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61. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Roger Paden Defining Philosophical Counseling
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According to Kuhn a new scientific discipline comes into existence when a group of scientists adopt a common paradigm within which to conduct research. The adoption of this paradigm senes to focus the attention of the group’s members on a common explanatory task-at-hand and leads them to adopt similar methods and aims, thus making possible the standard puzzle solving activities that allow normal science to advance rapidly. However, Kuhn argues, in pre-paradigm periods and during revolutionary phases, scientists do not engage in such singleminded, puzzle-solving behavior, as the paradigm itself is put into question. Instead, during these periods, they become at least partially self-reflective in that they become interested in understanding the nature of their discipline and its relationships to other disciplines. In this paper, I argue that Philosophical Counseling is in a pre-paradigm period and is in need of a paradigm centered definition if it is to develop an identity and advance rapidly. In an Aristotelian mood, I seek this definition though an examination of the related fiends of psychotherapy and pastoral counseling.
62. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
William Sweet Human Rights and Cultural Diversity
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In this paper, I discuss some challenges to the discourse of universal human rights made by those who insist that the existence of pluralism and cultural diversity count against it. I focus on arguments made in a recent article by Vinay Lal but also address several other criticisms of universal human rights-arguments hinted at, but not elaborated, by Lal. I maintain that these challenges frequently fail to distinguish the discourse of human rights from its adoption by certain states to advance foreign policy objectives, and suggest that, even when these criticisms appear plausible, closer inspection reveals that they are either inconsistent or simply do not succeed. I conclude that the notion of universal human rights still has an important place in a culturally diverse and pluralist world.
63. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Paul M. Hughes Exploitation, Autonomy, and the Case for Organ Sales
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A recent argument in favor of a free market in human organs claims that such a market enhances personal autonomy. I argue here that such a market would, on the contrary, actually compromise the autonomy of those most likely to sell their organs, namely, the least well off members of society. A Marxian-inspired notion of exploitation is deployed to show how, and in what sense, this is the case.
64. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
David E. W. Fenner Animal Rights and the Problem of Proximity
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This paper argues that due to considerations of proximity of particular humans to particular (nonhuman) animals, and to the impact this proximity has on the obligations felt by those humans to those animals, an animal rights strategy as a means of specifying what obligations humans really do have toward animals cannot be successful. The good news, however; is that it is out of these proximity relations that we can begin to understand just what obligations humans properly do have toward animals.
65. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Shlomit C. Schuster On Philosophical Self-diagnosis and Self-help: A Clarification of the Non-clinical Practice of Philosophical Counseling
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In this paper I describe and analyze the need for an alternative, non-clinical approach to counseling, i.e., philosophical counseling. Throughout the first part of this paper. I aim to prove pragmatically the truth or validity of this new non-clinical approach to counseling by describing its effectiveness in a case-study. In the second part, I suggest that many philosophers have made use of philosophical self-diagnosis and self-help to improve their own well-being, although for their private practice of philosophy they did not use the words I have chosen here. I exemplify this by analyzing the representative life narrative of Jean-Jacques Rousseau as a case study.
66. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Gary J. Foulk, M. Jan Keffer, Harry L. Keffer The Perception of Ethical Dilemmas in Clinical Practice: Empirical Diagnosis and Philosophical Therapy
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The empirical diagnosis presented in this paper is based on interviews with nurse practitioners and physicians designed to elicit their perceptions of the nature and role of ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. Having selected five of these perceptions or views which were common and significant. the philosophical therapy offered consists in, first, a general discussion of ethical dilemmas, and second, a critical analysis of each of the five views with the aim of pointing out confusions and errors, the recognition of which can be of applied and practical help in the clinical setting.
67. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Warren Shibles Philosophical Counseling, Philosophical Education and Emotion
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The recent literature, conference and internet discussions about philosophical counseling (PC) show that it is in a state of confusion as to its definition, area of expertise and purpose. The present paper analyzes these definitions showing their limitations as well as their strong points. A proposal for a more adequate definition is then given which recommends changing the name of “Philosophical Counseling” to “Philosophy Educator and Advisor.” It is also shown that humanism contains many of the elements of the definitions of PC. An analysis of emotion, and specifically anger, is then given to show its implications for PC and to exemplify the definition of PC here proposed.
68. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Louis P. Pojman The Case Against Affirmative Action
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Affirmative Action is becoming the most controversial social issue of our day. In this essay I examine nine arguments on the moral status of Affirmative Action. I distinguish between weak Affirmative Action, which seeks to provide fair opportunity to all citizens from strong Affirmative Action, which enjoins preferential treatment to groups who have been underrepresented in social positions. I conclude that while weak Affirmative Action is morally required, strong Affirmative Action is morally wrong.
69. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Daniel A. Dombrowski Rawls and Animals
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In “Rawls and Animals” I try to do two things. First, I try to bring together for the first time Rawls’ thoughts on animals in “A Theory of Justice” as well as the often contradictory secondary literature on this topic. And second, I examine for the first time Rawls’ treatment of animals in his recent work “Political Liberalism.”
70. International Journal of Applied Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Michael S. Pritchard Sidgwick’s Practical Ethics: From Practice to Theory
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In contrast to The Methods of Ethics, Sidgwick’s Practical Ethics counsels not trying to “get to the bottom of things” in our efforts to reach “some results of value for practical guidance and life.” For Sidgwick, both practical and theoretical ethics should start from the Morality of Common Sense. Although he retained his utilitarian outlook in Practical Ethics, this paper suggests that the Morality of Common Sense has the resources to hold its own against utilitarian revision.