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21. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Patrice Canivez Éthique et environnement chez Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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This paper deals with the relationships between ethics and the environment in Rousseau’s thought. The concept of environment is understood in its various dimensions. What is at stake is the natural, as well as the social and political, environment of human beings. The notion of ethics is also understood in a broad sense. We do not set ethics, understood as the search for happiness (or for the good life) against morality, understood as the fulfillment of duty. However, we take up two main questions. The first question concerns the influence of the environment, both natural and social, upon the ethical development of human beings. The second question concerns the responsibility of human beings towards nature. We examine what Rousseau teaches us regarding these two questions. Finally, we envisage liberty from the point of view of the relationships between nature and the political order. Human liberty is a matter of rights. It depends upon the republican nature of the state. However, liberty is also a sentiment that is intimately related to the living experience of nature. In order to understand what Rousseau means by liberty, we must grasp this intimate relationship between nature and politics.
22. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Jean-Luc Amalric L 'articulation de l'éthique et du politique dans l'horizon d'une philosophie de l'acte (2e partie)
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The aim of this paper is to show the anthropological resources of Ricceur’s philosophy of the act, in order to elaborate a living articulation of ethics and politics that avoids the deadlock which represents the idea of a complete divorce between moral idealism and political realism. In this second part, it defends the thesis that the reconquest of an “ethical-political teleology” is only possible to the extent that, in Ricceur, the reappropriation of the “ethical originary affirmation” takes a radically critical form. Then it tries to show how this critical approach is likely to lead to a release of the mediating power of social imaginary, which always complements and precedes our acts.
23. Eco-ethica: Volume > 5
Pierre-Antoine Chardel Quand la communication perd la parole: Lecture d ’Emmanuel Lévinas
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If Emmanuel Lévinas does not develop a criticism of audiovisual technologies, sometimes even granting them hermeneutical virtues, he remains mindful of the risks incurred by societies that are increasingly determined by these technologies. In this article we want to underline the fact that, for Lévinas, considerable distraction can be generated by information technology, which risks neutralizing the experience of living speech. Compared to these risks, a certain ethical urgency must serve as a reminder that, if the responsibility is not just a figure of speech, it demands we question the way in which we understand images in our societies that may be fully configured by the flow of information, and the way we understand how the other is revealed to us through screens.
24. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Peter Kemp Justice dans un monde de violence.: Sur la gouvernance mondiale selon la rose des vents
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The question is: how shall we conceive the idea of justice in the world of violence of our time? It takes up the old symbol of justice: the scales that symbolise an equilibrium between different ambitions. The author traces this idea in Western philosophy since Plato and Aristotle through Kant to Rawls, Ricoeur and Delmas-Marty for whom it becomes the symbol of global justice. By using the wind rose as another symbol, Delmas-Marty expresses the ethical necessity of a global justice between the philosophical, legal, social and political ambitions that blow across our whole world. All these winds have their rights in globalization, but none of them have the right to dominate the others.
25. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Patrice Canivez J.-J. Rousseau et l ’idée de justice
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La question de la justice est partout présente dans l’oeuvre de Rousseau. S’il aborde tout d’abord la question du juste et de l’injuste en rapport avec la loi de nature, la justice n’est cependant pas seulement pour Rousseau un problème de droit. S’interroger sur la justice, c’est poser la question de l’homme et de son rapport au monde. Pour autant, l’idée rousseauiste de justice ne se déduit pas d’une philosophie « compréhensive » du monde et des affaires humaines. La théorie rousseauiste de la justice est en elle-même une théorie compréhensive. C’est une philosophie des rapports humains et de la manière dont ils s’inscrivent dans Tordre du monde. Ce chapitre s’efforce de rendre compte des différentes dimensions de cette théorie. Il commence par montrer comment Rousseau traite de la justice dans le cadre du droit naturel. Puis, il traite successivement du principe intersubjectif de la justice et de la justice comme principe d’un ordre « objectif » du monde, de la société et de l’État.
26. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Gilbert Vincent Du sentiment d ’indignation au sens de la justice: Apports de la pensée de Paul Ricœur
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Chez Paul Ricoeur, on découvre une appréciation de l’indignation, dont la valeur tient d’abord à la nature, celle d’un authentique sentiment. Certes, ce derniern’est pas raison. Pourtant, Ricoeur Ta amplement montré, les raisons d’agir se nourrissent de motifs, et ceux-ci ont généralement la couleur, voire la chaleur, de nos sentiments. - Parce qu’il la considère comme l’expression du « sentiment d’injustice », il tient l’indignation pour l’entrée, déjà réflexive, dans le monde éthique. À ses yeux, cette expérience est décisive pour tout enfant et elle reste fondamentale pour l’adulte, dont les capacités critiques lui doivent beaucoup, même si, souvent, ces dernières contribuent à leur tour à en redéfinir les premières cibles. - Ricoeur n’a pas manqué de mettre un accent tout particulier sur la tradition prophétique biblique dans lequel il arrive que l’indignation contre l’injustice devienne accusation et condamnation irrémédiable contre l’injuste, à savoir Israël lui-même ! Mais que penser de « la colère de Dieu » ? Quant à lui, Ricoeur nous invite, tout à la fois, à justifier l’indignation, éthiquement, mais à en limiter la portée ontologique et théologique.
27. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Bernard Reber Le quasi-réalisme de Dworkin et la responsabilité de juger: Hercule face au roi Salomon
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Dworkin invented a fictional character: Hercules. Super-judge he has the capacity to reveal the hidden structure of judgments. In his famous judgment Solomon’s wisdom is recognized as divine. It is no longer sufficient for a secularized philosophical reflection. However, Dworkin’s Hercules is endowed with a capacity of unconventional coherence, which allows him to overcome the judge’s instinct. It is somehow in the position of a god. Salomon, who is called wise, has undoubtedly invented an unexpected resolution in his judgment, which is tested here in the light of the richness of the meaning of responsibility. For Salomon, as for Dworkin, responsibility is a rock. - This chapter examines in-depth his latest book, Justice for Hedgehogs, from a moral realism perspective, in order to critically analyse his narrow conception of moral realism and the various opponents of this meta-ethical theory as powerful as it is diverse.
28. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff Mondialisation et justice globale: Vers un esprit cosmopolite
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This article discusses the concept of globalization in relation to global justice with the aim of developing a cosmopolitan spirit as the basis for international justice. Globalization was in the beginning an economic concept but with the emergence of global problems of global poverty, environmental degradation, climate change and global social and political interdependence we need to rethink the concept of justice for the international community at a cosmopolitan level. The article considers that it is the task of political philosophy to reflect on this other concept of globalization, not only as a utopia but also as a real alternative for the global community. The dream of another globalization includes overcoming the misery of the world in the struggle for democracy and hope for cosmopolitan justice in the age of hypermodemity.
29. Eco-ethica: Volume > 6
Peter Kemp, Noriko Hashimoto Preface
30. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Peter Kemp Les trois niveaux de l’interdépendance
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Taking as its starting-point Frédéric Worms’s Les maladies chro­nique de la Démocratie (2017), this paper shows the links between three kinds of interconnections: planetary, socio-cultural, and interpersonal. The contemporary refusal of interdependence is illustrated by an examination of three sicknesses: empiricism, racism, and ultraliberalism. It is proposed that the challenge they represent can be met by a cosmopoli­tanism inspired in part by both Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant.
31. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff Interdépendance éthique et pratiques politiques de résilience à l’âge de l’Anthropocène
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This article discusses the ethical interdependence and political practice in the age of the Anthropocene. The article presents the work on this topic by Bruno Latour in his discussions of social constructivism in relation to the political philosophy of the Anthropocene. With Latour we can perceive the emergence of a new form of geopolitics where the earth and its nature has become a field of politics. Politics has become climate change politics and the political hypermodernity is forced to integrate nature in the ethics and politics of our time. Therefore the age of the Anthropocene implies the emergence of a new form of international governance. Resilience politics in the age of the Anthropocene opens for a new responsibility for climate change that moves beyond the technological understandings of modernity because humanity is situated in the center of the earth in interdependence with nature and culture.
32. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Bernard Reber Architecture politique de l’interdépendance climatique: système, délibération, considération ou responsabilité?
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The problem of interdependence is crucial for understanding the climate, with its interactions between land, water and atmosphere, as well as with human activities, past and future. The concept of interdependence expresses two types of relationship, that of causality and that of responsibility. For the problems of climate governance as understood as a statistical average in the Conferences of the parties (COP), causal dependence is impossible to reconstruct precisely, notably because of the complexity of these phenomenons. However, dependence does not only concern the domain of being, falling within the natural sciences and social sciences and human descriptivo-predictive. It also concerns the ought-to-be and therefore the normative sciences (ethics, political thery, law and normative economy). Here interdependence is much more problematic since it is opposed to freedom. The article discusses the various interdependencies and political solutions that are offered to take care of this needs, architectures for discussing climate change politically: systems (N. Luhmann) and deliberation (J. Habermas). He proposes then another solution, that of the moral and political consediration.
33. Eco-ethica: Volume > 7
Mireille Delmas-Marty Penser l’ordre juridique à l'heure de l’Anthropocène
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By entering positive law, human rights reveal not only internal contradictions, but also external conflicts between the practical reasons which inspire them. These contradictions and conflicts could pull us in the doldrums (Pot au noir), this mythical place where ships, caught in violent storms and world winds, could shipwreck.
34. Eco-ethica: Volume > 1
Bernard Reber Le principe de précaution, une prise en charge de deux défis de l’écoéthique: — pluralisme (épistémique et moral) et menaces technologiques planétaires? --
35. Eco-ethica: Volume > 1
Peter Kemp L’imaginaire du droit et la réalité des lois ou Vers l’éco-droit