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41. Eco-ethica: Volume > 4
Mary Beth Mader Ethics of Ancestral Explanation: Tragedy, Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Theory
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Human beings experience themselves through various kinds of collectively experienced time. Medicine that relies upon precarious forms of ancestral or evolutionary explanation generates such collectively experienced forms of time, which are thus essentially politico-medically instituted versions of kin relations. Kin relations structure our ethical relations to each other rather thoroughly, even in Western modernity, especially through legally sanctioned relations. Hence, an ancestral or evolutionary explanation in medicine should be examined for its ethical import via its structuring of etiologically linked kin relations, even if those relations extend beyond the family, people, population or group context back into cosmic and evolutionary origins.
42. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Peter Kemp, Noriko Hashimoto Editorial
43. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Johann Michel On Narrative Substitution
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The aim of this paper is, first, to test the hypothesis whereby narrativity constitutes an existential in the Heideggerian sense. Second, the author renews his appeal for a pluralism of possible modes of self-emplotment, without presupposing any separation between pre-narrative experience and narrative experience. Finally, he devotes some time to a discussion with Strawson and Ricceur on the limits of narrative or, more accurately, to limit-narrativity as a form of narration impeded as a result of traumatic experiences. The article then introduces the concept of narrative substitution in highlighting the role played by others and by third-person narrators who substitute themselves for the inability to self- emplot. - Key-words: narrativity, Ricceur, Strawson, traumatic experiences, self-emplotment.
44. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Noriko Hashimoto Between Dehumanization and Nosism: Environmental Philosophy on Technology and the Human Being
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The characteristic feature of modernized systematic environment is realized by one little, thin box named a smart phone or iPhone. By touching the surface, it can open various kinds of technologically magnified internet environment, and bring us into so-called world-wide information society. Our surrounding world is changed to a “technologically developed imaginary world”, virtual reality, where we can live and enjoy. Through this instrument we will be an “anonymous person” for helping people but we may hurt another person’s dignity. It is possible to hide one’s own “self’ behind the technological tool. People always look at the surface of smart phone and concentrate upon outer world without consciousness. It is the crisis of “self’, because of a lack of thinking. Unfortunately, dehumanization will occur. But for solving transnational problems, for example global warming, refugees, etc., we must change our ethical attitude from nosism without any responsibility to an awakening consciousness or living together as “world citizens”.
45. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Peter McCormick Ethics and the European Cultural Environment: Emerging Collective Ethical Values Today?
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Moral naturalism in Europe and elsewhere today is the view that only the natural sciences can satisfactorily analyze the ethical value of persons. Many thoughtful people appear still to believe that the natural sciences can “reduce” the distinctive ethical value of persons ultimately to microphysical terms. Such an apparently widespread belief in part of the EU cultural environment today, however, raises serious questions. - In this EU context and in the Symposium contexts of Tomonobu Imamichi’s (1922-2012) eco-ethical concerns about “a new ethics for our new times,” I would like to offer here two sets of critical observations in support of non-naturalistic accounts of the ethical value of persons. The first group comprises reasons why even some impressive contemporary forms of scientific ethical naturalisms of the person continue to be surprising. And the second, briefer set comprises several elements only of what a non- naturalistic ethics of the person might require.
46. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
The Authors / Les Auteurs
47. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Abstracts / Résumés
48. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
David M. Rasmussen The Pragmatic Turn in Democratic Theory
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The pragmatic turn away from epistemology could mean a number of things for the definition of the future of political theory. First, political liberalism would mark a distinct departure from comprehensive liberalism that is based solely on epistemological justification of fundamental liberal notions. Second, the pragmatic turn would cause Rawls to modify his long-time emphasis on constructivism, moving from Kantian constructivism to political constructivism, and implicitly adopting more substantive approach. Third, the fact of pluralism would radically open up the question of the foundation for consensus, which would lead to an emphasis on constitutionalism. Fourth, this move, innovative as it was, would lead to the establishment of an association between constitutional interpretation and public reason. Finally, this set of moves associated with the pragmatic turn would essentially set up a series of constraints when it comes to evaluating public reason from an international perspective.
49. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Bengt Kristensson Uggla Coping with Academic Schizophrenia: The Privileged Place of the Person when Confronting the Anthropological Deficit of Contemporary Social Imagination: Christian Smith and Paul Ricœur
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The aim of this article is to cope with the academic schizophrenia and the anthropological deficit of contemporary social theory by a comparative investigation of Christian Smith and Paul Ricoeur. Two interrelated “gaps” are identified: the “external” gap, which has to do with the brutal, yet seldom recognized, contrast between the naïve, uncritical praise of humanism in public life, and the theoretical anti-humanism of the strong versions of the predominant poststructuralist and postmodern epistemologies within human and social sciences - and the “internal” gap associated with the academic schizophrenia of scholars who systematically disconnect scholarly theory and personal experience, description of facts from normative convictions. In order to provide resources to cope with these challenges, the author turns to Smith and Ricoeur, considered as two different versions of contemporary personalism.
50. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Robert Bernasconi Islamophobia as a Racism
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The distinction between xenophobia and racism is sometimes used to deny that Islamophobia is a racism. I challenge this strategy by tracing that distinction back to the formation of the term racism by Franz Boas, Julian Huxley, and Ashley Montagu, that culminated in the UNESCO Statement on Race in 1950. By showing the connection between their understanding of racism and the deployment in this context of further distinctions, such as that between race and religion, or that between nature and culture, and by recalling the ideological purpose the use of these distinctions were intended to serve, I deploy a genealogical approach to show that Islamophobia is a racism. Racism cannot be identified through the use of analytically established distinctions when what is at issue is the discriminatory behavior which is at its heart. Antiracism needs to learn to be as flexible in its thinking as racism appears to be.
51. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Manuel B. Dy Jr. An Environmental Ethics from Teaism
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This paper is a modest attempt to derive an environmental ethics of Teaism from Kakuzo Okakura’s The Book of Tea and Daisetz T. Suzuki’s Zen and Japanese Culture, for as both authors assert, Teaism is not just aestheticism but also religion and ethics with regards to the whole point of view about man and nature. The first part presents the main features of the Teaism, its brief history, the tea room and tea ceremony, and the philosophies behind it. The second part applies Max Scheler’s axiological ethics, particularly his notion of love as a movement towards the enhancement of the value inherent in the beloved to the love of Nature expressed in the tea ceremony. An environmental ethics from Teaism would then mean developing a habit of harmonizing, revering, purifying and being joyful in poverty before the ephemeral, the ever-changing and self- forgetfulness of Nature, including our human nature.
52. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Richard Kearney Between Flesh and Text: Ricoeur's Carnal Hermeneutics
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This essay explores how Paul Ricoeur analyses the body as both flesh and text. Beginning with a phenomenology of embodiment and life in his early philosophy of the will, after his hermeneutic turn in the 1960s he concentrated more on the mediation of flesh through textual interpretation and language. This led Ricoeur beyond Husserl and Levinas and closer to the work of Merleau-Ponty. His later writing opens horizons for rethinking the ‘flesh of the world’ in new ontological and ethical ways.
53. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Peter Kemp, Noriko Hashimoto Preface
54. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Peter Kemp, Noriko Hashimoto Editorial
55. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
The Authors / Les Auteurs
56. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Robert Bernasconi Lost without Words: The Justice That Surpasses Blind Justice
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Emmanuel Levinas can be read as challenging the legal principle that everybody must be treated in the same way without fear of favor, no matter who they are or what status they hold. He did so by highlighting the private suffering that goes unnoticed if justice is blind, as is suggested by the image of Iustitia wearing a blindfold. What this unspeakable suffering means for justice is explored through a reading of Jean Améry’s At the Mind's Limit and Jill Stauffer’s Ethical Loneliness: The Injustice of Not Being Heard.
57. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Sang-Hwan Kim Confucian Golden Mean as Justice
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The Confucian concept of Jhongyong corresponds to the Western idea of metaphysical justice, and encompasses similar ideals to the Aristotelian golden mean. Herein is an approach to this Confucian concept from the perspective of comparative philosophy, its aim being triple: to expound on the central or representative position that the concept of Jhongyong takes in Confucian philosophy, to analyze various semantic spectrums of this Confucian concept, and to clarify the complex relationship it has with other Confucian ideas and principles.
58. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Abstracts / Résumés
59. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Manuel B. Dy, Jr. Social Justice in Sun Yat-Sen ’s The Three Principles of the People
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The intent of this paper is to derive an understanding of social justice from Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s San Min Chu I, The Three Principles of the People. Sun Yat- sen, the founder of modem China, gave a series of lectures in 1924, setting the goals of the revolution against the Qin dynasty and the foundation of a modem China. The word “justice” is mentioned only once in the lectures and it is paired with “faithfulness,” or trust referring to the ancient moral character or virtue. And yet underlying the whole programme is a notion of justice that is not interpersonal but social. The first part of the paper gives a summary of the meaning of the three principles: nationalism, democracy and people’s livelihood. The second part attempts to draw the meaning of social justice from the three principles, hopefully showing the relevance of Sun Yat-sen’s ideas to our time.
60. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Zeynep Direk Ricœur, Personalism and Personal Justice
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This essay explores the personalism underlying the ethical dimension of Ricceur’s discussion of the institutional justice. According to Ricoeur, “public justice” refers to civil society’s critical response to the judicial acts of justice, with reference to ethical values as negotiating or mediating between the principles of justice and concrete practices, i.e., how things are done in the world, the existing state of affairs. Public justice can force institutional justice to function when it is not functioning well because of political interference and manipulation. In case the public justice is obstructed, for instance in a totalitarian regime, which intimidates the public debate, all we are left with is “personal justice,” a virtue in the Aristotelian sense that exceeds justice in the institutional sense. If institutional justice collapses and public discussion is silenced, personal justice is the only remaining relation to the third, which is irreducible to friendship.