці ХVІІІ століття
Kant's Table of Judgments and the Doctrine of the Judgment in the German Logic of XVIIIth Century

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The article focuses on the formation of Kant's table of judgments. The author proves the dependence of Kant's table of judgments on the doctrine of judgment in German 17th century logic. The author proves the influence of George Meier’s «Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre » on formation of the Kantian doctrine of judgment and the table of judgments. This effect consists in the fact that (1) the starting point for Kant's search of the concept of judgment was Meier's definition of judgment in § 292 of «Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre », (2) Kant's table of judgments in «Critique of Pure Reason» appeared as a follow-up of twenty-five critical reflection at §§ 292-352 of Meier's treatise. However, Kant's table of judgments depends also on transcendental logic. The original forms of judgment in Kant's table of judgments contain functional unities, which create the subject of a judgment. Kant's table of judgments depends on both German tradition of 17th century logic and the theory of subject as a part of Kant's transcendental logic.
74. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Александр Юдин Alexander Yudin
Зарождение дискуссии об авторской интенции в американской критике и философии
The Origin of the Discussion of Author’s Intention in American Criticism and Philosophy

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The article deals with the origin and formation of debating positions in American criticism and philosophy. It analyzes “Intentional Fallacy” by W. Wimsatt and M. Beardsley. as well as E.D. Hirsch’s texts concerning the idea of objective interpretation which initiated this discussion. In fact, both positions are limited because of their normative and ahistorical character. Both sides try to regulate interpretation. Wimsatt and Beardsley lose the historical place of a text, whereas Hirsch reduces the historical place of an interpreter. Anti-intentionalism of Wimsatt and Beardsley relies on interpretative practice of American New Criticism with its principle of work’s autonomy. Despite the article’s empirical character, its important outcome is negation of subjectivity of meaning, and formulation of premises of its intersubjective understanding. Hirsch affirms the invariability of work’s meaning and with this purpose (1) identifies it with the author’s intention binding it with the notion of intentionality and author’s horizoncontext (based on Husserl and Dilthey), (2) introduces the distinction between meaning and significance (based on Frege and Saussure). Despite the contradictions of Hirsch’s positions both in understanding these ideas and in his own conclusions, his merit is the statement of the problem of meaning in general and extending the discussion into the territory of hermeneutics and philosophy of literature.
75. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Анна Лактіонова Anna Laktionova
Cogito ergo sum і філософія дії
Cogito Ergo Sum and Philofsophy of Action

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Analytical philosophy opens new perspectives of studies in the history of philosophy. There are (1) generalized history of analytical interpretations of Cartesian principle cogito ergo sum and (2) analysis of Cartesianism through the prism of contemporary philosophy of action, with special attention to performativity of the mentioned principle. The importance of such research necessarily goes beyond "pure" history of philosophy: it also contributes to revision of traditional approaches to justification of knowledge (foundationalism, coherentism, reliabilism), which still remain problematic. Attention to performativism of cogito ergo sum thesis is the key to new convenient interpretation of knowledge justification problem, because it allows for justification as selfjustification in terms of accomplishment. Inevitable accomplishment, peculiar to evidfently performative knowledge (example of which is cogito ergo sum, a very good contender for the role of a sure foundation), suggests that fundamentalist strategy of knowledge justification, in the perspective of philosophy of action, amounts to a preferable interpretation compared to traditional epistemological approach.
76. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Андрій Дахній Andriy Dakhniy
Гайдеґерове «довільне» прочитання Канта: подолання неокантіанства і темпоралізація трансцендентального схематизму
Heidegger’s «Arbitrary» Reading of Kant: the Overcoming of Neo-Kantianism and Temporalization of Transcendental Schematism

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The paper examines the influence of Kant's theoretical philosophy on formation of phenomenological interpretation of temporal issues in Heidegger's thinking, both in terms of his positive perception of Kant's recent approaches (schematism of pure conceptions of understanding, transcendental faculty of imagination as a primary temporariness and as the essence of human being), as well as in terms of negative repulsion (proposition of ontological alternatives to Kant's Gnoseologism, criticism of his attempt to replace basically temporal transcendental faculty of imagination with atemporal understanding). The paper emphasizes specificity and even "arbitrariness" of Heidegger's interpretation of Kantian theoretical philosophizing. This interpretation fits into the strategy of destruction of Western metaphysics, but significantly differs the Neo-Kantianism interpretations in focusing not so much on limited cognitive capacity, but rather on the limitations of human existence as such. Finally, it is shown that Heidegger attempted to demonstrate the structuring of the sense of being via schematism of ecstatic-horizontal temporariness inspired by Kant's influence.
77. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Віталій Терлецький Vitali Terletsky
Аристотелева теорія часу у світлі феноменологічної традиції
Aristotle’s Theory of Time in the Light of the Phenomenological Tradition

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The paper deals with reconstitution of tradition, whose representatives (M. Heidegger, W. Bröcker, E. Fink, K.-H. Volkmann-Schluck, K. Held, G. Figal) at any given time in their own way interpret the doctrine of time in Aristotle’s «Physics» in the phenomenological resp. hermeneutic perspective. It focuses on the relation of time and change, the problems of identity and difference of «now», temporal and timeless meaning of próteron – hýsteron, the relationship of time and soul, the sense of «being-in-time» thesis. In this tradition the need for «a systematic reconstruction» of the Stagirite’s arguments and examination of coherence of certain propositions is frequently emphasized, This is motivated, on the one hand, by the development of temporal thematic within phenomenology itself, and, on the other hand, by the dissociation from only historical or philological reading of this classical text.
78. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Юрґен Штольценберґ Jürgen Stolzenberg
Мартин Гайдеґер читає Фіхте
Martin Heidegger Reads Fichte

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A new world opened up before Heidegger when he lectured on Fichte, Hegel and Schelling for the first time in the summer term of 1929. This is what Heidegger wrote to Karl Jaspers in June, 1929. The paper shows how Heidegger interpreted Fichte. In lecturing on Fichte, Heidegger became aware of the original quality of Fichte’s philosophy in relation to his own theory in Being and Time. Heidegger tried to give Fichte’s view its due precisely with the aim of emphasizing and underlining the justness of his own claims. This can be seen in the way Heidegger interpreted the foundation of Fichte’s early Wissenschaftslehre. Following Heidegger, the third basic principle with its concept of limitation has to be the very fundamental principle. Secondly, Heidegger rejected technical aspects of deduction and systematic character of Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre. Interpreting the content of Fichte’s concept of «Tathandlung» and his theory of imagination Heidegger sees a perspective that he develops in Being and Time.
79. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Степан Іваник Stepan Ivanyk
Що таке польська філософія й що вона може дати українській філософії?
What is Polish Philosophy and What Can It Give to Ukrainian Philosophy?

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The article examines discussion wich took place in 1911 between Polish philosophers Henryk Struve and Kazimierz Twardowski about the state of Polish philosophy and plans for its future development. The results of the discussion were extrapolated to the current situation of Ukrainian philosophy and its challenges. The conclusion is that the path of Polish philosophy of the last century can serve to modern Ukrainian philosophy as reliable guide to the future. Polish philosophy’s recipe of success transferred to modern Ukrainian philosophy consists in, firstly, elimination of external domination of Russian influence due to its balancing by other foreign influences, and, secondly, purposeful development of analytical direction.
80. Sententiae: Volume > 32 > Issue: 1
Ельвіра Чухрай Elvira Chukhray
Остаточна мета життя і сенс в житті: історикофілософські межі раціональної реконструкції
The Ultimate Purpose of Life and the Meaning in Life: History of Philosophy and Limits of Rational Reconstruction

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The article analyses whether it is correct to extrapolate the concept of “meaning in life” developed by Thaddeus Metz to the doctrines of ancient philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas. Is Metz’ concept of “purposes” that make “human life” meaningful analogous to Aquinas’ concept of “ultimate purpose of man”? Significant points of Metz’ conception of “meaning in life” in our article are described and compared with Aquinas’ conception of “ultimate purpose of man.” As it turns out, these conceptions are only superficially similar. In fact, they are profoundly different: (1) Aquinas is talking about the “purpose of man”, which implies objective teleology incompatible with Metz’ “naturalism”, and is not talking about “meaning in life” (and even “purpose of life”); (2) “ultimate purpose of man”, for Aquinas, is intended to provide salvation and eternal life for man, not to make life “significant” in this world. Thus, Metz and Aquinas not only use different terminology, but also address different problems. They deal with different questions, not just give different answers to the same question (about the “meaning in life”). Metz’s extrapolation may be correct, when viewed as a kind of rational reconstruction. However, Metz does not make appropriate reservations and groundlessly unifies heterogeneous problems. The article shows that more historically oriented methodology avoids impropriety in the exercise of rational reconstruction of “meaning in life” in the field of ancient and medieval philosophies.