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21. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Edward Shafer Overcoming Conflicts Between Strategic and Ethics Models
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In the field of Business Ethics there is a common belief that ethical conflicts can be resolved within existing organizational and ethical frameworks, i.e., that these frameworks are or can be made compatible. This paper suggests that fundamental differences between strategic and ethics models render them incompatible.Strategic models are outcome oriented. Ethics models focus on means. Other critical differences exist. Many ethics models are inconsistent with each other, making it difficult to find a common ground for use with strategy . Ethics models are normative, static and seek universal behavior; strategic models are situational and adaptive. This difference is particularly critical in light of the rapid changes in technology, the increasing globalization of business and the merger and acquisition trend of recent years. Perhaps the most critical difference is that ethics models rarely measure results in financial terms whereas strategic models almost always do so.These differences are examined in support of the view that the current strategic and ethics models are irreconcilable. Suggestions are offered for developing new models which recognize the differences and seek to reconcile them.
22. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Patricia C. Kelley, Bradley R. Agle The Past as a Predictor of the Future: Political Action Committees' Solicitation Techniques
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Since 1971, approximalely 1800 corporate Political Action Committees (PACs) have been establishad by businesses in the United Stales (FEC Record, 1989). Since this time, techniques to solicit contributions by companies have developed which have enhanced the fund generating capabilities of PACs. Based on field research conducted during the summer of 1989, this paper isolates the factors contributing to the effectiveness of a company's solicitation activities. From these findings, future management trends for the 1990's in this area are extrapolated.
23. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Kelly C. Strong Employment Rights: A Lockean Perspective
24. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
A. James Granito An Adjunct Judicial System: Design and Cost
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This is a conceptual paper. It does not attempt to cover the possible legislative or constitutional impediments to implementation. It does not even suggest that it should be implemented. Yet it is not simply a statement of frustration. It is a proffer. Here is the design of a structure— complete in outline, but lacking in details and testing. Almost naive in its willingness to remold major institutions, it is neither humble nor proud in adherence to "indefatigable idealism."
25. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Eugene Szwajkowski Accounting for Organizational Misconduct
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Organizational misconduct (white collar, corporate and occupational crime, unethical behavior, rule violations, etc.) is an increasingly important social concern. This paper proposes that a necessary step toward preventing and treating such misconduct is the understanding of the explanations, called accounts, given by the actor. We argue that the theorizing and findings in the literature on accounts can be organized into a 2x2 matrix framework.The first dimension centers on whether or not the actor admits that some net harm is done by the act , and the second consists of whether or not the actor admits responsibility. When both are admitted (cell 1), the account is a concession, while denial of both constitutes a refusal (cell 4). Admitting responsibility but not harm equates to a justification (cell 2), and the opposite condition is an excuse (cell 3). Building on this matrix, we specify a typology of explanations with in each cell which will highlight inter-cell differences. Finally, we explore the implications of this analysis for managers, regulators, and the public.
26. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Charles W. L. Hill An Empirical Examination of the Determinants of OSHA Violations
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It has been argued that a firm's propensity to violate federal laws and regulations is related to firm size, diversity, financial pressures, and decentralization (Clinard & Yeager, 1980). The current paper tests these propositions using OSHA data. The findings offer at best only weak support for some of these propositions, while strongly suggesting that most are invalid.
27. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jeanne M. Logsdon Responses to Early Discovery of Groundwater Chemical Contamination
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This study compares the responses of five high technology firms that initially discovered groundwater chemical contanination in Silicon Valley in the early 1980s. The contamination was caused by leaks fron underground chemical storage tanks. These discoveries preceded regulations, and firms had to decide how to address the issue voluntarily. After public disclosure in 1982, regulatory oversight brought requirements to which these firms had to respond. This paper describes actions taken before and after public disclosure to assess how consistently firms exhibit patterns of response to evolving social issues.
28. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Linda Klebe Trevino, Bart Victor Peer Management: A Model and Investigation
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One of the principal functions of magement is to control employee behavior. However, control through direct supervision can be difficult and costly. This paper presents theory and evidence to suggest that the employee control function may be shared by coworkers through the specification of a peer managenent role. The model suggests that peer management is more likely to be accepted and to occur under two conditions: 1) when a group member's misconduct threatens the group's interests and 2) when the group adopts the resort to extra-group control as part of its identity. Two scenario studies were conducted to test the study hypotheses, one in an academic cheating context and the other representing a fast-food employee theft situation. The results generally supported the hypotheses, which somewhat different findings in the two contexts. Group identity evidenced the greatest influence in the academic cheating context, while group interests were more influential in the fast food theft context. Explanations are provided for the differential results, along with implications for management and future research.
29. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Douglas Nigh Exploring the International Dimension of Business and Society: Research, Teaching, and Professional Development
30. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jean Pasquero "The International Dimension of Business and Society": Notes for a panel organized by Doug Nigh (USC)
31. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Brian Toyne Contributions of International Business to the International Dimension of Business and Society Debate
32. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Richard McGowan Tabacalera, S.A.: A Study of the Spanish Cigarette industry and its entry in to the EEC
33. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Diana Dodd-McCue, Martha L. Reiner Avtex Fibers Inc. and Pollution: Limits of Regulation and Self-Regulation
34. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Delavar G. Shenas Socio-economic Effects of Self-Help Housing Projects in Imperial County, California
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Imperial County, primarily an agricultural area, has the highest unemployment, and high school dropout rates in California today. The average wages are also among the lowest in the country. Due to lack of competition and many other factors, the commercial housing (developed by the private sector) is not affordable by the majority of working people. The public sector's efforts are either very limited or non-existent! Thus, the "visible poor", the homeless. consequently, "are the natural victims of a Darwinian struggle for survival."Along with an overview of low-income housing crisis, this study investigates the effects of "self-help housing" projects on the following areas: elimination of slums and blight; creation of new and affordable housing for purchase; real estate tax-base effect; creation of sales taxes due to construction; maintaining of employment or creation of new jobs due to the construction; and the participants' higher chances of (more permanent) employment due to new skills learned during the construction process. The research will also look at some other indirect aspects/effects resulted from the constructions in these communities as well (i.e., "pride of ownership", loan-payment patterns of the construction participants, etc.).
35. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jann W. Carpenter Ethical Dissimilarities as a Variable in International Business Transactions: A Preliminary Report on the Japanese-American Experience
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Cultural Dissonance in transnational business negotiations has been suggested as an important factor in determining outcomes of negotiations. The sources of dissonance in cross-cultural relations have never been agreed upon. Some have suggested that conflicts in inividual negotiation styles, or roles within the group of negotiators, are causes of dissonance. This study suggests that dissonance is more complex and results when behaviors are viewed from cross and in-culture perspectives. This research attempts to say what specific cultural traits cause cross-cultural dissonance for Japanese and American negotiators.Japanese and American business persons reported that international, cross-cultural negotiations with each other ware most different from in-culture negotiations due to their respective lower levels of confidence. Both groups were asked to give examples of the conduct of their opposites which lessen trust and confidence. The responses were classified into groups and subjected to content and cluster analysis. The content results suggest that culture differences having to do with behaviors during negotiations lessened trust and confidence on both sides. Specific behaviors, some culturally determined, were identified and rank ordered. Further, content analysis is suggested that these cultural behaviors were viewed by the opposing sides as ethical issues affecting the willingness of the parties to close a deal. The cluster analys is suggested that both national groups were very different in terms of what affected their respective trust and confidence, but within national groups fairly homogeneous. It also appeared that more experience in cross-culture negotiations tended to lessen negotiator concerns for culturaI-ethicaI issues, and heightened interest in the deal mechanics.The content analysis is further suggested that both Japanese and American business negotiators are not ethically sensitive to ethical issues outside the deal under negotiation. No larger social ethical issues were cited by either side as affecting levels of trust and confidence in cross-cultural negotiations.
36. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Jeffrey Gale Global Markets and National Regulation: The Extraterratorial Application of Competition Rules
37. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
G. Eric Hansen Elite Formation and Contribution in Transnational Business Contexts: The Case of the European Community
38. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1990
Luis R. Gomez-Majia, Allison M. Hendrick Fostering an Integrative Dominant Paradigm of Social Responsibility in Maquiladora Industries: A Cross-cultural Perspective of Management Issuss
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The growth of maquiladoras, or "twin plants," along the U.S.-Mexico border has been hailed as a potential positive contribution to the economic health of both nations. For U.S. firms the close proximity to a low-cost labor market is seen as an effective within-hemisphere response to global price competition. For Mexico, maquiladoras are seen as an opportunity for job creation and attendant increased living standards for a population segment. For both countries maquiladoras have emerged to be ventures with responsibilities and allegiances to sometimes conflicting paradigms of social responsibility. The different and culturally-influenced schemata of U.S. and Mexican nanagers have further exacerbated attempts to identify a "common ground" of management agreement toward the salient social issues for corporate response. This paper traces the theoretical development of "dominant logic," then proposes a research methodology to test the existence of differing dominant logics among U.S. and Mexican managers of maquiladoras.
39. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jean Pasquero Business and Society in Retrospect: More Relevant Than Ever, but Still Struggling (A Tenth Anniversary Tribute)
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For the tenth anniversaty of IABS, the Past Presidents have organized a panel around the field of Business and Society. My part addressed the strengths and weaknesses of the field, as we can retrospectively identify them. In order to give a historical perspective to my comments, I have chosen to reproduce and comment upon a discussion paper I had written for a private seminar with some Past Presidents nearly ten years ago. Looking back, I submit that the field is more relevant than ever, but still struggling.
40. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Laquita C. Blockson, Olenda E. Johnson, Vanessa Hill, Bryan W. Husted, Lee Burke Symposium Overview: Social Justice: Bringing it Back to the Forefront