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41. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
David B. Resnik A Biotechnology Patent Pool: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
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This paper discusses the idea of forming a patent pool in order to address some of the licensing problems in the biotechnology industry. The pool would be an independent, non-profit corporation that would manage patents and have the authority to grant licenses. The patent pool would not be a purely altruistic venture, since it would charge licensing fees. The pool would charge the market price for licensing services and reimburse patent holders for licensing activities. The pool would also provide patent holders with a minimum income based on a percentage of royalties generated from the pool. The pool would include patents on a variety of materials and methods that play an important role in biotechnology. It would also be international in scope, with the power to grant licenses in different countries.
42. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Doug Jesseph James Franklin’s The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability before Pascal
43. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
William J. FitzPatrick, Lee L. Zwanziger Defending Against Biochemical Warfare: Ethical Issues Involving the Coercive Use of Investigational Drugs and Biologics in the Military
44. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 2
Avner Levin The Problem of Observation
45. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 3
Anne-Taylor Cahill Embyronic Stem Cells: Science Ethics and Public Policy: Conference Report
46. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 4
Bill Shields A Response to Avner Levin’s “The Problem of Observation”
47. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 6
Philip M. Rosoff, Melanie L. Katsur Preserving Fertility In Young Cancer Patients: A Medical, Ethical And Legal Challenge
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Modern cancer treatment, while often producing lifelong cures, can also result in permanent damage to many organ systems. Although more than 70% of children and young adults can be cured of their cancers, infertility, which frequently accompanies curative therapies for many common types of cancer, is one of the most devastating long-term complications. In this paper we discuss the medical, legal, and ethical ramifications of attempting to prevent this side effect and present some of the challenges that remain.
48. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 6
Brian M. O'Connell Ethical and Social Issues in Engineering and Computing: The Spring Regional Meeting of the IEEE Society on Social Implications of Technology
49. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 7
Susan Haack truth, truths, "truth", and "truths" in the law
50. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 8
Barbara A. Noah Life, Death, and Politics: The Long Good-bye
51. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 9
Daniel Torres Inter Arma Silent Leges: An Examination of the Legal Rights of American Citizens Detained as Enemy Combatants in the War on Terror
52. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 3 > Issue: 9
William M. Shields Truth in Legal Practice
53. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 1
Peter Lepping, Tilman Steinert, Ralf-Peter Gebhardt A comparison of ethical attitudes of English and German health professionals and lay people towards involuntary admission: Implications for the new Mental Health Act (England & Wales)
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Objectives: To identify ethical attitudes about involuntary admission (known in Great Britain as formal admission) in mental health professionals and lay-people in England and Germany, especially looking at possible differences between Mental Health Professionals who are directly involved in the involuntary admission process and those who are not.Method: Three scenarios of potentially certifiable patients (known in Great Britain as sectionable patients) were presented to identify attitudes. A questionnaire asked about attitudes towards involuntary admission as well as treatment. A questionnaire analysis was then performed.Results: There were similar attitudes towards involuntary admission between laypeople and mental health professionals involved in the involuntary admission process with the exception of professionals not actively involved in the involuntary admission process. Neither personal or professional experience with mental illness nor the different legal frameworks between Germany and England influenced attitudes much. Support for involuntary admission broadly increased with age.Conclusions: Psychiatrists and other mental health workers are in tune with society with regards to attitudes to involuntary admission. People involved with mentally ill patients but not in the involuntary admission process have negative attitudes towards involuntary admission. This may influence Mental Health Tribunals suggested in the new draft Mental Health Bill (2002) for England and Wales, because these Tribunals will potentially lack any involvement of professionals involved in the involuntary admission process.
54. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Christine Coussens The Intersections of Trade and Environmental Health: Discussion of the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine
55. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Robert N. Proctor Tobacco and Health
56. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 3
Yvette Pearson Playing Politics with Bioethics: Now That’s Repugnant
57. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 3
Amanda Sarata, Fay Shamanski, Suzanne Goodwin, Sarah Carr The Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society: Summary of the October 22-23, 2003 Meeting
58. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 4
Darrin W. Belousek Scientific Consensus and Public Policy: The Case of Pfiesteria
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This paper examines normative and political aspects of the peer review, scientific consensus and public policy processes related to harmful algal blooms of Pfiesteria in estuarine waters of North Carolina and Maryland in the 1990s. After laying out a brief science and policy case history, the tension between the scientific consensus and public policy processes in this case is analyzed in terms of conflicts between scientific norms, public values and political expediency. The relationship between scientific consensus and public policy in general is then questioned in light of this case.
59. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 4
Chantal Gill’ard Law and Morality in Assisted Reproductive Technology Case study on the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust v Mr & Mrs A & Others
60. The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law: Volume > 4 > Issue: 5
Richard M. Lebovitz Gene patents: “What God hath wrought!”
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Although the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) has granted patents on genes for over 20 years, the prudence of gene patenting continues to stir controversy. Some have questioned the ethics of monopolizing a resource that is so fundamental and basic to all living organisms. It has also been argued that patents unfairly restrict the use of genes, impeding both basic and commercial research. For the biotechnology industry, however, gene patents are the currency it uses to protect its investment in research and development, and eventually, the products it brings to market. This paper examines the eligibility of genes for patenting, and considers whether the policy reasons that have led courts to decide that certain categories of subject matter are unpatentable, apply to the realm of genes. Even if this were the case, this does not mean that biotech companies have no way of protecting their inventions. Methods and processes of using the genes do not invoke the same policy considerations, and may provide a more appropriate way of rewarding industry for the narrow discovery of a gene’s specific use.