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61. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Noriko Hashimoto The Lack of a Concept of Justice in Japan: How to Recognize the Balance Between Opposite Views
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In the case of Japan, we accepted the Chinese philosophy of morality when we received the Chinese character Yi: it means responsibility to Heaven (vertical) and, at the same time, responsibility to community (horizontal). An act having this structure might be our responsibility as human beings: yi means “justice”, keeping balance between Heaven and Earth. The Japanese people had such a balance until the Edo era. In 1868, when the Meiji Restoration occurred, the Japanese government tried to accept Western ideas. Cyoumin Nakae introduced the Western philosophy of law and the constitutional system. He translated Rousseau’s The Social Contract into Japanese and gave a series of lectures on the social contract. The fundament of his thought is concentrated in the “rights of Liberty”. He emphasized transcendental liberty beyond personal, phenomenal liberty and found the same structure in Mencius. His idea of ft suggests the way of justice. Unfortunately, this idea was crushed with the death of his talented disciple in prison. After the book of Bushido, ft was only translated as “duty” for the community (horizontal), and we lost the vertical perspective: transcendental liberty.
62. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Jayne Svenungsson Justice in the Prophetic Tradition
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This paper explores the idea of justice in the prophetic strand of the Jewish and Christian traditions. First, a brief description is given of the context in which the prophetic idea of justice first evolves. Second, focussing on the historical and prophetic literature Hebrew Bible, an analysis of the defining characteristics of this idea of justice is undertaken. Third and finally, the relevance of this prophetic tradition for our contemporary politico-philosophical debates on justice is discussed in relation to the discourse on law and justice initiated by Jacques Derrida in the 1990s and followed up by Giorgio Agamben during the last decades.
63. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Bengt Kristensson Uggla A Just Allotment of Memory and a Just Distance: Paul Ricoeur on Memory and Justice
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This article elaborates upon how memory and justice are connected within the philosophical project of Paul Ricoeur, and thus it aims to explore the broader context and meaning of his intriguing term “a just allotment of memory.” First, the concept of justice will be contextualized within the framework of Ricceur’s philosophical anthropology in general, and second, more specifically, with respect to his "little ethics.” Thereafter, issues relating to the manner in which memory generates questions of justice, and, indeed, why memory needs history in order to be just, will be explored. Finally, some crucial questions about the limits of justice, and the challenges associated with the presence of justice and injustices in limit-situations will briefly be raised.
64. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Peter McCormick Just Persons
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Ethics has to do basically with what and who acting persons are. Persons however act variously. Some persons are basically individualists. They characteristically act as if they are as wholly independent as possible from other persons. Other persons are collectivists. They act as if they are as much a dependent part of some larger community of persons as possible. - Accordingly, one cardinal issue for any philosophical ethics like eco-ethics is whether almost all persons are, fundamentally, independent entities. That is, are almost all persons independent entities, or are almost all persons dependent ones? - The idea I try to pursue here briefly is that, fundamentally, persons are neither independent nor dependent entities but interdependent ones. They are so in the senses of not being essentially prior to, or ontologically more basic than, or having their ontological identity apart from other persons.
65. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
David Rasmussen From the Moral to the Political: The Question of Political Legitimacy in Non-Western Societies
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This article focuses on the problem of political legitimacy: first, by finding it to be the driving force in the Rawlsian paradigm moving from a focus on the moral to one on the political; second, with the help of a consideration of multiple- modernities theory, by arguing for a version of political liberalism freed of its western framework; and third, by applying that framework to current debates over the meaning of democracy in a Confucian context.
66. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Robert Bernasconi, Jacob Dahl Rendtorff Preface
67. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Peter Kemp, Noriko Hashimoto Editorial
68. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
The Authors / Les Auteurs
69. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff A Real Intellectual and Philosopher of l’Engagement: In Memory of Peter Kemp
70. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Manuel B. Dy, Jr. An Ethics of Interdependence in the Doctrine of the Mean
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This paper attempts to derive an ethics of interdependence in the Chung Yung, the Doctrine of the Mean. The Doctrine of the Mean, one of the Four Books of Confucianism often paired with the Great Learning, Ta Hsueh, is considered a patchwork of at least two separate writings. While the title indicates the topic to be the Doctrine of the Mean, analogous to the Aristotelian Mean, the latter half of the treatise discusses another topic, Cheng, translated often as sincerity, truth, or reality. On closer reading, however, and emphasizing the second character Yung, meaning “practice” or “common,” one can discover the ethical implications of the treatise. The first part presents the main ideas of the treatise, and the second shows the logical movement of these ideas to come up with an ethics of interdependence: interdependence of self and others, of self and things, and of self and Heaven and Earth.
71. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Jayne Svenungsson Interdependence and the Biblical Legacy of Anthropocentrism: On Human Destructiveness and Human Responsibility
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This article engages with the biblical legacy of anthropomorphism from a contemporary perspective. First, it revisits the biblical creation myth and questions the deeply ingrained notion that what it offers is an account of ‘creation out of nothingness.’ Second, this rereading is followed by a closer look at how this particular theology was elaborated by Hans Jonas in his philosophy of life. In the final part of the paper, Jonas’s philosophy of responsibility is linked to a reflection on humanity’s unique capacity for destruction and self-destruction. Contrary to much of contemporary posthumanism, it is argued that a recognition of the interdependence between the human and the non-human worlds must never be a matter of erasing the distinction between them, since such a blurring of distinctions runs the risk of overshadowing the uniqueness of human destructiveness and thereby of undermining a serious discussion of human responsibility.
72. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Sang-Hwan Kim Interdependence in the Confucian World View: From the Idea of Fengjing (Landscape)
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The Chinese counterpart of ‘landscape’ is fengjing 風景. This word is based on the three semantic elements: wind, light, and seeing. I will trace below the philosophical implications of the three key sememes of the word fengjing in the perspective of comparative philosophy. The purpose of such a task lies, on the one hand, in evoking the aesthetics of fengjing dormant in the East Asian tradition and, on the other hand, in presenting a new model of interdependence that can stimulate environment-friendly ethical imagination.
73. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Peter McCormick Ethics, the Interdependence of Persons, and Relationality
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Fundamentally, ethics may be understood as having to do with what and who acting persons are. Persons, however, act variously. Some persons are basically individualists. They characteristically act as if they are as wholly independent as possible from other persons. Other persons are collectivists. They act as if they are as much a dependent part of some larger community of persons as possible. Accordingly, one cardinal issue for any philosophical ethics is whether almost all persons are, fundamentally, independent entities. That is, are almost all persons independent entities, or are almost all persons dependent ones? The idea I pursue here briefly is that, fundamentally, persons are neither independent nor dependent entities but interdependent ones. They are so in the senses of not being essentially prior to, or not being ontologically more basic than, or not having their ontological identity apart from other persons.
74. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
David M. Rasmussen Reflections on the Nature of Populism and the Fragility of Democracy: Democracy in Crisis
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This paper takes its point of departure from a prior reflection on John Rawls’ argument for a two-stage model which shelters the political from immediate contestation. I turn to an examination of populism first from an historical and then from a normative perspective. Historically, populism can be traced to early Roman times, while from a normative point of view, as the literature shows, populism lacks a clear definition. In my view this is derived from its essentially parasitical function in relationship to democracy. In the end, populism, which claims to be grounded on the immediacy of conflict, is exposed as a remnant of a pre-democratic past which does not and cannot accommodate itself to the ‘fact of pluralism’ that characterizes our contemporary democratic situation.
75. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Noriko Hashimoto Inter-subjectivity and Inter-objectivity: Mutual and Inter-Independence in the Twenty-first Century
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The conflict between traditional ethics posed by contemporary technology is especially acute in the case of artificial intelligence. This is because the conception of nothingness or vacuum developed by both Laotse and Zuang-zi is resisted by artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence with its incorporation of inter-subjectivity and inter-objectivity cannot be a vacuum.
76. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Robert Bernasconi Environmental Racism, Anthropocentric Racism, and the Dialectic
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The now widespread notion of environmental racism, coined around 1990 and still important in its place, was never intended to do justice to the full range of issues raised by the Anthropocene. To meet this challenge I propose the introduction of a new concept, that of “anthropocentric racism.” This concept is an extension of what some have referred to as systemic racism, but because the Anthropocene challenges the distinction between nature and culture championed by the Boasian school of anthropology as a way to attack racism, the Anthropocene obliges us to look at racism differently. I propose an extension of the dialectical approach to racism championed by Jean-Paul Sartre and Frantz Fanon and will illustrate that approach by examining climate change as a form of antipraxis.
77. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Zeynep Direk Ethics: Social Bond and Solidarity
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The social and political problem of immigration forces us to reflect on ethical issues such as the relation of responding and bonding across sharp differences, the role that moral values play in relating to the other, and the possibility of solidarity as a way of being responsible for the others with whom we do not have any ready-made social bond. I take Levinas's notion of the ethical relation with the other as a primal society from which the third is not excluded, as a starting point for thinking of social bond as solidarity. I argue that it allows for ethical social bond making in situations determined by bio-power; even in situations in which people are depersonalized and deprived of their right to rights, and of their ethical agency. I propose that the bond of solidarity with the immigrant can be a model for the ethical social bond.
78. Eco-ethica: Volume > 1
Pia Søltoft Kierkegaard’s Ethics
79. Eco-ethica: Volume > 1
Peter Kemp Preface
80. Eco-ethica: Volume > 1
Bengt Kristensson Uggla Memory Politics: — Philosophical Reflections on Memory and Forgetting in Finland and Sweden --