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41. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Daqiang Li 对象、可能世界与必然性 —《逻辑哲学论》的本体论分析
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This article focuses on several important but obscure concepts in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. In order to clarify the concept of “object”, I compare it with “atom”. The analysis of the two concepts explains two important questions which have confused Wittgenstein’s reviewers for long: why is the world not the totality of things? Is object substance? “Logical space” is an important concept in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, although it only appears several times. If a proposition serves as the coordinates in the logical space, what are the coordinate axes? Is a possible world a point in the logical space, or a set of points in it? Based on symbolic transformations, I suggest that possible worlds serve as coordinate axes in the logical space. The concept of “possible worlds” contradicts with “necessity”. In Wittgenstein’s theory, all possible worlds are “accessible” to one another. This is why Wittgenstein fails to cope with the conflict between “possibility” and “necessity”.
42. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
DongKai Li 明确哲学的研究对象
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From the daily life, how to get the access to philosophy, what is the approaches to philosophy? Regarding the big topics /big affair in the world, are they related to the philosophy? what and how shall the philosophy do? About some concept, word, have we already fully confirmed their meaning? What shall the philosophy do to make their meaning clear and confirmed? Refers to the philosophy itself, have we already confirmed its study object? What is Philosophy? what is the main study object for the philosophy? It is the pity that till now, for the whole world philosophy field, the main study object for the philosophy have not been confirmed. There are various kinds of answer, this means philosophy, from the past one hundred years, till now, has not work out the state of downturn and confusion. Since the philosophy itself is not clear, then no wonder from the late of 19 century to now, philosophy seems did litting achievement for the human being, for the civilization, for the progress, its glory looks gray, compared with Science, which is in fact born by philosophy although. So, before the philosophy could work well for the civilization, firstly, we should make the philosophy clear, confirm the main object of philosophy, target the correct object for philosophy! Only after this firstwork, we could expect philosophy do well on its tasks and function. For my this paper, its essential point is to present an answer for the target object belongs to the philosophy. Through demonstrate as per scientific logic and philosophy’s whole history, this answer, namely, the only target object belongs to philosophy is the Ontology and Cognition. Let philosophy go back to its correct place, its correct way. then, it could move ahead. only after we get new progress on the study of Ontology and Cognition, and with the help of this new achievement of Ontology and Cognition, we can get progress on the study of the fields related to the human being and progress of civilization. As far as what is the Ontology and Cognition, which kind new achievement of Ontology and Cognition we could expect, that is the next step.
43. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
FangWen Yuan Query the Triple Loophole of the Proof of Gödel Incompleteness Theorem
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Kurt Godel’s “Incompleteness Theorem” is generally seen as one of the three main achievements of modern logic in philosophy. However, in this article, three fundamental flaws in the theorem will be exposed about its concept, judgment and reasoning parts by analyzing the setting of the theorem, the process of demonstration and the extension of its conclusions. Thus through the analysis of the essence significance of the theorem, I think the theorem should be classified as "liar paradox" or something like that. Therefore, the theorem is not reliable and then the content of the theorem itself is questionable. At the same time, please note, the root of the problem exposed in Godel's “Incompleteness Theorem” is a typical example o f existing loopholes in traditional logic.
44. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 42
Xinyan Zhang The Interaction between Mental Energy and Memory
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In his paper, From Everything Outside Mind To Those Inside, submitted also to WCP 2008, the author put forward an idea that the existence of a human mind might generally be understood as either the interaction between circulating mental energies and living memories or results of the interaction. A further discussion on the details of this interaction is presented in this paper. The interaction may be divided into instinctive activities and intellective activities that may be further divided into basic activities such as memory’s forming and forgetting, and advanced activities such as simulating. Three different kinds of simulating activities are described and their general principles are discussed, which is called by the author as “Inforeactor”.
45. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 42
Zihu Liu 人类精神的结构体系和层面性发展解析
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Whenever we analyze the issue of spiritual activities, we can never lay aside of the macro-background of “spirit service to life”. Spirit is” software” of life. It is essentially to carry out determination of self life and a nervous system which make the information processing and feedback between self life and outside world. It has reasonable structure system and systematical work mechanism. The basic structure system of the spirit of human beings is like this: self is the core and leading of spirit running, which has properties in three aspects which are will, needs and motility. These properties formed a unity. Will mainly shows theessential property of self, which is in the domination and core position. Needs mainly shows the main part of life requesting and demanding for objective outside, which is in the conditional and secondary position. If we put the Needs in the key position, it will blaspheme the meaning of life and lose the value of life. Motility is a centralized reflection of life activity, which could be a means for the implementation of self Will and acquisition of self needs. In the tangible world, it is displayed as colorful life activity. In the intangible spiritual world, it is displayed as the information processing ability and information feedback ability of self life. Motility has four different levels: emotion, subconsciousness, consciousness, cognition. Correspondingly, the development of spirit could also be divided as four levels. In each level, self, activity, requested development degree, property characteristics and main content have certain of differences. In structure system of spirit, there is a correlation among each part and each element, which will interact with own characteristics to form an organic whole. In fact, it is an essential sublimation of tangible body and an intangible life existed with information form. The following figure shows the relationship of each element:[*Electronic Editor's Note: Figure in PDF of article*]This structure system of spirit, which isn’t a simple frame but an abstract mechanism of spirit running, is life active system of informatization. This system and mechanism make the changeable spiritual activity clear and orderly, and make the abundant and various life activities systematic and vivid. This system’s self isdeveloping, whose development still comply with the law of life development, symbolizing the development and extension of vitality. This development could be considered as continuance of life progress. In the low-grade life, it is mainly displayed as biological stress stage of promoting the favorable and avoiding the unfavorable as well as blind and instinctive affective response stage; in the highgrade animals, it is gradually displayed certain of psychological activity ability and study cognition ability. In human beings, it is gradually displayed awake of consciousness and mature of reason, making human beings to control themselves and change all things to become the soul of the world. Through this structure system and running mechanism, we could get a systematical explanation for theessence of emotion, mystery of psychological activity, process of consciousness awake, occurrence mechanism of dream. Meantime, we put forth that human beings must experience the second awakerational awake to become the true society human when human beings become the humans with souls after consciousness awake.
46. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Zhānghàn Zhōng 真气科学
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科学追求真理,古希腊哲学家柏拉图认为精确的理念和数学就是 真理。本文对现代科学和数学进行了深入的反思,论证了理念和数学不 是真理。与真气同在的理念和数学是真理,与骄气同在的理念和数学是 谬误,人所得到的理念和数学只不过是在真气和骄气之间的模糊值。本 文试图在耶稣的真气中,建立三位一体的真气科学,让自然科学和社会 科学在真气的本形耶稣里得以贯通。本文的目的是通过这三位一体的真 气科学,让人在真气本形耶稣里自由地追求各自的真理。尽管各自的真理是模糊值,但模糊真理胜过精确谬误。真气和道,阴阳一体,是中华 文明的根基。《圣经》讲:“上帝是灵。”《圣经》所讲的“灵”的希 伯来字是ruagh。ruagh 的原意有气、风、生命力、等等含义。所以根据 希伯来字原意,这“灵”可以直译为中国古老的《黄帝内经》所述的 “真气”,上帝就是真气。耶稣就是道,是真气的本形,与真气同在。真气看不见,属阳;真气的形看得见,属阴。真气和真气的形,阴阳互 根,合为一体,在不同的时空彰显,就是道。真气、耶稣、道,三位一 体,是宇宙的独一真神。中国道家所述的阴阳关系,是宇宙万物的根本 关系,是超对称关系。万物都与耶稣的真气,构成阴阳关系。耶稣是真 气的本形,耶稣就是真气,万物始于他,归于他,依靠他。一切神学、哲学、科学、经济学、医学、等等,也始于他,归于他,依靠他。
47. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
B. J. Zeng 结构论: 生物系统泛进化理论
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Modern science developed in the interflow of culture between west and east. Combing of pratice technology with philosophic thoughts formed experimental method. Holistic views contacting atomism produced system theory. System thoughts are applicated in the science and engineering of biosystems, and the cencepts of system biomedicine (Kamada T.1992), systems biology (Zieglgansberger W, Tolle TR.1993), system bioengineering and system genetics (Zeng BJ. 1994) were established. From positive to synthetic thoughts, philosophy have been developed ontology, cosmology, organism theories. Structurity is structure logic system founded on entity, develop, exist axioms, tolerance, adaptation, fluctuate, interweave, transform theorems and integrate, adaptation, construct laws. Structurity be discussed on the cosmos, life, culture system, creation, hologram theories of structure ontology, construct mutation, simi-structure organism and entity emergence, symbol implication. From the relation of structure, function and development, the structurity put forward the cycle, spiral, triangle structure stability patterns of self-organization in structure complement each other and stratification, functional couple and interflow bounds growth, coordinativetransformation and holographic symmetry.
48. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Wang Guozheng Nature Science and “Three Changes”
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Once Zheng Xuan, a man of Han dynasty, made notations of “Yiwei”, he said: “The word ‘change’ contains three meanings: the first is simplifying, the second is transformation, and the third is unchanging ”, thus called to “three changes”. The wording “three changes” is able to be the different explanations of “Zhouyi”, and also can be understand to three meanings of the word “change” in “Zhouyi”. Everywhere in the nature, and in nature science, there are incalculable examples about “three changes”. The process of “simplifying”, it is that nature science obtains the principles by means of summing up the multitudinous complex spontaneous phenomena. There is “the fundamental of thinking economy”, and “Aucum razor” in the west, then they emphasize to wipe off the miscellaneous and keep up the simple, and to eliminate the false and retain the true. Therefore, it can say where there is no “simplifying”, there is no nature science. “Transformation” means movement and change. This is the essentiality of the nature. From the biggest such as the universe to the smallest such as cells, all these are the outcomes of evolution, and are changing continueously. Physics researching from static objects to dynamic objects, and mathematics calculation from the constant to the variable, all of these studies are closing up to the essentiality of the natural “transformation” nearer and nearer. If there is no “transformation”, nature science world stop, and the nature world be deathly stillness. “Unchanging” means that the static state exists in the dynamic state, and the constant exists in the variation. The various theorems and laws, such as the theorem of constant of light velocity and the law of conservation of energy, are the summation and accumulation of the regularities of which the relative stabilization is kept in changeable movement. Various kinds of equation are all linked by equal-sign, and based on the condition recognizing which the two sides is equal constantly. Therefore the calculation of the relations between matter characteristics can be set up. Otherwise, not only the nature world be disorder and unsystematic, but also the science world have no laws to go by.
49. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Xiao Ming Wang 生命的哲学 ‐后基因时代药物筛选策略与传统中药学理论
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Using logic analysis method with contemporary philosophy conception, made the definition of a life. Analyzing the reason of a disease and characteristics of drug, explained the Chinese traditional theory of materia medica. Demonstrated the best drug contain the function of Monarch drug, Minister drug, serviceman drug and missioner drug, instructed human drug reseach in future.
50. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Liang Kun Inquiry in to the Russian Ecological Eschatology Ideology
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Compared with the related western studies, Russian ecological philosophy has paid more attention to Eschatology and represented a unique path of thinking, that is, an intense rational conception and a religious consciousness. In the era of globalization, Russian ecological Eschatology, as an active response of Russian ideology to the world ecosystem crisis, contains a strong eschatological emotion and a spirit of salvation. It mainly deals with the sin and punishment between the nature and human being as well as the endeavor of atoning humanity. The first part of the essay traces back the origin and evolution of eschatology and ecology in the two systems of Russian philosophy—humanism and cosmism, with a trimming of the original relationship between the ecological eschatology and the traditional eschatology. The second part explores the way of salvation for the human being in crisis directed by Russian ecological philosophy, which is nourished by the profound spiritual tradition. For the human being, the way of civilization lies in a rebuild of rationality by faith. The goal of faith is to achieve a self-completeness in morality by a heart-open through God. In this way, the destiny of the world may be changed. This is the only hope of the human being and, therefore, a new chapter of salvation for our times.