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61. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Peter Nekola Looking Back at the International Map of the World
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This article takes a look back at the historical and philosophical context of the International Map of the World, humans’ first attempt at mapping the entire surface of the earth in detail on a uniform scale. Albrect Penck’s initial idea for a thoroughly detailed topographic map of the world, proposed at Fifth International Geographical Conference in 1891 and securing the support, both symbolic and financial, of many of the world’s governments by the first decades of the twentiethcentury, consisted of a uniform series of hypsometrically-colored topographical maps overlaid with human data (urbanized areas, railroads, and other infrastructure, primarily) and dividing the world into consistently-scaled quadrangles. Envisioned by some geographers and cartographers as a component of the peace, both following both the First and then the Second World War, the project would come to be administered by international and non-governmental organizations by midcentury, as primary governmental support for cartography at that time increasingly reflected territorial interests and claims over and above those in favor of employing concepts of geographical knowledge that were not explicitly political or territorial. The slow demise of the project can be understood to signify the ultimate difficulty of a project that disacknowledged the fundamentality of politically constructed boundaries by employing another scale, in this case, a geometric scale with systematically geographical content, in order to frame its maps.
62. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
James Hatley Wild Seasons and the Justice of Country: Dreaming the Weathers Anew in Hebraic Midrash
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Employing the rabbinical practice of midrashic reading in order to unfold a passage from The Song of Songs, the manner in which a European/colonial affirmation of the seasons, particularly the season of spring, might become a mode of injustice in a non-temperate climate is explored. The wilding of seasons imposed by colonial usurpation of country finds a particular case study in the invasion of Arrente lands in Australia by buffel grass even as the effects of climate change are being felt. In conclusion, an argument is made for recasting the practice of midrashic reading in order to render the seasons as they are found in TheSong of Songs vulnerable to unanticipated intonations of the seasons as they emerge in Arrente country.
63. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Troy R. E. Paddock “No Man’s Land”: Forbidden and Subversive Space in War
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This article explores one of the iconic spaces of the Western Front of the Great War: ‘No Man’s Land.’ It offers an explanation of why one of the most extraordinary events of the First World War, the Christmas Truce of 1914, was only possible in that space. The paper suggests that the subversive nature of the truce required undermined the legitimacy of the state and thus forced state authorities to suppress further similar occurrences.One of the enduring images of World War I is that of trench warfare, featuring two dug-in-sides firing at each other across a space than spanned anywhere from sixty to two hundred yards. The space that was fired across, dubbed ‘No Man’s Land,’ became an iconic symbol representing the destructive nature of the Great War. This article explores why one of the most extraordinary events of the First World War was only possible in that space and why the event could never be duplicated.
64. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
David Macauley, Luke Fischer Introduction
65. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Richard Wilson Elemental Philosophy: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water as Environmental Ideas by David Macauley
66. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Matthew Demers Theoria: Travel as Paraphor
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Theoria originally implied a kind of active observation, combining perception with asking questions and listening to local stories and myths. This is travel treated not as a metaphor in discourse, but as both source and goal of discourse, or movement as a format for conveying information seen and heard. This would be travel as paraphor or travel and discourse carried one alongside the other as a context for intellection. This article articulates travel as paraphor using Greg Ulmer’s concept of the ‘popcycle’ to analyze the architect Le Corbusier’s ecstatic moment in the monastery at Val d’Ema, outside Florence, revealing thespatial practice of theoria within the architect’s travel tour.
67. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Kip Redick Profane Experience and Sacred Encounter: Journeys to Disney and the Camino de Santiago
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This article explores the contrast of pilgrimage and tourism as sacred and profane journeys using Disney World and the Camino de Santiago as exemplars of such destinations. An entanglement of place structures reveals Disney World as a quasi-religious journey site for some whose tourist actions implicate a ritual centered on capitalist mythology. Disentangling sacred encounters and profane experiences demonstrates the role such places play in elevating community versus self-indulgence.
68. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Ira Sarma The Hidden Spatiality of Literary Historiography: Placing Tulsi Das in the Hindi Literary Landscape
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Literary histories are narratives, just like the literatures they describe. They construct not only a temporal framework but also a spatial arena for literary events, movements and authors—frequently following extra-literary agendas. Using the example of Hindi, the official language of the Republic of India, the article analyzes the conceptualisation of space within literary history by comparatively mapping the space of a sixteenth-century Hindi poet, Tulsi Das, as presented in three histories of Hindi literature (by two Western and one Indian historiographer) from the periods of high colonialism, the struggle for independence andthe post-colonial era. The highly divergent spaces that emerge show that space can never be an objective ‘given’ and also testify to the significance of visualising verbally produced spaces cartographically, so that underlying socio-political dimensions can be perceived.
69. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Melissa Otis “Location of Exchange”: Algonquian and Iroquoian Occupation in the Adirondacks Before and After Contact
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Despite westernized reports to the contrary, occupation occurred in the Adirondacks before and after European contact. Seasonal encampments scattered throughout the region were part of Iroquoian and Algonquian peoples labour for resource gathering that occurred year-round and for extended periods. The area also became a haven from colonial warfare for some Indigenous peoples; these communities dispersed by the mid-nineteenth century. Land pressures around the reservations of Akwesasne and Odanak forced some peoples to go elsewhere. A few who chose the Adirondacks settled there until White homesteaders moved nearby chasing away game. By the mid-nineteenth century especially Abenaki families settled around established tourist towns. I argue these are all examples of Indigenous occupation and we need to acknowledge this and how their occupation adapted over time.
70. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Sean S. Miller An Examination of the Burgeoning Green Schools Movement in the United States Part Two: Threats to Success
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As the second installment in a three- part series, this essay seeks further understanding relevant to the growing green schools movement in the United States. Specifically, the article examines two overarching threats that have the ability to significantly hinder the future growth and success of such a movement. First, the alarming rise of rampant media use by youth is examined as a potential deterrent to increased environmental understanding, exposure, and actions. Second, a general lack of inclusivity and related programming specific to diverse audiences is analyzed for its potential to erode the movement’s current and future base. Finally, the two threats are examined together through the lens of sustainable education and its potential to ameliorate such grave concerns in the near and long term.
71. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Lorna Lueker Zukas Beijing Besieged by Waste 垃圾 城 by Directed by WANG Jiuliang 王久良
72. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Ashkan Rezvani Naraghi Constructing Virtual and Material Public Spaces: The Cases of “We are All Khaled Said” Facebook Page and Tahrir Square during the Egypt 2011 Revolution
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This essay argues that Hannah Arendt’s conception of public space can contribute to the defi nition of material and virtual public spaces in contemporary social movements. By investigating Tahrir Square as a material public space and We are All Khaled Said Facebook page as a virtual public space during the Egypt 2011 revolution, this essay studies the relationship between these spaces and the events of the revolution. It shows that Arendt’s concepts of action and speech can theorize the virtual and public spaces of the Egyptian revolution.
73. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Kyle Riismandel Arcade Addicts and Mallrats: Producing and Policing Suburban Public Space in 1980s America
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In the 1980s, teenagers came to dominate the last bastions of public spaces on the sprawling suburban landscape: the shopping mall and the arcade. Teenagers’ presence and the sense of their domination of those spaces from media and popular culture initiated new regimes of regulation with distinct consequences. Through tactics designed to combat the disruptive presence of teens, including use of closed-circuit video monitoring, professionalization of private security staffs, and strict municipal oversight, mall owners, concerned parents, and local political leaders created systems of insistent and pervasive policing of mall space. That surveillance not only undermined the very nature of the space as public but also nearly eliminated teens from shopping centers while facilitating their reintegration into the supposed safety of the home.
74. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Luke Fischer A Poetic Phenomenology of the Temperate Seasons
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Drawing on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, key ideas in the writings of the poet and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, a phenomenological conception of affects, and poems that address the seasons, this article outlines a poetic phenomenology of the temperate seasons. It aims to unite a poetic sensibility for seasonal phenomena with a structured phenomenological approach. In doing so, it presents the seasons as a meaningful polyphony in which human beings also participate. It gives a non-reductive account of how the human experience of the seasons is deeply connected to natural seasonal phenomena and indicates ways in which we can deepen our understanding of, and participation in, the seasons.
75. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Winifred E. Newman Space and/or Place in Early Atlases
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Abraham Ortelius and Gerhard Mercator respectively assembled two of the earliest and most influential map collections in the western world. Ortelius’ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570) and Mercator’s Atlas sive Cosmographicae (1585) exemplify the emerging drive in the six teenth century toward collecting and communicating ever-increasing knowl edge about the natural world. However, on close examination the two collections bear as many differences as similarities. This paper addresses these differences and suggests that a comparison between their schemas reveals that the distinctions between Ptolemy’s geography, as adescription of place, and cosmography, as the construction of space, are two different forms of knowledge in early modern science.
76. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Jo Farb Hernández Peter’s Garden: Case Study of a Spanish Art Environment
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This case study of Peter Buch, self-taught creator-builder of an art environment in the remote mountains of Spain’s Castellon province, is contextualized within a broader discussion of the worldwide phenomenon of such invented spaces. Intimately linked to their creator in a way generally unmatched in any other circumstances of art, architecture, or landscaping, these sites are developed through an additive and organic process of creation, without formal architectural designs or engineering plans. Fabricated and found objects are combined into monumental compositions that are generally “permanently” fixed on site, andmay often combine elements of architecture, sculpture, landscaping, and painting. As such, they draw their power from the spatial context of the site itself as well as from the innovative multi-dimensionality of the interaction of the discrete elements, an experiential interface that creates a potency that is significantly dissipated if discrete works are removed or the site is demolished.
77. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Alex Zukas The Forgotten Space. Written and directed by Allan Sekula and Noël Burch
78. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
David Dillard-Wright Placing Humanity: The Reconstruction of Pre-history at Lascaux
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The cave at Lascaux, France provides one of the earliest examples of human artwork: bulls, horses, and other creatures painted on rough rock walls, iconic examples of the emergence of human culture. After being closed to the public due to damage from the large influx of visitors, the cave was recreated in a near exact replica at Lascaux II, a museum site close to the original cave. This paper explores the reconstruction of the site and the constant stream of tourists to the location, arguing that the site functions as a pseudo-religious place of pilgrimage in which human beings imagine themselves as descendants of their primevalancestors and re-affirm their own humanity. The representations of Lascaux, including Bataille’s text, express longing for an absent origin, in keeping with discourses of play between presence and absence in philosophy and theology.
79. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Alphonso Lingis Arctic Summer
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A summer spent in the Scandinavian Arctic changes the sense of seasons: the Sámi know eight seasons; the visitor finds summer in the valleys, winter above, in the mountains, and winter below, in the permafrost underfoot. The summer spent in movement makes one understand the force of movement and initiative in human life, the sedentary and the nomadic instincts. The seasonal migrations of reindeer and the periodicity of lemming years make one explore movements of humans that are not launched by initiatives, periodic and rhythmic movements. Exploring rock paintings in Alta and the space station in Kiruna extends the space of human history from humans assembled at the foot of the retreating glacier, 7000 years ago, to human tourists in outer space.
80. Environment, Space, Place: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
J. Brooks Flippen First Along the River: A Brief History of the U.S. Environmental Movement. 4th ed. By Benjamin Kline