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61. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 4
Adriana Neacșu Virtue and Vice in Plotinus’ Enneads
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In Enneads, Plotinus outlines an ethical ideal founded on the similarity between human being and divinity, in which the values of virtue and vice have a central role. Vice is a weakness of the soul that prevents it from performing its functions, so that instead of moving to good, it turns to evil. The soul can exit this state only through virtue, which is a good by which it can dominate matter and become like the supreme God. The ascension to God is achieved through several stages, represented by: the civic virtues, the purifying virtues and the contemplative virtues.
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62. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 4
Ana Bazac Aristotle, the Names of Vices and Virtues: What Is the Criterion of Quantitative Evaluation of the Moral Behaviour?
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In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle has given a tableau of the desirable virtues and their infringement through the surpassing of their limits. Thus, every virtue is framed or delimited by vices that represent either its excess or its deficiency. However, this type of defining is related to deep, metaphysical reasons: since every being, especially the living one, has its telos. Man’s telos is to practise and fulfil his human specificity, i.e. reason, and reason is the measure/quality of virtue as such; the excess or deficiency in his behaviour perverts and even stops the realisation of the humanity of man. And this humanity is, in turn, in accordance to the telos of nature, the good in and for the preservation of all things. If, hypothetically, persons would not be virtuous at all, this accordance would not be realised and man would be an accident in the logic of nature: and accidents are removed, sooner or later. The criterion of the “quantitative” moral evaluation is thus qualitative: a quality, the good aimed at by mindfulness applied to the concrete particular moral relations and learned from experience.
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63. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 4
Topi Heikkerö On Compassion: The Good beyond Values
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This paper is a dialogue that considers compassion as a grounding for ethics. Its approach is thematic but it draws significantly from Arthur Schopenhauer’s account of compassion (Mitleid). In Schopenhauer’s thought, values (Werthe) are functions of a subject’s willing and therefore inevitably tied to an ego-centric viewpoint. Real ethics needs to find a good beyond subjective valuations. Schopenhauer finds an ethical phenomenon beyond values in Mitleid, “suffering-together,” compassion. Compassion is a pre-reflective benevolent feeling toward another’s suffering. Compassion can occur only if the ego-world duality is overcome at least to some extent. In this way compassion is a metaphysical sentiment.
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64. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 27 > Issue: 4
Indoo Pandey Khanduri Descartes on Generosity as an Ideal Character Virtue: Theoretical Foundations
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This paper humbly attempts to explore Descartes’ conception of generosity as an ideal character virtue which can address the problems of the global world like struggle, intolerance and segregation; and thereby creates healthy routes for universal dialogue. The first part attempts to clarify Descartes’ conception of the foundations of generosity. The second part narrates Descartes’ views on generosity as passions and as a virtue. The third part explores the possibility of generosity as a virtue of the individual as well as social character. It also proposes to take the practice of generosity as a mechanism of developing cooperation, tolerance, and, consequently, universal dialogue and harmony.
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65. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 11/12
Alan Holland Agriculture: the “Cinderella” of Environmental Ethics
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Since agriculture constitutes what is probably humankind’s most extensive and prolonged engagement with the natural world, the scant attention paid to it in much of the environmental ethics literature represents something of a paradox. This paper is an attempt to address that paradox. First we offer some explanations for this neglect, tracing it to some key features of environmental ethics as it is currently practised. Then we identify some hopeful signs that things are changing in a direction that is more conducive to the inclusion of the issues raised by agriculture. Finally we offer a synthesis of these hopeful signs, incorporating a suggestion as to what it is that they all have in common.
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66. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 11/12
Victor Manuel Velazco Herrera, Oscar Sosa Flores The Trend of the Dansgaard-Oescher Cycle with Solar Activity
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The nature of the climatic response to solar variability is assessed over a long-time scale, as in the case of the periodicity of 1500 years (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle). For this reason it is important to perform an analysis to detect the existence of this periodicity in the Holocene and the possible influence of the sun on this periodicity. For this purpose, the method of Wavelet analysis in time-frequency was used. The information of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and Berilium-10 (10Be) at the North Pole reveals a periodicity of approximately 1000 years, whereas at the South Pole it shows the existence of a periodicity of about 1500 years. The comparison of the information of δ18O and 10Be suggests a possible solar influence on the appearance of these periodicities. Possibly the current global warming is due to Dansgaard-Oescher cycle and not by anthropogenic effects.
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67. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 11/12
Ricardo Rozzi Field Environmental Philosophy: Regaining an Understanding of the Inextricable Links between the Regional Habitats, the Inhabitants and their Habits
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During our current free market era, a prevailing utilitarian ethics centered on monetary cost benefit analyses continues overriding incessantly a plethora of diverse forms of ecological knowledge and ethics present in the communities of South America, and other regions of the world. For the first time in human history, more than 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, and speaks only one of eleven dominant languages, loosing contact with the vast biodiversity and the 7,000 languages that are still spoken around the planet. This global urban enclosure and biocultural homogenization generates physical barriers and conceptual barriers that hinder the understanding of the inextricable links between the habitats of a region, the inhabitants and their habits. However, these vital links are acutely recognized in at least three families of worldviews: contemporary ecological sciences, ancestral Amerindian ecological knowledge, and Western pre-Socratic philosophical roots expressed in the archaic meaning of ethos, and ethics. South American post-Columbian history shows that large-scale exploitation, as well as monocultures that replace native habitats, have been repeatedly associated with ephemeral economic booms that left behind degraded social and ecological environments. A historical analysis of post-Columbian Chile illustrates how a unique mosaic of ecosystems and biological species, cultures, and languages have been progressively replaced by a few biological species and a uniform language and culture. These biocultural homogenization processes are the outcome of a violent conquest, overpowering the resistance of local inhabitants, and today’s scale of violent suppression of biological and cultural diversity is greater than ever. Instead of a post-colonial period we are living in the middle of an ultra-colonial era. To counterbalance these trends, at the southern end of the Americas, through inter-institutional and international collaborations led by the Chilean University of Magallanes and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity and the University of North Texas in the US, we developed a methodological approach that we call “field environmental philosophy."
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68. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 11/12
J. Baird Callicott Toward an Earth Ethic: Aldo Leopold’s Anticipation of the Gaia Hypothesis
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Aldo Leopold's 1949 Land Ethic is seminal in academic environmental ethics and the environmental-ethic-of-choice among professional conservationists and environmentalists. After sixty years, the sciences (evolutionary biology and ecology) that inform the land ethic have undergone much change. The land ethic can be revised to accommodate changes in its scientific foundations, but it cannot be scaled up to meet the challenge of global climate change. Fortunately, given the prominent place of Leopold in all circles environmental, he also faintly sketched an Earth Ethic in a paper written in 1923 and published posthumously in 1979. The Earth Ethic is informed less by ecology and evolutionary biology than by biogeochemistry and anticipates the Gaia Hypothesis, viz., that the Earth (or biosphere) is a whole, living being. If so Leopold thought it a worthy object of moral respect.
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69. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 11/12
Teresa Kwiatkowska, Wojciech Szatzschneider In Quest for a Solution to Environmental Deterioration: Uses and Abuses of Uncertainty and Models
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Adverse environmental and economic impacts of Icelandic volcano triggered discussions about nature’s astounding and unpredictable fury, alongside the inadequacy of human ingenuity and science to deal with factors that are totally independent and practically impossible to control.The first part of this article discusses questions related to understanding of deep uncertainty and possibility of effectively combining qualitative and quantitative analysis. Apparently the problem of incorporating surprise, critical threshold and abrupt changes is well studied in finance, but its poor application led to the latest financial crisis. It would be far more complicated when applied to complex or “wicked” events like deforestation, the conservation of endangered species, industrial pollution and climate change. The authors identify a range of problems in global idea of ‘sustainability’ and explore complexity of uncertainty. The second part reviews innovative approach that pretends to reconcile the needs of local communities with the protection of the natural world.
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70. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Renata Rogozińska, Lesław Kawalec The Icons of Hope. Henryk Musiałowicz
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71. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Katarzyna Kasia, Maciej Bańkowski Taming Material
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72. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Piotr Schollenberger Aesthetic Experience and the Ideal Work of Art
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This essay discusses certain problems raised by Edmund Husserl’s conception of meaning with regard to the analysis of aesthetic experience. By referring to Jacques Derrida’s critique of phenomenological idealism I show that the metaphor of “stratification”, adopted by Husserl in his “Ideas” to a problem of discursive expression, if applied to the analysis of a work of art i.e. painting, allows to avoid the objection of “metaphysics of presence” commonly raised towards the phenomenological method.To present the major issue from the perspective of artistic practice, I interpret Honore de Balzac’s short story “Chef-d’oeuvre inconnu”. In conclusion I show that aesthetic consciousness establishes an affective and receptive dimension that is no longer logocentric. This is the main reason why modern phenomenology should focus on the problem of aesthetic experience.
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73. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Małgorzata A. Szyszkowska Messages in Art and Music: On Route to Understanding Musical Works with Jerrold Levinson
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74. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Ewa Bogusz-Bołtuć The Architecture of One Painting
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75. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Anna Niderhaus Camp vs. Dialogue of Aesthetics and Anaesthetics. A Preliminary Attempt at Describing the Phenomenon
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The changes in the subject matter of philosophical aesthetics are accompanied today by changes in evaluation, degradation of the traditional notion of beauty and also rejection of the old rigid division between beauty and ugliness, causing the dissolution of the category divides—in the process anti-value often becomes a value understood as a formal criteria. In the artistic critique the rejection of absolutism in favor of pluralism and diversity is accompanied by the functioning of the old categories in their new meanings. One form of such anti-values is represented by the phenomenon of camp. As a specific kind of a paradox-figure, camp unveils the relation between aesthetization and anaesthetization.The new aesthetics is a dual figure, demanding examination of its two contrary aspects: aesthetical and anaesthetical. Camp’s rejection of the existing hierarchy of values, its admiration of what is not obviously ugly rather than of what is definitely not beautiful, brings this phenomenon close to Wolfgang Welch’s trend of anaesthetics. In many ways camp appears to be a theoretical model of modern identity as well as a specific type of a sophisticated aesthetic game.
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76. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Krystyna Najder-Stefaniak Cognitive Function of Art—the Bergsonian Approach
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77. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Magdalena Borowska, Maciej Bańkowski Further from Nature — or Closer? Towards a Post–formal Dynamic of Architectural Space
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78. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Anna Szyjkowska-Piotrowska “Whereof We Cannot Speak, There Must We Paint.” The Role of Language in Art
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79. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Janusz Kuczyński, Maciej Bańkowski Henryk Musiałowicz. Ontology of Space and Color. An Enthusiast’s Commentary
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80. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 20 > Issue: 3/4
Alicja Kuczyńska, Maciej Bańkowski The Horizontal and the Vertical in Henryk Musiałowicz’s Artworks
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