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41. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Bryan W. Husted, M. Cecilia Coutinho de Arruda Social Justice and the Firm: Responses From Latin America
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Inequity in the distribution of income has long been a serious problem in Latin America. This paper examines the responses of four Latin American firms to the issue of social justice. It concludes by arguing that to the extent that Latin American firms find ways to gain benefits from social action, it is more likely that they will participate in social justice programs.
42. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jerry M. Calton Who Owns the Knowledge Creation Processes of Learning Organizations?: A Pragmatic Ethical Exploration
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This paper applies the theory of ethical pragmatism to argue that participants in the organizational process of knowledge creation have the right to negotiate a “stake” in the ownership of intellectual property. This extends the Donaldson & Preston (1995) argument that the normative core of stakeholder theory rests in a “pluralistic bundle” of socially constructed property rights.
43. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Kathryn Balstad Brewer The construction of managerial ethics: An application of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice
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The paper begins with a description of Bourdieu's theory of practice (1977). The remainder of the paper concentrates on applying the theory to a managerial environment, specifically within the framework of ethical decision-making. Illustrations are drawn from actual managerial decisions. Conclusions and implications focus on the use of heterodoxical thinking to diminish the 'business is different' archetype.
44. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Mary-Ellen Boyle The Work of the Corporate Ethics Officer: Moral Labor and Social Trusteeship
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Corporate ethics officers pose a provocative challenge to the contention that elite professionals have amassed technical expertise at the expense of moral authority and social trusteeship (Brint 1994). In this paper I question whether ethics officers, by virtue of their specialization, do work that can be considered "moral," and I inquire as to the extent to which they embrace a social trusteeship role. Situating the discussion in the literature on professionalization and the professional/organizational conflict, I suggest several hypotheses to guide forthcoming empirical work. Unintended consequences of the professionalization of ethics officers are discussed.
45. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Gary M. Cook Creating (Ethical) Performance in Organizations
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While strategy and leadership are important in determining the ethical performance of organizations, organizational culture is also a key determinant. A model of organizational culture developed by Dr. William Schneider and outlined in his book, The Reengineering Alternative (New York: Irwin, 1994)) appears to help understand the power of culture in determining ethical performance.
46. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
J. M. Burns, R. F. O’Neil Values, Ethics, Fiduciary Duty, and the Re-education of Americas CEOs
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Our study asked what topics should be emphasized in a one-week seminar for newly names CEOs. Good corporate citizenship requires that companies adopt policies that avoid wide scale layoffs, but in an intensely competitive global economy this is too frequently the result. Besides effective corporate strategy, ethical issues, corporate culture, and especially fiduciary duty need to be emphasized in such a seminar.
47. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
D. Kirk Davidson Social Marketing as Business Strategy: The Ethical Dimension
48. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Philip L. Cochran, Thomas G. Comstock The Institutionalization of Business Ethics
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A survey of articles in the business press indicates that public interest in business ethics is growing rapidly. Institutional theory suggests that we may continue to see significant growth in business ethics practices. Adoption of such practices can be viewed as a response to legitimacy demands emanating from a broad array of stakeholders. The importance of reputation is investigated as it relates to ethics programs. Finally, some implications of the institutionalization of business ethics are discussed.
49. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Igor Grazin, James Davis Capitalism and Freedom: Post-Communist Paraphrase to Friedman
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The transition of post-Communist Europe has proved that the socialist state-controlled economy is not automatically replaced by free-market mechanisms. Privatisation in most of the countries, like Russia, Czech Republic, Hungary, and others, has replaced state ownership with the ownership by mega-financial groups controlled by the banks. As a result of that, the main vice of the communist economy, its monopolistic structure, has not been cured. What has happened is that the state control over supply and demand has disappeared without having been replaced by any alternative regulative mechanism. The result of that has been the crisis of intercorporate indebtedness that has frozen the whole economy. What we currently have in post-Communist markets are companies having (a) a huge stock of illiquid assets, (b) lack of liquidity, and (c) questionable market perspectives. Who can show us the way out?
50. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jacqueline N. Hood The Influence of Values and Transformational Leadership on Ethical Practices in Organizations
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This study analyzes the relationship between CEO values, leadership style and ethical practices in organizations. Two ethical practices are investigated: formal statement of ethics and diversity training. Results indicate that the top manager’s values are related to ethical practices, transformational leadership is significantly related to all types of values, and laissez-faire leadership is negatively related to competency-based values. When size of company and values are controlled, transformational leadership explains a significant amount of change in formal statement of ethics, and transactional leadership explains a significant amount of change in diversity training.
51. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Gregory M. Reichberg Conducting Business Amidst Human Rights Abuses: Some Lessons from the Just-War Tradition
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This paper raises a set of ethical questions that business leaders can ask themselves when deciding to operate in nations with grave violations of human rights. These questions are drawn from the tradition of moral inquiry known as "just war" (bellum justum). This tradition has devised a set of criteria helpful in organizing our ethical thinking about war. This paper transposes these criteria to the distinct, but related, domain of international trade.
52. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Marshall Schminke Considering the business in business ethics: The effect of organizational size and structure on individual ethics
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This paper explores the relationship between organizational size, structure and the strength of organization members’ ethical predispositions. It is hypothesized that individuals in smaller, more flexible, organic organizations will display stronger ethical predispositions. Survey results from 209 individuals across eleven organizations indicate that contrary to expectations, larger, more rigid, mechanistic structures were associated with higher levels of ethical formalism and utilitarianism.
53. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Mark S. Schwartz The Nature of the Relationship Between Corporate Codes of Ethics and Behaviour
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The study found that codes of ethics are a potential factor influencing the behaviour of corporate agents. Reasons are provided why codes are violated as well as complied with. A set of eight metaphors are developed which help to explain how codes of ethics influence behaviour.
54. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Arthur H. Shacklock Ethical Decision Making in Human Resource Management: A Study of Human Resource Practitioners in the South Australian Public Sector
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The public sector internationally has been undergoing major change in recent years. In the field of Human Resource Management these changes have involved many new challenges facing the Human Resource Practitioner (HRPs), in dealing with the substantial ethical issues which can arise.This study involved a survey of HRPs in South Australia to ascertain the degree to which ethical dilemmas had increased for them in frequency and complexity. The study also sought insights into the likely action choices that HRPs would make in handling various situations involving an ethical judgement. Further measures were taken to assess their levels of self-efficacy towards certain ethical scenarios (15 in all). Finally, a replication of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ) developed by Victor & Cullen (1988) was included in the study.
55. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
George W. Watson, Stephen Papamarcos, Maureen Bezold Social Capital: The Dilemma Of Contending Ideologies In Pluralistic Societies
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This paper reviews some common perspectives on social capital and begins an investigation into the theoretical and empirical role of contending ideologies in the development of social capital
56. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Bill Shaw, Laura P. Hartman Sweatshop Ethics: Balancing Labor Rights with Economic Development
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At the close of the twentieth century, sweatshop labor remains an integral part of the world economic order. Is it always appropriate to condemn sweatshop labor? Might these practices be suitable, if not desirable, in particular economic and social settings? Is it exploitative if labor has alternative choices but freely chooses the sweatshop instead?These questions do not have easy answers. Economic analysis of developing economies presents fascinating arguments for the existence of some "sweatshop" conditions in order to allow those economies to progress. The elimination of sweatshop labor may not be warranted by economic development and their complete eradication may be only a pipe dream, but then are certain positive measures that can be taken without the dire economic consequences that are commonly attributed to interventions.This paper presented at the IABS '99 conference considered the adverse nature of sweatshop practices, address and critically examine the macroeconomic implications of sweatshops in developing economies, and balance these potentially positive consequences with ethical imperatives. The result of this examination is a prescription (if not a motivation) for organizations that choose to do business in economies based on sweatshop conditions. Alternative means exist by which to conduct business ethically in sweatshop economies. As a result of the space limitations of these proceedings, only certain sections of that original paper will be included herein and the endnotes have been removed. For a copy of the entire paper, please contact the authors.
57. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Susan R. Jones The Case of SiNGA: Assessing a Four-Year Intervention
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This paper describes an interdisciplinary intervention of George Washington University faculty and students in business, engineering and law to assist a job training program in the fashion industry, evaluates the experience and identifies various support systems to encourage the sustained benefits of cross school alliances. Graduate school intervention to facilitate the competitive advantage of the inner-city is gaining prominence nationally, in academe, and in state and local governments. The competitive advantage of the inner city advanced by Harvard Business School Prof Michael Porter is a new model of economic development that recognizes the unique strengths of urban areas, specifically, strategic location, local market demand, integration with regional business clusters and underutilized human resources. Faculty and students in disciplines such as business, law and engineering can use their skills to provide research and development consulting deliverables that would not otherwise be available to urban entrepreneurs. These cross school collaborations have enormous potential yet there is limited scholarship to chronicle how these strategies are actually working.
58. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Monica Rivera Dean An Inner-City Business Development Strategy for Washington, D.C.-Based Graduate Business Schools
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The Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC) is a national, not-for-profit organization founded in June 1994 by Harvard Business School Professor Michael E. Porter, following several years of pioneering research on inner-city business and economic development. The ICIC mission is to build healthy economies in America's inner cities that create jobs, income, and wealth for local residents. The National Business School Network (NBSN), a program of ICIC, engages America’s urban graduate business schools to foster inner-city business development and serve inner-city based companies in their communities. This paper reports on a project the NBSN undertook in 1998 with the Washington, D.C., Department of Housing and Community Development to create an inner-city business strategy for area graduate business schools. The report illustrates initial benchmark data that mapped graduate business school programs that aid Washington, D.C.'s inner city. The author also provides recommendations to further their participation and the development of a citywide effort to collaborate on inner-city business development projects.
59. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Mark Glazebrook Corporate Citizenship and Action Research An Australian Perspective
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In an article entitled 'A Price on the Priceless' from the Economist 18/6/99, the value of business is argued as lurking not in the physical and financial assets but in the intangibles of knowledge and ideas. Sharing similar thinking, Microsoft's boss Bill Gates recently was quoted as saying "our primary assets which are software and software development skills, do not show up on the balance sheet".But are knowledge and ideas the only intangibles on which businesses should be valued? What about relationships or partnerships? This question seems to highlight the very essence of the corporate citizenship debate and the need to better understand it through research.
60. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Peter Dahler-Larsen, Nobuyuki Chikudate, Jerry Calton, Diane Swanson Deconstructing Donna: European Critical Theory Perspectives On Donna Wood's Corporate Social Performance Model