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41. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Christopher S. Miller, Silvia M. King Southern Company: A Case Study in Corporate Responsibility Leadership
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This paper reviews the experience of an integrated approach to CSR in the U.S. electric utility sector. The authors report on the results of Southern Company’s historical definition of CSR as a dynamic model, balancing stakeholder needs through shifting pressures to assure long-term shareholder value, superior customer, price performance, and sustainable economic development. Using financial and utility sector measures, the paper assesses the company’s “balancing” approach to addressing CSR, which weights corporate, environmental, community, and economic factors in driving successful and sustained financial, social, and environmental performance. The paper concludes by suggesting that CSR success in this sector requires, first, that the global warming issue be governed by the same balancing considerations to which all stakeholders and their legitimate interests are subject, and second, an energy policy that embraces both atechnology policy and appropriate regulatory incentives.
42. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Maria Lai-Ling Lam A Study of the Transfer of Corporate Social Responsibility from Well-Established Foreign Multinational Enterprises to Chinese Subsidiaries
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The study is designed to examine the perceptions of Chinese executives of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and to explore possible strategies by which well-established foreign multinational enterprises can carry out their CSR in China. The interviewees’ interpretation of CSR is found to be oriented toward internal operations of the Chinese subsidiaries and economic responsibility. Many interviewees have the classical view of CSR, while headquarters has the modern view. The main problems of implementing CSR are: specific Chinese business culture, intellectual property rights, internal due process, and insufficient Chinese government support. It is recommended that socialization of Chinese executives about CSR be accomplished through personnel transfer among various functional areas in the corporate system, the development of a just organizational culture in the Chinese subsidiaries, and collaboration with external partnersthat advocate CSR.
43. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Nicholas Capaldi Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries in a Global Market Economy
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Every firm or corporation faces both political and social transaction costs. The existence of political transaction costs is one reason firms, and even whole industries, employ lobbyists. CSR is an example of a social transaction costs. CSR means serving social and political interests without direct remuneration but in a way that is consistent with and indirectly serves long-term investor value; it is not philanthropy. Some will argue that the firm is not really being responsible or generous but only serving its own long-term interest. But that is precisely the point. The reasons this category of CSR must be introduced are that (1) it is obscured by the classical liberal perspective, sometimes to the detriment of the shareholders; (2) failure to recognize it, obfuscates the role of management, part of which is to look at a macro-context that includes more than markets; and (3) it misses the important extent to which business leaders can, may, and should have a vital role in formulating public policy.
44. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
David Rygl, Markus G. Kittler, Carina Friedmann Fighting HIV/AIDS: The Role of the Pharmaceutical Industry and the Sustainability of its Actions in Sub-Saharan Africa—An Empirical Investigation
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Since the first diagnosis of an HIV infection in 1956, the number of victims infected with the virus has dramatically increased to 40.3 million in 2005. The countries of sub-Saharan Africa carry the largest burden of HIV/AIDS worldwide. Various programs against the spread of the epidemic in this region have been promised. The objective of this article is to analyze to what extent these programs can achieve a sustainable effect. This article examines in detail the sustainability of thirteen programmes initiated by large American and European pharmaceutical companies. It finds that none of the examined programs offers a fully sustainable solution. However, programs that were organized in cooperation with local authorities or organizations appear suitable to reach sustainable effects in high-prevalencecountries. As a result, cooperation seems to be an important prerequisite to implement the infrastructural measures necessary to guarantee sustainable effects in sub-Saharan Africa.
45. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Loke Min Foo Third Way CR and Third World CR: In What Way Should Responsible Corporations Serve the World?
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This paper distinguishes norms for corporate responsibility in developed and developing countries. In the former, corporate responsibility should reflect “ Third Way” values of restoring individual responsibility and social relationship, and these can be achieved through stakeholder engagement. Since stakeholder engagement often presumes an adequate level of individual rights and rule-governed behaviour, it is incompatible with the current political and cultural characteristics of developing countries. This paper suggests that the end of CR initiatives in developing countries is to promote stakeholder rights and good governance, while the means is through stakeholder empowerment.
46. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Ying Hua, Xiaodi Yang Case Study of Lafarge China and Shui On Cement: Emission-Related CSR in the Chinese Cement Industry
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The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries and among the largest CO2 emitters. Cement industry emissions in China have attracted particular attention, due to the country’s rapid growth. Yet few local Chinese cement companies have corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs, and even fewer have environmentally related CSR programs. This paper studies the environmentally related CSR practices in mainland China of two companies: Lafarge, a multinational cement company, and Shui On, a Hong Kong-based construction company and developer. We are interested in examining if there are differences in their environmentally related CSR practices, especially those related to emissions, in industrialized countries and Hong Kong on the one hand andin mainland China on the other—given that environmental regulations on the mainland are lax and an awareness of global climate change is largely nonexistent. Our intention is to investigate the influence of the CSR practices of multinational enterprises (MNEs) on the local Chinese cement industry, because they could be regarded as an effective vehicle to improve CSR awareness and practice in the Chinese cement industry and to help alleviate the industry’s impact on global climate change. We found that beneficial knowledge transfer from MNEs to local companies has not gone beyond improving production technology and management methods to the point of influencing CO2 emissions. Lafarge China and Shui On Cement announced a joint venture partnership during the course of our case study, and we examine whether this venture may have an impact on emission-related CSR practices in the Chinese cement industry.
47. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 3
Stephen Yan-Leung Cheung, J. Thomas Connelly, Piman Limpaphayom Determinants of Corporate Disclosure and Transparency: Evidence from Hong Kong and Thailand
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This study examines the degrees of corporate disclosure and transparency of publicly listed companies in two emerging markets and analyzes corporatedisclosure practices as a function of specific firm characteristics. The analysis uses the disclosure and transparency scores extracted from a survey instrument designed to rate disclosure practices of publicly listed companies by using the OECD Corporate Governance Principles as an implicit benchmark. Empirical results show that financial characteristics explain some of the variation in the degrees of corporate disclosure for firms in Hong Kong but not for firms in Thailand. Further, corporate governance characteristics, such as board size and board composition, show more significant associations with the degrees of corporate disclosure inThailand than in Hong Kong. The results are broadly consistent with the notion that good corporate governance leads to better corporate disclosure and transparency in less developed markets.
48. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Venkatesh Seshamani International Corporate Responsibility in the Context of Development: The Case of the Mining Sector in Zambia with Special Reference to Indian and Chinese Investments
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Development is a process of achieving a right balance between economic growth and psychic income growth. A foreign investor’s manner of conducting business in a country could result in any of four scenarios in which economic/psychic income is low/inadequate, high/inadequate, low/adequate, or high/adequate. Foreign investment will contribute to development only if it reflects the fourth scenario. A responsible corporation can contribute to money income and more importantly to psychic income of a company’s workers. This paper examines the corporate responsibility performance of Indian and Chinese investments in Zambia’s mining sector. The paper finds that while Chinese companies seem to be operating close to the first scenario, Indian companies are operatingbetween the first and fourth. Thus, neither of them is contributing to true development.
49. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Alejo José G. Sison, Joan Fontrodona Corporate Governance in IDOM: An Example of a Corporate Polity
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Aristotle indicates that although a monarchy is the best form of government in theory, in practice, a polity (“mixed regime”) is best. IDOM Engineering Consultancy is presented as an example of a “corporate polity.” In this case study, stories and rationales behind the institutionalization of worker participation in ownership and management are discussed. Arguments in favor of the corporate common good as the firm’s overarching concern are proffered. Legal challenges as well as those arising from the company’s growth and overseas expansion are studied.
50. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Daniel W. Skubik Fethullah Gülen, Islamic Banking, and Global Finance
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Fethullah Gülen, a leader of interfaith and intercultural dialogue, writes of “humanity’s vicegerency” that includes “reaping the bounties of the Earth . . . within the framework of the Creator’s orders and rules.” What might this mean for international business ethics in general, and the expansion of Islamic banking practices and global financial ethics in particular? Forthrightness and transparency are critical in the contemporary development and spread of what are nominated Islamic or shariah-compliant financial products and services. This paper seeks to explore the advantages of acceptably disparate analyses of shariah-compliance, by suggesting how a Gülen-like religion-state symphonia can evolve. The resulting arrangement of financial affairs would thus allow for real diversity inbanking options for all sorts of clients, carving out a space for secular and religious-based institutions, alike, in the global marketplace.
51. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Ahmed Koudri The Social Responsibility of the Public Enterprise: A Case Study of Sonatrach in Algeria
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the meaning and scope of social responsibility in a state-owned enterprise. Is corporate social responsibility (CSR) a meaningful concept for a state-owned enterprise, as opposed to a privately-owned corporation, given that it is created with social as well as economic aims? To try to answer to this question, the case of Sonatrach, an Algerian oil company, is examined. The lack of statistical data does not allow an assessment of CSR actions undertaken by this company since 2004. The analysis identifies two main obstacles to the effectiveness of CSR in state-owned enterprises: (a) the system of internal governance ischaracterized by a lack of control; (b) the competitive and social environment is characterized by a partial application of the logic of the market, which does not allow the optimal allocation of means.
52. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Saad Al-Harran A Proposed Strategic Alliance between the Qatar Foudation and the Al-Jazeera Channel to Face the Challenges of the 21st Century
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The paper highlights the importance of a strategic alliance between the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community and the Al-Jazeera International Channel. Secondly, we discuss the global outlook as to how Qatar can position itself on the world map as knowledge-based nation and a land of innovative ideas. Thirdly, we analyse the new role of Islamic finance in social responsibility and why investment in social capital is vitally important in a challenging world. We select four Muslim countries that Qatar should consider for human capital investment purposes—Egypt (the brain and heart of the Arab world), Syria, Turkey, and Malaysia—and justify this selection. Fourthly, we discuss a new role for the Aljazeera International Channel as a promoter of successful entrepreneurs and venture capitalists in the Muslim World, to show what real Islamic finance is. Finally, the challenges ahead are discussed and policy recommendations suggested.
53. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Siti Musa The Relationship Between Food Security and Trade Liberalization: Assessing the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Agriculture and the Role of Transnational Corporations
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This paper addresses the issue of food security in developing countries and how agriculture plays an important role in achieving not only food security, but also in reducing poverty and promoting sustainable development. The promotion of trade liberalization by the World Trade Organization (WTO) through the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) has undermined the productive capacity of developing countries and their comparative advantage in the agricultural sector, marginalizing small-scale farmers and benefitting the big corporations. The paper looks at the issue of intellectual property rights that big corporations have for seeds and their effects on small-scale farmers, and how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is insufficient to regulate the dominance of big corporations in the food and agricultural market. The paper is divided into seven sections: trade liberalization and food security, the WTO and the AoA, the effects of the AoA on developing countries, the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) on food security, CSR and TNCs, policy recommendations, and conclusions.
54. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Muhammad Z. Mamun, Mohammad Aslam Conflicting Approaches of Managers and Stockholders in a Developing Country: Bangladesh Perspective
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In general it is found that the corporate managers and stockholders possess totally different view about good governance of a company. Managers strongly believe that governance of their companies is quite well but stockholders view that it is very poor. The study found that the groups differ in perception especially in terms of turnover, production, capital, leverage, debt service, credit policy, solvency, human resource, recruitment, technology, customer satisfaction, internal control, strength, opportunity, competition, industry position, collective bargaining agent (CBA) issues, and economic remedies; whereas, they have similar view in terms of adequacy of research fund, company weaknesses and threats, contingency plans, presence of political influence. The managers think that the companies do not have enough retained earnings and these should not be distributed among stockholders, but the stockholders thinkotherwise. Managers always perceive that they are underpaid whereas stockholders express the opposite view. Each group believes that it is the other group that dominates the decision-making. Both the group wants to have mutual interaction but stockholders want to interact more than the mangers. The study noted that corporate managers’ tenure is more with the company than a stockholder’s holding of stock. The study also found that the managers are better educated than the stockholders. The study observed serious gender biasness both in management position and stockholding of the corporations. Though both the groups belong to same age level but their distribution shows stockholders enter into the share market at an early age.
55. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Irina Soboleva Internal CSR Practices: Social Dialogue Versus Corporate Paternalism (Case of Russia)
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The paper is focused upon the relations of key inside stakeholders—managers and employees whose interests are supposed to be represented by trade unions while shaping internal CSR practices. It discusses real, perceived and desired role of TU in the process and the outcomes of internal CSR in the fields of work related security and access to social benefits. It is demonstrated that the internal social policy of corporate management pursues pragmatic goals seeking the least costly way to compete for skilled manpower and accumulate human capital. The role of TU is chiefly limited to assisting the management in distribution of social benefits. As a result the benefit distribution contributes to social inequality patterns inside corporation. It is safe to conclude that so far the internal CSR patterns in Russia are formed under a mixture of pragmatic and paternalistic reasons with minor traces of social dialogue.
56. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Takuya Takahashi CSR that Incorporates Local and Traditional Knowledge: The Sampo-yoshi Way
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This paper examines prospects for and content of a global regime for human rights. Competing schools of thought forecast convergence and divergence of national standards under stress of globalization. No such regime exists, and there is no compelling theory of international corporate social responsibility. However, elements of an emerging global regime can be identified and partially overlap with environmental protection issues. This regime is highly fragmented, underdeveloped, and only partially enforceable—but it is in development. The UN Global Compact, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), ISO 26000 (expected in 2010), the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) of 1789 and the permanent international criminal court established in 2002 are illustrations of such elements. The third Ruggie Report, issued 2008, is an important summary of conditions and proposes a strategy for forward progress. Human rights impose important obligations on multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating across highly diverse political, legal, and cultural realities.
57. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Esther M. J. Schouten The Process of Embedding Human Rights within Subsidiaries of a Multinational Corporation
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Multinational companies (MNCs) can have positive and negative impacts on the human rights situation of a country. More and more MNCs have made a commitment to respect human rights. So far, little research has been done on how MNCs can embed their commitment and which factors determine its success. This paper therefore aims to describe and learn from the process of embedding human rights in six subsidiaries of the multinational oil company Royal Dutch Shell (in short, Shell), operating in different parts of the world. It develops an approach based on the model of Tatiana Kostova. Using a specific tool called the Human Rights Compliance Assessment, the paper concludes that, despite differences in local context, the process requirements of embedding global standardscan be the same.
58. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Duane Windsor Developing a Global Regime for Human Rights
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This paper examines prospects for and content of a global regime for human rights. Competing schools of thought forecast convergence and divergence of national standards under stress of globalization. No such regime exists, and there is no compelling theory of international corporate social responsibility. However, elements of an emerging global regime can be identified and partially overlap with environmental protection issues. This regime is highly fragmented, underdeveloped, and only partially enforceable—but it is in development. The UN Global Compact, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), ISO 26000 (expected in 2010), the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) of 1789 and the permanent international criminal court established in 2002 are illustrations of such elements. The third Ruggie Report, issued 2008, is an important summary of conditions and proposes a strategy for forward progress. Human rights impose important obligations on multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating across highly diverse political, legal, and cultural realities.
59. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
M. Gunawan Alif, Retno Artsanti Nutrition for Kids Was Good for the Company: Lesson From JAPFA4Kids Nutrition Campaign
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Indonesia is developing greater opportunities for CSR activities, along with some obstacles and constraints. Unlike the Western world, one of the important drivers of CSR in this country is the importance of avoiding conflict. The agribusiness company JAPFA is very keen to promote CSR activities, not only to benefit the needy, but also for the survival of the organization in a very dynamic and turbulent market. This study elaborates how the JAPFA CSR program benefited the community around the company’s strategic business unit operations, and what kind of return the company received. To give a wider perspective on CSR activities in Indonesian organizations,the study also investigates employee commitment to JAPFA, its corporate culture, and employee attitudes toward social responsibility.
60. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 4
Adli Juwaidah, Ruksana Banu Management Style and Decisions from the Perspective of Cultural Differences: A Study with Special Reference to the Sultanate of Oman
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It is common today that organizations have their own distinctive cultures, even in cases when they may not have willfully attempted to create them. Rather, cultures have most likely been created unconsciously, forced by the values of top level managers, the founder, or core people who have built or direct the organization. Leaders frequently attempt to change the culture of their organizations to suit their own preferences. The resulting culture will influence the decision-making process, market demand, and nature of the business. It affects management styles and what everyone determines as success. This study is an attempt to discover how culture influences management styles and decisions, with special reference to the local environment in Oman.