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51. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Soon-ok Myong, Byong-soon Chun Cultural Politics of Otherizing Hijabed Muslims in Kazakhstan
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This paper intends to highlight how the Kazakhs, the indigenous ethnic group that emerged as the leading subject of society in Kazakhstan after independencefrom the former Soviet Union, reclassify and remodel their self-culture in the new socio-political context. Despite the craving for resuscitating the Islamic tradition,shrunk under colonial domination, rather the indigenous folklorized Islam came to be classified as a pure national tradition under the fear of radical Islamism,causing the exclusion of the orthodox Muslims. This paper looks at hijabed Muslim women, considered to be outside the reclassified boundary of national tradition, and efficiently controlled and marginalized by the discourse produced by the ruling powers. The authors include field research and interviews from a number of participants, making visible the strategies of exclusion and the political narratives constructed around what people should remember and learn. These narratives recollect forms of imperialism which continue to be, in one way or another.
52. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Maximiliano Korstanje Constructing the Other by Means of Hospitality: the Case of Argentina
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In the hyper-mobile world of today, the industry of tourism and cultural entertainment, witnesses the multiplication of opportunities to travel. According toJohn Urry, we inhabit mobile cultures where being kind to strangers is a positive cultural value. This reality archives the bloody past of hospitality, which from theideological fields facilitated, for instance, the conquest of the Americas. In the present discussion, I delve into the world of literature and explore Viaje a caballo por las provincias Argentinas [Journey on horseback across the provinces of Argentine] a work originally written by William Mac Cann, a British businessman who visited the country between 1947 and 1948. His observations not only reveal the collective patterns of behaviour that have remained part of daily life up to date. The volume describes the attempts of an elite interested in creating a united, but subordinated, image of society, and illuminates the diverse mechanisms of imperial expansion. Hospitality plays a crucial role in the hierarchy of travellers presented in the book, with some belonging to the higher classes of society and others unnamed.
53. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Liudmila Baeva, Anna Romanova Challenges to Frontier Allegories: the Caspian Sea Region in Southern Russia
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This contribution is devoted to frontier theory, the analysis of its conceptual apparatus as well as its topical issues and practical application. We propose a revision of this theory, and confront the usefulness of the term “frontier” with other the similar concepts such as border, boundary and limit. The paper alsoproposes a typology of frontiers characterized by various aspects; civilization, intercultural, religious, and anthropological, among other. From the standpoint ofthis discussion, the authors consider the Southern Russian bordering region of the Caspian Sea, today a much conflicted territory.
54. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Mary Theis Ideal Isolation for the Greater Good: The Hazards of Postcolonial Freedom
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Given the increasing complexity of living in a global village, countries and regions that are parts of larger political entities frequently have considered the optionof separating or seceding an ideal solution to their problems with a larger center of power. Isolation, a form of “freedom from,” has the potential of offering themfree rein or “freedom to” manage their affairs for their own sake. Francophone playwrights and filmmakers have found the dialectical interplay between “freedomfrom” and “freedom to” fertile dramatic soil for plays and films. Some of them work in both of these and other genres. These works seem to ask the same question: Is it desirable or possible to achieve both, even in ideal isolation, without suffering cultural stagnation or repeating the abuse of power on the part of the political center that led to the separation? This article explores the answers to this question given in the plays of Aimée Césaire, Anne Hébert, and Wajdi Mouawad within the greater context for this issue found in J. M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and Azouz Begag’s Un Mouton dans la baignoire and in francophone films by Raoul Peck, Bertrand Tavernier, Claire Denis, Rachid Bouchareb, Ousmane Sembène, Michael Haneke, and Mathieu Kasovitz.
55. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Nurlykhan Aljanova, Karlygash Borbassova Etiquette Rules and Intercultural Relations in Kazakh Society after Independence from the Soviet Union
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This paper considers Kazakh traditional culture in terms of its etiquette rules. Four main blocks are explored: the etiquette of greeting and farewell, hospitality,family etiquette, and blessings, all of which are mandatory in everyday situations. This study acquires importance in relation to the complicated processes of interethnic relations after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the independence of Kazakhstan. Familiarity with the traditions and norms of behavior in Kazakh society as well a basic knowledge of ethnic etiquette serves to strengthen intercultural relations and to understand the ways of life of neighboring and distant peoples. This topic is of special importance in relation to the study of communication culture among interethnic groups after the collapse of the USSR.
56. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Jinghua Guo The Multi-dimensional Model of Cross-Cultural Interpretation as an Anti-centralist Tool in World Literature Perspectives
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This paper argues for a dialogical approach to the cultural relations between East and West. Recognizing the importance of Edward Said’s 1978 work Orientalism, the paper shows a desire to recover more positive approaches that endeavor to integrate Eastern culture and its influence upon the West, not in terms of power or domination, but in terms of cross-cultural encounters. In order to briefly exemplify the debate, I use two examples from Chinese folk culture in the form of movie adaptations in the West, and mention the multiple opera versions of Shakespeare’s plays in the East.
57. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Simon C. Estok Bull and Barbarity, Feeding the World
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This paper argues that food security is a very important topic in cosmopolitanism, one that has simply not received the kind of attention that it should receive.The paper reveals how global food monopolies destroy possibilities for national self-sufficiency, raises questions about neo-nationalism in an age of terror,and exposes the insidious and invidious corporate neo-imperialism that attends seed patenting. “Food, eating, and ethics” as a topic is rarely seen as a proper or important part of discussions about “the new cosmopolitanism,” let alone as part of literary discussions. This paper examines the violence and barbarity of transnational corporations such as Monsanto. I show what happens in the global supermarket and how lives and livelihoods are at stake, how the new corporate imperialism swallows up traditions and histories, and how dangerous food has become.
58. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Huiyong Wu The Impact of Confucianism on Chinese Representations of Japanese Imperialism as well as on International Relations
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This paper explores the role of Confucian education in the perception and representation of the image of the Japanese soldiers in Chinese cultural products.The paper recognizes that perceptions have been greatly affected by governmental demands as well as by other changing aspects that have evolved alongside societal changes, and traces a brief panorama of Japanese imperialism as reflected in popular cinema across different time periods. Finally, the paper tries to illuminate Sino-Japanese relations in the context of Confucianism and collectivism, extending the argument to include the international community at large.
59. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Tomas Kačerauskas Creative Society: Concepts and Problems
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The article deals with the concepts and problems of creative society. The author analyses the postmodern, post-industrial, post-rational, post-democratic, post-economic, post-capitalistic distinctiveness of creative society. According to the author, creative society has characteristics such as "outstanding-ness" (of both individual and society), creative living, and casual work relations. The paper deals with the creative aspects of entertainment and with the role of technologies in creative society. The author presents the sketches of creative ecology and creative ethics, the difficulties of empirically researching creativity and potential creative indexes as well as the problems regarding their evaluation. The research appeals to different approaches of creative society (including sociological, and philosophical) as well as methods used in different fields of the humanities (communication, media studies, narrative studies, and cultural studies). The author presents the key scholars of creative society and possible avenues of research emerging from this new subject.
60. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Polycarp Ikuenobe Cultural Dynamics, Moral Ignorance, and a Plausible Response to Immoral Acts
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I examine the plausibility that culture may induce moral ignorance to mitigate or vitiate blameworthiness. I show how culturally induced moral ignorance may explain and provide an excuse, but not a justification for, terrorist acts, and how a recognition of their moral ignorance and the basis for it, may indicate the proper moral response to extremist Islamic terrorism. I argue that Moody-Adams' criticisms of culturally induced moral ignorance fail to consider how the brainwashing processes, false beliefs, and the closed nature of oppressive cultures may vitiate an epistemic requirement for blameworthiness. I argue that we cannot assume, as Moody-Adams did, that because relevant moral facts are out there, and because people are rationally capable of knowing those facts and reflecting on their cultural principles as the basis for their actions, when they act immorally, it is because they simply refused to know the relevant moral facts or chose not reflect on their cultural principles.