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41. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Olga Kozhina Современная философия совершенства и свободы
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Анализируется концепция философии совершенства и свободы, представленная в корпусе фундаментальных работ Н. М. Чуринова. Актуальность концепции обусловлена тем, что позволяет преодолеть онтологическое и гносеологическое противостояние ма-териализма и идеализма в современной философии. При этом на первый план в кон-цепции выступает поиск новых стандартов теоретизирования, переосмысление основа-ний науки, философии. В этом отношении Н.М.Чуринов сформировал концепцию двух проектов как способов существования науки, которые в истории философии и науке существовали всегда. Диа-лектический проект науки, берущий начало от Аристотеля, ориентированный в своем раз-витии на гностицизм, космическую модель мира и теорию познания как теорию отраже-ния. Метафизический проект науки, берущий начало от софистов, ориентированный на принцип агностицизма, универсальную модель мира, теорию познания как теорию репре-зентаций. Двум проектам науки соответствуют две модели мира, две теории познания, два типа теоретизирования. Двум типам теоретизирования, соответствуют два типа об-щества, и двум типам общества – присущи два типа личности. Н. М. Чуринов артикулирует философию в контексте социально-культурной и инфор-мационной действительности, является основателем и руководителем научно-педагогической и философской школы теории информационной реальности и ее прило-жений, которые получили свое развитие в более пятидесяти диссертаций его учеников. Концепция различия философии совершенства и философии свободы активно интег-рируется в систему современного образования. Понятие “свобода” берется как код ме-тафизического философского и научного творчества. Соответственно, категория “совер-шенство” - код диалектического теоретического творчества.
42. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Роида Рзаева Мультикультурализм в постмодернистском контексте
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Today, multiculturalism is characterized as an ideology, a poli-cy, as well as a discourse, which makes the multiculturalist agenda to spread and become real. At the same time, multiculturalism, as a type of discourse, can be identified in several different discourses. One of them is the post-modern discourse. The phenomenon of postmodernism is currently in the focus of philosophical interest, primarily because it is seen as a characteristic philo-sophical type in modern culture. One of its most common features is that multiculturalism reflects the cultural situation of the postmodern. The postmodern era extends the meaning of multiculturalism.
43. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Jingzhao Liu 当代哲学怎样成为“自由的学校”?
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联合国教科文组织在2005年发表的《跨部门哲学战略》中把哲学比喻为“自由的学校”。显然,这一比喻是基于哲学在当今时代的独特价值。本文旨在简要论证当代哲学怎样成为“自由的学校”:首先,时代的变革与深层次矛盾要求哲学做出积极回应;其次,哲学“自由的学校”应该体现为开放性、创造性和生活化三个向度; 第三,“ 自由的学校”意味着,哲学将不再是哲学家把玩的知识古董和教条,而应当是所有人均可从中获益的精神家园。
44. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Cai Hou 哲学的伦理化与现代性的重塑
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当代哲学发展的一个重要趋向是哲学的伦理化,即哲学经过古代的宗教化和近代的科学化之后而进入道德和伦理之域。哲学发展的这一重要趋向给当代哲学提出的首要和根本任务是“合理的现代性” 的塑造和构建。它规定了当代哲学的最重要的使命和任务,也构成思考当代哲学发展的基本的立足点和视域。“现代性”的基本矛盾是科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的矛盾。“合理的现代性”及其塑造应体现科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的有机统一。所以,当代哲学应自觉地致力于解决科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的矛盾,致力于人类价值观的重建以及引导人类需求方式和生存方式的改变。这是对当代哲学发展的重大挑战,同时也是当代哲学发展的重大契机。
45. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Δημήτριος Πασσάς Το κίνημα της αντιψυχιατρικής
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Το κίνημα της αντιψυχιατρικής αναφέρεται σε μια ομάδα δια-νοουμένων, οι οποίοι μέσα από το έργο τους αμφισβήτησαν την αυθεντία της ψυχιατρικής επιστήμης, έθεσαν τα ερωτήματα που αφορούσαν την εγκυρότη-τα της διάγνωσης και των κριτηρίων της, το βιολογικό υπόστρωμα μιας ψυ-χικής νόσου, το κατά πόσον μια θεραπεία αποβαίνει προς όφελος του ασθενή και εζήτησαν την αποασυλοποίηση όσων βρίσκονταν έγκλειστοι στα ψυχια-τρικά νοσοκομεία. Το κίνημα έγινε ευρύτερα γνωστό στον κόσμο κατά την δεκαετία του 1970 κατά την οποία απέκτησε αρκετούς υποστηρικτές. Ο όρος «αντιψυχιατρική» εμφανίστηκε για πρώτη φορά στο βιβλίο του D. Cooper (Psychiatry and antipsychiatry, 1967). Κυριότεροι εκπρόσωποι του αντιψυχι-ατρικού κινήματος θεωρούνται ο Michel Foucault, o R. D. Laing, o D. Cooper και o Thomas Szasz. Μέσα από τα έργα τους προσπάθησαν να κλονίσουν την πεποίθηση που καλλιεργείται από την ψυχιατρική, η οποία υποστηρίζει ότι πίσω από κάθε ψυχικό νόσημα κρύβεται κάποια γενετική ανωμαλία και μάλιστα έφθασαν στο σημείο να αρνηθούν τον όρο «ψυχική ασθένεια», ως μια αφηρημένη θεωρητική κατασκευή, που σκοπό της είχε την ετικετοποίη-ση (labeling) και την εξάλειψη μιας σειράς διαφορετικών και αποκλινουσών συμπεριφορών, χωρίς την συναίνεση των ασθενών (υποκειμένων). Με άλλα λόγια κατήγγειλαν την ψυχιατρική ως μια ψευδοεπιστήμη, η οποία με την «αγαστή» συνέργεια του κράτους λειτουργούσε σαν ένας καταπιεστικός μη-χανισμός, ο οποίος είχε σκοπό να ενισχύσει συγκεκριμένες νόρμες και στερε-ότυπα σχετικά με το τί είναι φυσιολογικό και τί δεν είναι, τα οποία με τη σειρά τους λειτουργούν ως αναχώματα ή ως στηρίγματα του καπιταλιστικού συστή-ματος. Στόχος της εργασίας είναι να παρουσιαστούν οι θέσεις των κυριότερων εκπροσώπων του κινήματος, να εκτιμηθεί ο ρόλος και η σημασία αυτών των θέσεων, καθώς και να αποτιμηθεί η επιρροή που άσκησε το εν λόγω κίνημα στον τομέα της ψυχικής υγείας μέχρι σήμερα.
46. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Γιούλη Ι. Παπαϊωάννου Δεοντοκρατία ή συνεπειοκρατία: Μια διαχρονική διαμάχη υπό το φως της σύγχρονης επιστήμης
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Μία από τις μεγαλύτερες έριδες στην ιστορία της φιλοσοφίας είναι η διαμάχη μεταξύ οπαδών της δεοντοκρατίας –της θεωρίας σύμφωνα με την οποία η ηθική αξιολόγηση της ανθρώπινης συμπεριφοράς πρέπει να γίνεται με κριτήριο την πρόθεση– και οπαδών του ωφελιμισμού –της θεωρίας σύμφωνα με την οποία κριτήριο της ηθικής αξιολόγησης πρέπει να είναι οι συνέπειες των πράξεών μας. Το πρόβλημα γίνεται περισσότερο επίκαιρο λόγω των σύγχρονων επιστημονικών εξελίξεων καθόσον φαίνεται να δικαιώνουν μάλλον τους οπαδούς του ωφελιμισμού παρά τους υποστη-ρικτές της δεοντοκρατίας. Ειδικότερα, πορίσματα σύγχρονων επιστημονικών ερευνών1 δείχνουν ότι η ηθική αξιολόγηση βάσει αποτελεσμάτων συνιστά ορ-θότερο τρόπο ηθικής προσέγγισης καθόσον, όταν σκεφτόμαστε ωφελιμιστι-κά, φαίνεται ότι δραστηριοποιούνται οι περισσότερο «έλλογες» περιοχές του εγκεφάλου μας. Αντιθέτως, όταν λαμβάνουμε αποφάσεις και διαμορφώνουμε τη συμπεριφορά μας βάσει άλλων κριτηρίων, όπως η πρόθεση ή το καθήκον, δραστηριοποιούνται οι περισσότερο «άλογες» περιοχές του εγκεφάλου μας. Εάν λοιπόν η ηθική και η ηθικότητα συνδέονται και πρέπει να συνδέονται με τη λογικότητα και εφόσον προκύπτει –όπως αποφαίνονται ορισμένοι επιστή-μονες– ότι από τη φύση μας λειτουργούμε ορθότερα και λογικότερα, όταν συμπεριφερόμαστε αναλογιζόμενοι τα αποτελέσματα ή τις συνέπειες των πράξεων μας, τότε η επιστήμη φαίνεται να αναγνωρίζει ένα πλεονέκτημα στον ωφελιμισμό ή τη συνεπειοκρατία2 έναντι της δεοντοκρατίας. Εντούτοις μια προσεκτικότερη μελέτη των φιλοσοφικών εννοιών της πρόθεσης και του αποτελέσματος, του καθήκοντος και των συνεπειών, καταδεικνύει ότι ο από-λυτος διαχωρισμός τους, όχι μόνο δεν συνιστά την ορθότερη και λογικότερη προσέγγιση της ηθικότητας, αλλά δεν προσιδιάζει ούτε καν σε αυτό που θεω­ρείται «έλλογη φύση».
47. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Ελένη Σοφατζή Ο υπαρξισμός του Ζαν Πωλ Σαρτρ στην ταινία του Φρανσουά Τρυφώ Fahrenheit 451
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Σε αυτή την ανακοίνωση θα παρουσιαστούν τα βασικότερα σημεία της υπαρξιστικής θεωρίας του γάλλου φιλοσόφου και στοχαστή Ζαν Πωλ Σάρτρ, όπως αυτά αποτυπώνονται στην ταινία του Φρανσουά Τρυφώ Fahrenheit 451 (1966). Πιο συγκεκριμένα μέσα από την ιστορία του Μοντάγκ, ενός πυροσβέστη, και της Κλαρίς, μιας δασκάλας, οι οποίοι ζουν σε ένα απολυταρχικό καθεστώς, θα αναλυθούν ζητήματα όπως αυτό της «σκευοκρατίας», της εγκατάλειψης του ανθρώπου από το Θεό, της ελευθερίας του ανθρώπου, καθώς και της προσωπικής και συλλογικής του ευθύνης.
48. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Jean Du Toit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin as response to modernity’s nature-human dichotomy: A philosophical-critical study
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Modernity as a philosophical and intellectual movement has cultivated a perspective of humanity as separated from nature. In modernity, nature is valuable only insofar as it has instrumental value (i.e. that it may be utilized for the benefit of humanity). This paper postulates that such an approach to the nature-human relationship may have led to considerable environmental damage and misuse, and that the perspective of humanity as separate from nature should be re-evaluated. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin’s philosophy is investigated as a possible means to overcome this dichotomy. De Chardin describes varying ontologies that are embedded in the evolutionary process and against which all human relevance and action must be sketched. This differs from an evolutionistic approach, because whilst engaging with scientific discourse (which tends to be reductionist in approach), de Chardin also incorporates spiritual and religious ideas and perspectives. Furthermore, de Chardin’s ideas differ from vague pantheism because he engages with the terminology used in modern science and re-evaluates this terminology’s application and conclusions in relation to his newly developed cosmology (or cosmogenesis). Several questions are central in this paper: Firstly, could de Chardin’s approach be incorporated into the natural scientific discourse? Secondly, does de Chardin’s cosmology provide new avenues for investigation into a closer and more sustainable relationship between humanity and the natural world?
49. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Nirmal Baid Jain Acceptance of Life in Nonhuman Entities as a Basis for Environmental Ethics
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Environmental ethics as a discipline deals with the morality of human actions and its consequences on the environment and its nonhuman elements. It addresses the question of whether there is a moral implication in harming the nonhuman contents of the environment, animate or inanimate. Jains identify with life being existent not only in humans and animals but also equally in earth, fire, air, water and vegetation. Life in these seemingly inanimate objects is considered at par with human or animal life form. Code of conduct for Jain householders and monks alike stipulates avoiding unnecessary harm to life including these inanimate life forms. When the entire world around us comes alive, this code of conduct helps create an abiding ethics that requires one to protect and pledge non-harming to all elements of the environment we live in.
50. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Sandra Baquedano Jer The Axiologic Undertone of the Bio-diversity in East Wisdoms
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The Hindu worldview works on the principle that all mortals are usually found immersed within the illusion of Maya. This illusion encompasses the common essence which all living beings share, and in an illusory way, wraps the human being within his or her ‘self’, presenting this individuality as an absolute truth. That natural selfishness represents the main enemy which human beings have to struggle against, to remove and tear apart, in order to overcome the individual barriers which limit and master the ‘self’. In this presentation we will probe the Hindu society tradition and its mechanism to protect and care for diversity as substantial values. Moreover, we will examine prominent scholars and historical characters in the Indian and East culture who have actively manifested a philosophical activism during their lives. We will examine the importance of the precautions, related to the balance in the adaequatio between any increase in the number of the individuals that could be preserved indefinitely in an environment, and those who would cause an increasing damage to it.
51. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Jianxia Cui The Analysis of Historical Dialectics on Marxist Ecological Thought
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Does Marxist philosophy and economics contain ecological thought? Does Marxist unified ontology amount to ecological thought? Whatever the answer, ecology was not the original intention of Marx. In Marx’s view, nature refers to objective nature, as the medium of subjective practice, and man is realistic man as the natural beings. Unification of the two sides makes clear the substantive characteristics of Marxist ecological thought - dual realization of humanism and naturalism - which in Marx is a principle thought. Probing this question, how to achieve the goal of dual realization in historical dialectics, is the mission of academic research.
52. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Philip Cafaro Economic Growth or the Flourishing of Life: The Ethical Choice Global Climate Change Puts to Humanity in the 21st Century
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The phenomenon of global warming suggests that today’s dominant economic paradigm is bumping up against physical and biological limits. As will likely become ever clearer in coming decades, endlessly growing populations, consumption and economic activity are incompatible with human happiness, the flourishing of other species, and maintaining the basic ecosystem services on which these depend. The world’s peoples need to shift to an economic paradigm focused on providing sufficient resources for a limited number of people, rather than ever more resources for ever more people. For at least 2500 years, philosophers East and West, religious and secular, have claimed that wealth is not the key to happiness and that goodness is better than greatness. This talk argues that philosophers should redouble these efforts and join environmentalists in working to convince our societies to grow up and develop nobler, less materialistic, more sustainable goals and definitions of human flourishing as the necessary and the only alternative to trying to shoehorn a few more decades of economic growth into already overstressed ecological systems.
53. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Yanfeng Hu A Humble Opinion on the Relationship Between Humans and Nature
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The present ecological crisis reflects the alienation between humans and nature. The key to solve this problem is the correct understanding by humans of their position in nature. They should grasp correctly the relationship between humans and nature. For humans, nature is an object and also a subject. The fact that nature is subject or has subjectivity can be demonstrated at least in the following aspects: The natural world not only exists independently of humans or human consciousness, but also has its own operation mode; the creatures except human are not only passive objects, they all display the initiative in their behavior to defend their own interests; the natural world has taken retaliatory action on human activity that destroys natural circles and leads to interruption of material exchange and ecological metabolism. Nature has instrumental value and also the purposive value. The instrumental value of nature to humans is concretely reflected in meeting the demands of physical and spiritual life of humans, etc.; the purposive value of natural to human means keeping the relative stability in the operation of natural ecosystems in accord with the fundamental interests of human survival and development. The essence of the relationship between human and natural is the relationship between the natural world and himself. The natural world is the only homeland for humans. Humans should treat the natural world with an attitude that promotes harmony through rational utilization.
54. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Magdalena Holy-Luczaj Ontological Egalitarianism as the Basis for Ecological Egalitarianism: A Heideggerian Rejection of the Great Chain of Being
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This paper presents a part of my research project, which is a comprehensive study of the relation between deep ecology and Martin Heidegger’s philosophy. Its aim is to consider whether there is an actual coincidence between deep ecology and the philosophy of Martin Heidegger or whether it only appears so, on the basis of superficial coincidences and historical contingencies. The research that I have carried out to date strongly inclines me to state that deep ecology is largely justified to trace its philosophical heritage to Heidegger. Moreover, it seems that deep ecology does not take full advantage of the potential of Heidegger’s philosophy to lend support to its own foundational assumptions. In this paper I draw attention to the fact that deep ecology, concentrating on such issues as ethos related to the concept of “dwelling the Earth” or his critique of technology (from the latest work by Heidegger during the 1950’s), ignores his rejection of the concept of the “great chain of being” in works from the mid 1930’s, which perfectly corresponds with eco-egalitarianism and can be recognized as the theory of the “ontological egalitarianism.”
55. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Zinaida Ivanova Towns and Settlements Compatible with the Biosphereas the Future of the Humankind
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The concept of the biosphere is a most valuable academic contribution made by V.I. Vernadsky, a Russian scholar, whose 150th anniversary will be celebrated in 2013. Acute deterioration of the condition of the environment, threats of the upcoming ecological crisis have caused the academic community to turn to V.I. Vernadsky’s ideas and to develop further the basic provisions of his theory. The present-day challenge is the rescue of the Biosphere and the introduction of growth limits. Towns and cities are the main sources of degradation of the biosphere. Therefore, there is a need to initiate the recovery of cities. This opinion is formulated by academic V.A. Ilyichev, leader of the program of fundamental research into ‘biosphere-compatible’ settlements and the development of Man. The program is implemented by the Russian Academy of Architectural and Construction Sciences. The core idea of the project consists in the integration of the settlement (from the farmstead to the megalopolis) and the environment aimed at the progressive harmonious development of people, technologies and the biosphere. I.A. Ilyichev has developed the basic principles of transformation of cities, making them compatible with the biosphere and capable of developing humans. The diagnosis “The Earth is sick with Man” is to be treated through the formation of a different philosophy.
56. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Feng Jun Interrogation and Item: Philosophical Thinking on the Logic Level of “Man and Nature” Relationship
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Three are three dimensions in the logical framework of the relationship between man and nature, namely “dimension of awareness”, “dimension of desire” and “dimension of emotion”. But “dimension of awareness” and “dimension of desire” do not occupy a prominent position in the logical level of the relationship between man and nature. “Dimension of emotion” is destined to be in the highest position in the logical level of the relationship between man and nature. “Dimension of emotion” between man and nature refers to man’s ability for empathy, starting from the most vivid and direct experience of life in the heart, through expression towards the outside world and the establishment of a reply to itself. Then nature becomes “emotional things to feel”, leading to an ontology of “material and I blend” or “subject and object don’t distinguish”, leading to a direct identity relationship with nature.
57. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Vladimir Korotenko The Phenomenon of Ecological Consciousness: Theory and Interpretation
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A systematic approach to the description of phenomenon of environmental consciousness began to emerge in the second half of the ХХ century. An understanding strengthened by the widening environmental crisis had become a paradigmatic basis for this description. Its reasons lie in a dominant way of human techno-centrism, and it cannot be overcome without a change of this predominant worldview, universal and specific consciousness being a “psychological basis” of the ecological crisis. In a certain sense, the most appropriate reflection of the scheme of environmental consciousness will be the concept of semiotic fields or certain semiotic structures and specific symbolic series. These constructs are: Apocalyptic (predetermination of the end of history); the expansion of the human self-boundaries to the community and to the living in general; the value of life, regardless of its forms. One can say that environmental consciousness has a certain set of qualities, knowledge, symbolic means for addressing environmental situations, where the primary is the collision with environmental problems, and then there emerges a technical problem, aimed at resolving them in the space design of consciousness. However, when studying the phenomenon of environmental consciousness, some authors point out that the idea of environmental consciousness as a conceptual system can meet objections since the basis for the development of man’s relationship to nature lies in unconscious processes. Without denying the possibility of their participation, it must be emphasized that, in our interpretation, environmental consciousness is based on the knowledge gained from active and passive experience with the objects of the external world, situation analysis, and forecasts. Furthermore, exploring the phenomenon of environmental consciousness and its relationship with other mental phenomenon - unconscious, it is necessary to indicate the paradigmatic premise: the idea of multiplicity of events, that our lives can be at the same time turned in polysemantic (multi-character and multi-conceptual) space. Environmental consciousness can be seen as a very complex, self-regulating (i.e. having the ability to change the very purpose, functions and links) system, created to meet the challenges of establishing, stabilizing or changing relationship with nature and its objects that arise in the process of meeting man’s needs.
58. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
David R. Keller Political Economy as Foundation for Environmental Ethics
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In this paper, I argue that the subject of environmental ethics demands the critique of political economy: a political economy is always at the core of the human relationship to nonhuman nature. The elaboration of an ecological political economy is therefore a central task of Environmental Ethics. I make this argument in 4 stages. First, I argue that an “economy” is the interface of a social system (culture) and the biosphere. This interface is the political economy. Second, I argue for a principle of ontological interconnectedness between the human and the nonhuman. Third, I argue that since no human society exists without an economic fundament, the political economy is directly integrated to the ecology of the local. Here we have a standard for normativity: the consistency or inconsistency of a political economy with its ecological system provides a standard for normativity. Fourth, I conclude by asserting that the task of environmental ethics inexorably involves the critique of political economy. Environmental ethics concerns the human relationship to nonhuman nature. Because the fundament of the relationship of humans to nonhuman nature is economic, the subject of environmental ethics ultimately leads to a critique of the political economy in terms of the lessons of ecological science. Therefore, the goal of environmental ethics is the elaboration of ecological political economy.
59. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Ruth Miller Lucier Environmental Justice and Global Human Rights: Aspects of Self as Agency for Sustaining the Natural World
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This paper begins, in Part I, with a brief discussion of the “objective self” described in John Rawls’ Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971), and Michael J. Sandal’s criticism of it (in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, (Cambridge University Press, 1985) with the purpose of proposing a ‘thickening’ of the concept of Rawls’ “thin (or objective) self” that would make sense of moral obligations and commitments to global environmental stewardship. In part II, a ‘thicker self’ is envisioned as one that incorporates indigenous, earth nurturing, values as essential to its own identity, and that, hence, has properties that promote commitment to environmental preservation. Part III, sets forth the suggestion that philosophers need to construe the human self in a thicker, more environmentally friendly, way than Rawls’s thin self is construed—-namely, in a way that involves the respecting of the wisdom of earth-preserving peoples and cultures, thus allowing the concept self to include awareness of globally focused environmental justice responsibilities.
60. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Eleni Kavadia Ecocentrism and Identification: Cubism and Mixanthropoi in Avant-Garde Ecology
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In this essay I discuss ecocentrism and identification as a way to perceive nature presenting the view that identification with other centers of our oikos does not need to result in homogenization but allows one to discern equally identity and otherness, leading possibly to empathy. I maintain that, as a multiperspective point of view, resembles a cubist standpoint and I discuss some of the merits of such a connection besides being an aid to visualisation. I also refer to the mixanthropic forms, related mainly to the Dionysian thiasos, as examples of the process of identification with nature ante litteram. I also comment on the possible value of such connections as means of “defamiliarization”, a way to prevent “over-automatization” when faced with ecological issues, and as a defence against kitsch, seen in the attempt to identify the ecological movement with the “eco-market”, restricting its broader scope.