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31. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Edward Shafer Overcoming Conflicts Between Strategic and Ethics Models
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In the field of Business Ethics there is a common belief that ethical conflicts can be resolved within existing organizational and ethical frameworks, i.e., that these frameworks are or can be made compatible. This paper suggests that fundamental differences between strategic and ethics models render them incompatible.Strategic models are outcome oriented. Ethics models focus on means. Other critical differences exist. Many ethics models are inconsistent with each other, making it difficult to find a common ground for use with strategy . Ethics models are normative, static and seek universal behavior; strategic models are situational and adaptive. This difference is particularly critical in light of the rapid changes in technology, the increasing globalization of business and the merger and acquisition trend of recent years. Perhaps the most critical difference is that ethics models rarely measure results in financial terms whereas strategic models almost always do so.These differences are examined in support of the view that the current strategic and ethics models are irreconcilable. Suggestions are offered for developing new models which recognize the differences and seek to reconcile them.
32. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Patricia C. Kelley, Bradley R. Agle The Past as a Predictor of the Future: Political Action Committees' Solicitation Techniques
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Since 1971, approximalely 1800 corporate Political Action Committees (PACs) have been establishad by businesses in the United Stales (FEC Record, 1989). Since this time, techniques to solicit contributions by companies have developed which have enhanced the fund generating capabilities of PACs. Based on field research conducted during the summer of 1989, this paper isolates the factors contributing to the effectiveness of a company's solicitation activities. From these findings, future management trends for the 1990's in this area are extrapolated.
33. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Kelly C. Strong Employment Rights: A Lockean Perspective
34. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
A. James Granito An Adjunct Judicial System: Design and Cost
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This is a conceptual paper. It does not attempt to cover the possible legislative or constitutional impediments to implementation. It does not even suggest that it should be implemented. Yet it is not simply a statement of frustration. It is a proffer. Here is the design of a structure— complete in outline, but lacking in details and testing. Almost naive in its willingness to remold major institutions, it is neither humble nor proud in adherence to "indefatigable idealism."
35. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Eugene Szwajkowski Accounting for Organizational Misconduct
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Organizational misconduct (white collar, corporate and occupational crime, unethical behavior, rule violations, etc.) is an increasingly important social concern. This paper proposes that a necessary step toward preventing and treating such misconduct is the understanding of the explanations, called accounts, given by the actor. We argue that the theorizing and findings in the literature on accounts can be organized into a 2x2 matrix framework.The first dimension centers on whether or not the actor admits that some net harm is done by the act , and the second consists of whether or not the actor admits responsibility. When both are admitted (cell 1), the account is a concession, while denial of both constitutes a refusal (cell 4). Admitting responsibility but not harm equates to a justification (cell 2), and the opposite condition is an excuse (cell 3). Building on this matrix, we specify a typology of explanations with in each cell which will highlight inter-cell differences. Finally, we explore the implications of this analysis for managers, regulators, and the public.
36. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Charles W. L. Hill An Empirical Examination of the Determinants of OSHA Violations
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It has been argued that a firm's propensity to violate federal laws and regulations is related to firm size, diversity, financial pressures, and decentralization (Clinard & Yeager, 1980). The current paper tests these propositions using OSHA data. The findings offer at best only weak support for some of these propositions, while strongly suggesting that most are invalid.
37. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jeanne M. Logsdon Responses to Early Discovery of Groundwater Chemical Contamination
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This study compares the responses of five high technology firms that initially discovered groundwater chemical contanination in Silicon Valley in the early 1980s. The contamination was caused by leaks fron underground chemical storage tanks. These discoveries preceded regulations, and firms had to decide how to address the issue voluntarily. After public disclosure in 1982, regulatory oversight brought requirements to which these firms had to respond. This paper describes actions taken before and after public disclosure to assess how consistently firms exhibit patterns of response to evolving social issues.
38. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Linda Klebe Trevino, Bart Victor Peer Management: A Model and Investigation
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One of the principal functions of magement is to control employee behavior. However, control through direct supervision can be difficult and costly. This paper presents theory and evidence to suggest that the employee control function may be shared by coworkers through the specification of a peer managenent role. The model suggests that peer management is more likely to be accepted and to occur under two conditions: 1) when a group member's misconduct threatens the group's interests and 2) when the group adopts the resort to extra-group control as part of its identity. Two scenario studies were conducted to test the study hypotheses, one in an academic cheating context and the other representing a fast-food employee theft situation. The results generally supported the hypotheses, which somewhat different findings in the two contexts. Group identity evidenced the greatest influence in the academic cheating context, while group interests were more influential in the fast food theft context. Explanations are provided for the differential results, along with implications for management and future research.
39. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Douglas Nigh Exploring the International Dimension of Business and Society: Research, Teaching, and Professional Development
40. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jean Pasquero "The International Dimension of Business and Society": Notes for a panel organized by Doug Nigh (USC)