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41. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 25
Frederik Kaufman Forgiveness and Warranted Resentment
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I argue that forgiveness necessarily involves overcoming resentment to which we are entitled when wronged. My view calls into question the standard understanding of forgiveness according to which resentment is no longer warranted once the transgressor apologizes or makes amends in some other way. If forgiveness entails relinquishing unwarranted resentment, as the standard account has it, then it is not freely given, since one must relinquish unwarranted resentments. On my view, forgiveness remains elective (and hence praiseworthy) since one chooses to relinquish resentment to which one has every right irrespective of whether the transgressor apologizes.
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42. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Jaime del Val Ontology of Becoming: Ontokinethics
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Ontokinethics is an ontology of movement and becoming that inverts western metaphysics of identity by generating an understanding of movement as incipient (virtual) and relational: movement not as activity of the already given, but as generative of all that is, within a metahumanist conception of the world as immanent field of forces. Amorphogenesis is a process where priority lies in the permanent formation of potentials that exceed their actualisations, inverting the traditional account of nihilism, that appears now related to the fixation of identity and form, which negates the creative forces of becoming. Ontokintehics thus interprets the nihilistic or creative wills implicit in movement according tendencies to replication and homogenisation, or emergence and differentiation.
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43. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Χρυσούλα Μίσχου Προς μια oντολογική θεώρηση του μουσικού έργου: (από την ακρόαση της μουσικής στην ανάγκη ορισμού και οντολογίας του μουσικού έργου)
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Στην παρούσα εισήγηση διερευνούμε την οντολογική υπόσταση του φαινομένου της μουσικής και αναπτύσσουμε προβληματισμούς σχετικά με το αν υφίσταται κάτι τέτοιο, μια που η μουσική δεν είναι εκτατή και δεν πρόκειται για φυσικό είδος. Προϋπόθεση για αυτό είναι η ύπαρξη ταυτότητας της μουσικής μέσα από την έννοια του “μουσικού έργου”. Εξετάζουμε την έννοια αυτή, έτσι όπως εμφανίζεται μέσα από τις πολιτιστικές συνθήκες και πρακτικές της εκάστοτε κοινωνίας, ως υποκείμενο αισθητικής εμπειρίας. Παρατηρούμε τις διαφορές σε σχέση με τους ήχους και τις απόψεις σχετικά με τη χρονική τοποθέτηση της απαρχής της έννοιας «μουσικό έργο» αλλά και τη σημασία της χρήσης της έννοιας αυτής ως στέρεο έδαφος για πρωτοπορίες και τομές (π.χ. το έργο “4’ 33’’” του John Cage). Βλέπουμε επίσης πώς η εμπειρία της ακρόασης και απόλαυσης της μουσικής ενέχει μεν υποκειμενική κρίση και πρόθεση, μας οδηγεί δε στην ανάγκη σύγκρισης, ταυτοποίησης και αναγνώρισης της μουσικής. Έτσι (μας οδηγεί) στην ανάγκη οντολογίας της μουσικής ως πρωταρχικό στάδιο σε κάθε σκέψη για τη μουσική και ως απαραίτητη στη συνειδητοποίηση της φύσης του μουσικού έργου, στον τρόπο ύπαρξης και στο κριτήριο ταυτότητάς του. Τέλος βλέπουμε πώς όλα αυτά οδηγούν στις θεωρίες οντολογίας του μουσικού έργου, το οποίο ως αφηρημένη ύπαρξη εξετάζεται ως “καθόλου” (πλατωνισμός και αριστοτελική θεώρηση) και ως “επιμέρους” (νομιναλισμός, τύπος-τεκμήριο και ιδεαλισμός).
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44. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Παναγιώτης Δόικος Το εσωτερικό γεγονός και οι βαθμοί της βούλησης
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Επιχειρείται να δειχθεί πώς η βούληση ενεργοποιείται σταδιακά σε συνάρτηση με το βαθμό εμφάνισης στο εσωτερικό πεδίο του γεγονότος, που μορφοποιεί τη σχέση της με το αντικείμενό της. Η βούληση νοείται ως μια δυναμική της επιθυμίας, η οποία διέπεται από μια νοηματική αυτοκατάφαση, που ιδιαιτεροποιεί τη σύνδεση με το αντικείμενο της επιθυμίας. Σε αναφορά με ένα αντίστοιχο παράδειγμα θεωρείται πως η συμπεριφορά της σχέσης του αισθητού με το εννοιακό στοιχείο κατά την ανάπτυξη του ψυχικού γεγονότος, προκαλεί τη στροφή της βούλησης στην προοπτική της εξωτερικής της πραγμάτωσης. Εξηγείται επιπλέον πώς η προαναφερόμενη σχέση, ως σύγκλιση των αισθητών μορφών με το αφηρημένο τους νόημα, εξελίσσεται σε τρία στάδια: της αφάνειας, της ημιφάνειας και της εμφάνειας. Αυτά τα στάδια, ως τροπές ενός κεντρικού εσωτερικού συμβάντος, εκφράζουν τους ποιοτικούς βαθμούς της βούλησης, η οποία με το σχηματισμό των τριών αντίστοιχων φάσεών της τείνει να ενεργοποιηθεί στην εξωτερικότητα.
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45. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Yasuo Nakayama Ontology and Epistemology for Four-dimensional Mereology
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There are several forms of four-dimensionalism. In this paper, I propose a version of four-dimensionalism called four-dimensional mereology (4DM). To investigate ontological problems, it is important to clarify epistemological problems that are closely related to ontological positions. According to the static view of time, change takes place within time, but time itself doesn’t change, and time merely separates events temporally, as space separates them spatially. However, according to the dynamic view of time, time really does pass, and the world is caught up in a process of purely temporal change. In this paper, I show that the static view of time is right from the ontological viewpoint (i.e. the external viewpoint), whereas the dynamic view of time is right from the epistemological viewpoint (i. e. the internal viewpoint). You may ask which of these two views are real. However, this question is misleading. The universe can be described from several different viewpoints. The internal and the external description give important information about certain parts of the universe and these two descriptions can be correlated and combined. They do not conflict each other, when we compare them in a proper manner. Both descriptions help us to understand the reality of the universe and to interpret ourselves as parts of the universe.
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46. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Nathan M. Solodukho Situationality of Being: Basic Principles
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In this paper, we present the conception of “situationality of being” developed by the author, that is, the extension of the theory of “philosophy of nonbeing”, formulate the generalized definition of the notion “situation”, and explain the essence of the “situationality of being”. The basic principles used to construct this conception make it possible to reveal the philosophical essence of the concept of “situation” and demonstrate a feasible approach to the philosophic categories of being and nonbeing. The conception of the “situationality of being” makes it possible to develop the situational pattern of the world; in accordance with this conception, “the world is the situation of situations”. The world appears before us in the form of one gigantic situation that is due to interaction of various situational factors of different level and different quality, which leads in the long run to a certain situative dynamic balance (the so-called existent world). From the post-modernistic point of view, this balance can be treated as the entangled rootstock (rhizome) without end and beginning where all is entrance and exit and where there is no middle and order, and where the world is chaosmos. But, nonetheless, we can see in this situational balance the classical system hierarchy, the laws of nature, and ordered self-organization of cosmos. Also presented here are the cognitive levels, such as the metaphysical, ontological, and phenomenological ones reflecting the specificity of the manifestation of “situationality of being”.
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47. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Carlos Alejandro Ordóñez Villegas Teoría de relaciones
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The origin of Being as a live concept is one of the most difficult questions in history of metaphysics and ontology. This work analyses the postulate that being is constructed by the interaction of terms. In fact, being and the idea of Being has come from the possibility of relations. It is known that metaphysics and ontology has overestimated think Being like something that never change, a substance unchangeable. Reduce Being as ousía, translated as substance, does not understand central affirmation of Aristotle that “The term “being” is used in various senses, but with reference to one central idea and one definite characteristic, and not as merely a common epithet.” (Met. 1003a 33). The usually interpretation of relations make them one of those ways, however the concept of Being is always under a relation. Is reconsidered the role of relations in the basis of ontological thinking, taking the renewal of metaphysics, of the French philosopher Jean Wahl, and postulating that Being as totality is the relation that involves beings, Change and Time.
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48. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Zhamgyrbek Bokoshov Work as an Ontological Problem
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The “matter” should be an independent subject of philosophical inquiry. Our preliminary design shows that the historical and philosophical reflection is sufficient indication of the existence of theoretical interest in “issues of the case” that a special study of the subject as the most important phenomenon of social life in a new light allows you to examine and reflect on such traditional categories of metaphysics, as ‘being’ “world”, a “thing”. Through pragmalogical triangle you may see almost all aspects of the philosophical study of language. In this case for us it is fundamental distinction between things and matter.
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49. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Rita Šerpytytė Nihilism between “Prophecy” and Theory
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The paper deals with the problem of performativity in the treating of nihilism. In order to disclose acute, but at the same time, concealed angles of this problem, the analysis of nihilism is being turned to the so called “ontology” of everyday life. By using theoretical attitudes of the “diagnosticians” of nihilism as well as the arguments of Austin, Benveniste, Agamben etc., the paper discusses and opposes the nihilism as the theory of reality. The theoretical approach by Maurizio Ferraris ensures the rich field of investigation as well as provides with the object of theoretical critics. The investigation demonstrates the impossibility to understand nihilism as a simple theory of reality and discloses the requirement to reconsider nihilism as the performative.
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50. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Йозеф Шмайс Эволюционная онтология как духовная парадигма для XXI века
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Эволюционная онтология от традиционной отличается: 1) предметом; 2) способом его интерпретации; 3) общественной ролью. 1) Предметом традиционной онтологии было абстрактное понимание бытия. Предметом эволюционной онтологии наряду с природным бытием, а также онтически оппозиционным бытием культурным является его онтический конфликт с природой. 2) Традиционная онтология в трактовке природного бытия предпочитала стабильность, пассивность и обратимость, эволюционная онтология подчеркивает процессуальность, онтическую активность и необратимость. 3) Традиционная онтология была абстрактно академичной и индивидуально утешающей. Эволюционная онтология, которая открывает суть глобального экологического кризиса, может выполнять функцию культурно-парадигматическую. С помощью этой онтологии, опирающейся на научную аргументацию, мы должны попробовать переломить духовную хищническую парадигму.
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51. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Anatoly Borisovich Nevelev Existence: Dialectics of Objectivity and Energevity
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A man is an objective creature, because his existence is marked out by culture. He is also an energevic creature, because he is preoccupied with the objective world, is undergoing the energy (active ability) of desires. Between these sides of existence (the objective and the energevic) there is a reverse dependence: the more objective determinacy is, the less is the level of energevic intension of existence, and vice versa. At its limits, when the objectivity reaches the level of ‘irrelative non-’, energevity becomes a spirit, i.e. extremely focused energy of love.
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52. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Maciej Sendlak Noneism, Russell Paradox and the Language/Metalanguage Distinction
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Every so-called Meinongian theory has to face a well-known argument, which was presented by Bertrand Russell in “On Denoting”. The aim of this critique was to point out that Meinong’s theory of objects is inconsistent, false, and worthless from the theoretical point of view. It is so – Russell argued – because one of the fundamental assumptions of this theory (the principle of characterization) leads to a consequence which is ridiculous from an ontological point of view. Among a plentitude of theories inspired by Meinong’s views, Graham Priest’s theory (called “Noneism” or “modal Meinongianism”) is the newest one. Because of that, one can expect that it delivers an interesting reply to Russell’s argument. Moreover, Priest assures us that in fact it does. In my paper I would like to verify this claim, and show why one could doubt about these ensure. Nonetheless, the conclusion of my paper is rather positive – Priest’s theory is immune to Russell’s critique, in fact, older Meinongian theories are such as well. It is so because the argument mentioned above might be taken as based on a methodological misunderstanding, and its reformulation in terms of Priest’s theory will help me to show why it is invalid.
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53. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Maren Jung An Ontology of Objects without Social and Natural Objects
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In this paper I assert that the distinction between social and natural objects is obsolete. We do better when we describe the differences between objects regarding two kinds of reference which I am going to distinguish and present here. Regarding what distinguishes natural kinds from artifacts, some authors, such as Thomasson, assume that a fundamental difference is the fact that the identity conditions of artifacts in contrast to the identity conditions of natural objects depend on the intention and the concept of the subject which has produced the object (Thomasson 2007). Below I will argue that the existence of natural objects depends on the intention and the concept of a subject as well. For this I will show, that individuation of objects is a basic way to produce objects and that it is based on intentions (Jung, 2012). Then I will show that this does not imply that each of our terms refers to an entity whose existence depends on subjects’ intention and concepts. Finally, I will propose that the difference between referring to entities that are dependent and entities that are not is a good difference to distinguish between two meaningful kinds of objects without making a distinction of natural and social objects.
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54. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Matthias Warkus Prädikatenlogischer und zeichenlogischer Veränderungsbegriff
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Der traditionelle prädikatenlogisch fundierte Begriff von Veränderung als dem Unterschied im Wahrheitswert zweier Sätze, die sich nur in der Erwähnung verschiedener Zeitpunkte unterscheiden („Cambridge change“), ist als Werkzeug der deskriptiven Metaphysik, also zur Beschreibung lebensweltlicher Veränderung, nur nach erheblichen ontologischen Investitionen geeignet. Lebensweltliche Veränderung als Cambridge-Veränderungen zu beschreiben erfordert Mittel und Wege, sowohl Gegenstände als auch Eigenschaften sauber zu individuieren, zwischen veränderungsrelevanten und veränderungsirrelevanten (d.h. meistens: zwischen intrinsischen und extrinsischen) Eigenschaften zu unterscheiden, das Grundproblem der 3D/4D-Debatte zu lösen usw. Meiner Meinung nach kann ein zeichenlogisch und pragmatistisch fundierter Veränderungsbegriff, der auf der Zeichentheorie und der Pragmatischen Maxime von C.S. Peirce aufbaut, dieselbe oder eine größere Beschreibungsleistung mit wesentlich geringerem ontologischem Aufwand erbringen. Ich schlage hierzu vor, Veränderung als Objekt einer peirceschen (also: dreistelligen) Zeichenrelation zu rekonstruieren, in der das Repräsentamen und das Interpretans Handlungen bzw. Handlungsmöglichkeiten sind, die jeweils in Zeichenprozessen fungieren, die Kontinuanten wie Gegenstände oder stabile Vorgänge repräsentieren bzw. konstituieren. Diese Zeichenprozesse sind dabei als die jeweilige als „selbstanalysierende Handlungsregel“ strukturierte „Summe der Handlungsmöglichkeiten“, die nach Peirce jedweden Begriff ausmacht, zu verstehen.
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55. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Fan Valishin Pythagoras and Ontological (Monistic) Tradition
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On the basis of the formulation and solution of the Initial Problem of Reality, namely, the Problem of the Beginning, first, the initial structure of Reality is revealed that penetrates all worlds including the physical nature, human being, universe… - Ontology and Monism coincide. This means that the Occam’s Razor is reduced to the Ontological Imperative, to the requirement of the completeness of Reality; second, the presence of the Initial World Tradition is revealed, namely, the Ontological (Monistic) Tradition with its Historical Breeding Grounds, each of which is a Philosophical-Methodological Center according to the structure of Ontology; third, it is established that this Tradition is alive only then and is discovered only then when it is found that it is born anew – the appearance of the FMTs-Dynamism with its strategy of dynamism makes it possible to elucidate the structure of the historical Breeding Grounds of the Initial Tradition, including the structure of Pyphagorean. It is shown that Sufficient and Necessary in the initial Mathematical Units and Formulas cor-relate with the structure of the Ontological Formulas. Sufficient has the nature of Algebra and Necessary has the nature of Geometry. In turn, the structure of Algebra itself corresponds to the essential measurements of Reality, corresponds to the structure of Motion; Geometry as the measurement of Reality from the side of Existence corresponds to the ontological fact of Meeting of all worlds. A New Era appears along with the appearance of a New Ontology on the Earth. Philosophy plays the role of a Cosmic Grain and Methodology the role of means to process the Earth’s ground for this Grain. The structure of this ground is composed of the state of the art of science, technology, art, literature, politics, economy, culture. According to the new continuation of the Ontological (Monistic) Tradition, the Era of Dy-namism begins now. The first step in launching the strategy of dynamism is the creation of the Program of designing Science correlated with Ontology. Such Program is created at the FMTs-Dynamism, and many things are already implemented: Postulate of Dynamism; Process—State concept; a new variation principle called the local variation principle (LVP); the mathematical apparatus suitable for the new continuation of the optical-mechanistic analogy and the study of the nature of the physical vacuum opening prospects for the creation of a new, namely, trajectory-wave physics.
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56. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Tudor Moise Is Ontology Still Possible?
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If we agree with Kant’s assertion that the thing-in-itself cannot be known, then ontology automatically becomes a debatable notion. Given the fluid nature of reality, man’s representation of his world can be only fragmentary and hence contextual. The same can be said of the nature of essence and necessity, which reflect only a particular stage or instance of knowledge. Under the circumstances, it can legitimately be stated that ontology transforms into epistemology, as the human mind builds a filter that helps it organize the knowledge of his environment. Ontology can be fully preserved only by taking a Platonic view. Both phenomenology and the logical formal approach operate on the way man builds huge taxonomic schemata to satisfy his cognitive needs, instead of providing a true description of being. The latter should be actually left to sciences, which patiently and contextually add to our knowledge of the world. Since the big ontological questions – origin, scope, the infinite dimensions in both time and space - are bound to remain unanswered, philosophy’s role is quite limited to indicate this state of permanent relativism.
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57. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Дмитрий Александрович Щербаков Бытие прошлого
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Автор ставит задачу найти онтологические основания для понимания прошлого как бытия. Автор показывает, что бытие не должно отождествляться только лишь с действительностью настоящего, потому что настоящее не имеет длительности и пребывает в движении к будущему. Автор указывает, что обычно в философии категорией «небытие» объемлются различные онтологические феномены. Он предлагает провести границу между двумя типами небытия: небытие положительное (небытие того, что было и исчезло, превратившись в нечто другое) и небытие отрицательное или абсолютное (небытие того, чего вообще никогда не было). В статье делается вывод, что реальность прошлого, неразрывно связанная с действительностью моментального настоящего, раскрывающего возможности будущего создают представление о длящемся бытии, как единстве прошлого, настоящего и будущего.
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58. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Vesselin Petrov The Ontology of the Future from a Process Philosophical Point of View
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The topic of the paper is the ontology of the future from the process philosophical point of view. The author takes up an attitude to the claim of the Hegelians that Hegel’s ontology will be the ontology of the future and argues that this can be accepted only to the extent to which Hegel’s ontology is a kind of process ontology. The author’s thesis is that process ontology will be the ontology of the future. Whitehead has developed a more contemporary form of process ontology than Hegel’s one. Whitehead’s process ontology is not dialectic and his scheme of development relying on ‘concrescence’ and ‘transition’ differs from Hegel’s triad of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis corresponding to a greater extent to contemporary science. There are also other attempts after Whitehead to develop process ontology that represents further steps in the generalization of processes. The author’s own expectation is that in the nearest future process ontology will arrive at the elaboration of the idea of variable categories. That stage of development will synthesize Hegel’s idea of changing categories with Whitehead’s process ontology and the other contemporary forms of process ontology. Namely this synthesis will be the ontology of the future.
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59. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Vladimir N. Dubrovsky The Laws of Philosophy: A Contemporary Viewpoint
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Since there is a hierarchy in levels of the organization of the world (in, for example, its social, biological, physical and cosmic aspects) there is a plurality of aspects of scientific philosophy, each of which takes its bearings from this or that level of the organization of the world. This means that when speaking about the laws of philosophy, it is necessary to specify which aspect is being spoken about. In the course of my argument my guideline is the highest, or cosmic world, but I shall also use examples from the physical world. The first law of philosophy of the cosmic world is: each being has a single basis. (It realizes this basis of itself, i.e. it is a primary basis). The first law of the philosophy of the physical world can be stated as follows: all physical being is unique. The second law of philosophy of the cosmic world is: the basis of all being is active to the point of self-excitement. It is manifest and demonstrable of itself, fracturing unity into multiplicity. The second law of the philosophy of the physical world can be stated as follows: all physical being is active and excitable. The third law of the philosophy of the cosmic world is: the basis of all being excites itself unevenly. The third law of philosophy of the physical world can be stated as follows: every physical being changes by a conversion leap. These then are the three laws of the philosophy of the cosmic and physical worlds: uniqueness, activity, and leap. I end by showing how laws of cosmic ethics and a cosmic aesthetics follow from the laws of the philosophy of the cosmic world.
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60. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 26
Anastasija Medova Modal Ontology of the Buddhism and the Advaita-Vedanta: The Concept ‘All in Everything’
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The “All in Everything” conception has the oldest history among the models of integrity of Being that were developed in philosophy. It had already taken place in myth consciousness where it was expressed in principles of a “mystical participation”, syncretism and “whole instead of part”. This idea was developed in ancient Greek doctrines in connection with the problem of Onenes and Dozens. But the most fundamental role of the “All in Everything” principle is for ontologies of the Buddhism and the Advaita-Vedanta, that approves tripartite identity of all consciousness, the world of objects and the first principle of Being. In this article we consider the logic of coincidence at all levels of a universe, as it is presented in the doctrines of the Mahayana (the Yogacara and Huayan schools) and the Advaita-Vedanta. The principle of universal coincidence of physical and mental objects is analyzed by means of the concept of modus, which is understood as a measurement, a side, a projection of primordial essence. The structure of the hologram is considered and analogies to the quantum theory of D. Bohm as a way of illustration “All in Everything” conception.
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