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41. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Brian Toyne Contributions of International Business to the International Dimension of Business and Society Debate
42. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Richard McGowan Tabacalera, S.A.: A Study of the Spanish Cigarette industry and its entry in to the EEC
43. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Diana Dodd-McCue, Martha L. Reiner Avtex Fibers Inc. and Pollution: Limits of Regulation and Self-Regulation
44. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Delavar G. Shenas Socio-economic Effects of Self-Help Housing Projects in Imperial County, California
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Imperial County, primarily an agricultural area, has the highest unemployment, and high school dropout rates in California today. The average wages are also among the lowest in the country. Due to lack of competition and many other factors, the commercial housing (developed by the private sector) is not affordable by the majority of working people. The public sector's efforts are either very limited or non-existent! Thus, the "visible poor", the homeless. consequently, "are the natural victims of a Darwinian struggle for survival."Along with an overview of low-income housing crisis, this study investigates the effects of "self-help housing" projects on the following areas: elimination of slums and blight; creation of new and affordable housing for purchase; real estate tax-base effect; creation of sales taxes due to construction; maintaining of employment or creation of new jobs due to the construction; and the participants' higher chances of (more permanent) employment due to new skills learned during the construction process. The research will also look at some other indirect aspects/effects resulted from the constructions in these communities as well (i.e., "pride of ownership", loan-payment patterns of the construction participants, etc.).
45. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jann W. Carpenter Ethical Dissimilarities as a Variable in International Business Transactions: A Preliminary Report on the Japanese-American Experience
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Cultural Dissonance in transnational business negotiations has been suggested as an important factor in determining outcomes of negotiations. The sources of dissonance in cross-cultural relations have never been agreed upon. Some have suggested that conflicts in inividual negotiation styles, or roles within the group of negotiators, are causes of dissonance. This study suggests that dissonance is more complex and results when behaviors are viewed from cross and in-culture perspectives. This research attempts to say what specific cultural traits cause cross-cultural dissonance for Japanese and American negotiators.Japanese and American business persons reported that international, cross-cultural negotiations with each other ware most different from in-culture negotiations due to their respective lower levels of confidence. Both groups were asked to give examples of the conduct of their opposites which lessen trust and confidence. The responses were classified into groups and subjected to content and cluster analysis. The content results suggest that culture differences having to do with behaviors during negotiations lessened trust and confidence on both sides. Specific behaviors, some culturally determined, were identified and rank ordered. Further, content analysis is suggested that these cultural behaviors were viewed by the opposing sides as ethical issues affecting the willingness of the parties to close a deal. The cluster analys is suggested that both national groups were very different in terms of what affected their respective trust and confidence, but within national groups fairly homogeneous. It also appeared that more experience in cross-culture negotiations tended to lessen negotiator concerns for culturaI-ethicaI issues, and heightened interest in the deal mechanics.The content analysis is further suggested that both Japanese and American business negotiators are not ethically sensitive to ethical issues outside the deal under negotiation. No larger social ethical issues were cited by either side as affecting levels of trust and confidence in cross-cultural negotiations.
46. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jeffrey Gale Global Markets and National Regulation: The Extraterratorial Application of Competition Rules
47. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
G. Eric Hansen Elite Formation and Contribution in Transnational Business Contexts: The Case of the European Community
48. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Luis R. Gomez-Majia, Allison M. Hendrick Fostering an Integrative Dominant Paradigm of Social Responsibility in Maquiladora Industries: A Cross-cultural Perspective of Management Issuss
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The growth of maquiladoras, or "twin plants," along the U.S.-Mexico border has been hailed as a potential positive contribution to the economic health of both nations. For U.S. firms the close proximity to a low-cost labor market is seen as an effective within-hemisphere response to global price competition. For Mexico, maquiladoras are seen as an opportunity for job creation and attendant increased living standards for a population segment. For both countries maquiladoras have emerged to be ventures with responsibilities and allegiances to sometimes conflicting paradigms of social responsibility. The different and culturally-influenced schemata of U.S. and Mexican nanagers have further exacerbated attempts to identify a "common ground" of management agreement toward the salient social issues for corporate response. This paper traces the theoretical development of "dominant logic," then proposes a research methodology to test the existence of differing dominant logics among U.S. and Mexican managers of maquiladoras.
49. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jean Pasquero Business and Society in Retrospect: More Relevant Than Ever, but Still Struggling (A Tenth Anniversary Tribute)
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For the tenth anniversaty of IABS, the Past Presidents have organized a panel around the field of Business and Society. My part addressed the strengths and weaknesses of the field, as we can retrospectively identify them. In order to give a historical perspective to my comments, I have chosen to reproduce and comment upon a discussion paper I had written for a private seminar with some Past Presidents nearly ten years ago. Looking back, I submit that the field is more relevant than ever, but still struggling.
50. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Laquita C. Blockson, Olenda E. Johnson, Vanessa Hill, Bryan W. Husted, Lee Burke Symposium Overview: Social Justice: Bringing it Back to the Forefront
51. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Bryan W. Husted, M. Cecilia Coutinho de Arruda Social Justice and the Firm: Responses From Latin America
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Inequity in the distribution of income has long been a serious problem in Latin America. This paper examines the responses of four Latin American firms to the issue of social justice. It concludes by arguing that to the extent that Latin American firms find ways to gain benefits from social action, it is more likely that they will participate in social justice programs.
52. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jerry M. Calton Who Owns the Knowledge Creation Processes of Learning Organizations?: A Pragmatic Ethical Exploration
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This paper applies the theory of ethical pragmatism to argue that participants in the organizational process of knowledge creation have the right to negotiate a “stake” in the ownership of intellectual property. This extends the Donaldson & Preston (1995) argument that the normative core of stakeholder theory rests in a “pluralistic bundle” of socially constructed property rights.
53. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Kathryn Balstad Brewer The construction of managerial ethics: An application of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice
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The paper begins with a description of Bourdieu's theory of practice (1977). The remainder of the paper concentrates on applying the theory to a managerial environment, specifically within the framework of ethical decision-making. Illustrations are drawn from actual managerial decisions. Conclusions and implications focus on the use of heterodoxical thinking to diminish the 'business is different' archetype.
54. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Mary-Ellen Boyle The Work of the Corporate Ethics Officer: Moral Labor and Social Trusteeship
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Corporate ethics officers pose a provocative challenge to the contention that elite professionals have amassed technical expertise at the expense of moral authority and social trusteeship (Brint 1994). In this paper I question whether ethics officers, by virtue of their specialization, do work that can be considered "moral," and I inquire as to the extent to which they embrace a social trusteeship role. Situating the discussion in the literature on professionalization and the professional/organizational conflict, I suggest several hypotheses to guide forthcoming empirical work. Unintended consequences of the professionalization of ethics officers are discussed.
55. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Gary M. Cook Creating (Ethical) Performance in Organizations
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While strategy and leadership are important in determining the ethical performance of organizations, organizational culture is also a key determinant. A model of organizational culture developed by Dr. William Schneider and outlined in his book, The Reengineering Alternative (New York: Irwin, 1994)) appears to help understand the power of culture in determining ethical performance.
56. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
J. M. Burns, R. F. O’Neil Values, Ethics, Fiduciary Duty, and the Re-education of Americas CEOs
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Our study asked what topics should be emphasized in a one-week seminar for newly names CEOs. Good corporate citizenship requires that companies adopt policies that avoid wide scale layoffs, but in an intensely competitive global economy this is too frequently the result. Besides effective corporate strategy, ethical issues, corporate culture, and especially fiduciary duty need to be emphasized in such a seminar.
57. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
D. Kirk Davidson Social Marketing as Business Strategy: The Ethical Dimension
58. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Philip L. Cochran, Thomas G. Comstock The Institutionalization of Business Ethics
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A survey of articles in the business press indicates that public interest in business ethics is growing rapidly. Institutional theory suggests that we may continue to see significant growth in business ethics practices. Adoption of such practices can be viewed as a response to legitimacy demands emanating from a broad array of stakeholders. The importance of reputation is investigated as it relates to ethics programs. Finally, some implications of the institutionalization of business ethics are discussed.
59. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Igor Grazin, James Davis Capitalism and Freedom: Post-Communist Paraphrase to Friedman
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The transition of post-Communist Europe has proved that the socialist state-controlled economy is not automatically replaced by free-market mechanisms. Privatisation in most of the countries, like Russia, Czech Republic, Hungary, and others, has replaced state ownership with the ownership by mega-financial groups controlled by the banks. As a result of that, the main vice of the communist economy, its monopolistic structure, has not been cured. What has happened is that the state control over supply and demand has disappeared without having been replaced by any alternative regulative mechanism. The result of that has been the crisis of intercorporate indebtedness that has frozen the whole economy. What we currently have in post-Communist markets are companies having (a) a huge stock of illiquid assets, (b) lack of liquidity, and (c) questionable market perspectives. Who can show us the way out?
60. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jacqueline N. Hood The Influence of Values and Transformational Leadership on Ethical Practices in Organizations
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This study analyzes the relationship between CEO values, leadership style and ethical practices in organizations. Two ethical practices are investigated: formal statement of ethics and diversity training. Results indicate that the top manager’s values are related to ethical practices, transformational leadership is significantly related to all types of values, and laissez-faire leadership is negatively related to competency-based values. When size of company and values are controlled, transformational leadership explains a significant amount of change in formal statement of ethics, and transactional leadership explains a significant amount of change in diversity training.