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221. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Annette Thorsen Vilslev Feelings of Discomfort in Ōe's “Prize Stock”
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This article examines the feelings of discomfort in the works of Nobel Prize winner Kenzaburo Ōe. Focusing on Ōe's first short story “Prize Stock”, Shiiku (1957), the article discusses how the incredible event of a black pilot falling from the sky in the mountains near a small Japanese village during World War II refers to more general racial issues than those described. The discussion argues that Ōe's story, criticized as racist because of the treatment of the black airman, should be read in a broader view, thematising the problems of race and marginalisation in Japan and beyond.
222. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Kyung Han You Exploring Mandam [Comic Talk] as a Unique Form of Political Entertainment in Korea During the Japanese Colonial Period
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Using a lens of cultural industry approach, this study explores the rise and fall of the political entertainment with a focus on specific moments associated with the trajectory of Korean political entertainment in public setting. A historical overview of Korean political entertainment traces back to the 1930s when Mandam, a unique kind of political satiric talk became popular in 1930s. Mandam played a satiric role in influencing public opinion on political affairs, particularly led by the early generation of Mandam storytellers. Their criticism centered on Japanese colonial rule, even though Mandam was limited in terms of freedom of speech during this period. Furthermore, this study highlights that the great popularity of Mandam was driven by business organizations for the commercial purpose. Mandam was placed at the core of intricate relationships among the related industries. In sum, the present study concludes that as distinctive form blending political information and entertainment, Mandam played a vital role in expressing individuals‟ political opinions under the communicative circumstances during the Japanese colonial period.
223. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
I Gede Mugi Raharja East and West Cross Cultural Semiotics: On Taman Ujung Bali Architecture
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Indonesia had absorbed various cultures since ancient times, caused the local cultures were enriched with sign language. However, signs on the traditional culture in Indonesia are more symbolic in nature. Interestingly, East and West cross-cultural sign was encountered in Bali, on Sukasada Park design, in Ujung Village, Karangasem regency. The park which was known as Taman Ujung was a legacy of Karangasem Kingdom. This article was compiled from the results of research conducted in 1999, 2012 and 2016. The latest study was specifically conducted to examine the signs on the design of Taman Ujung. Therefore, this study used a semiotic approach, which deals with the science of signs. Such signs could be seen in the form of design, material‟s quality and decoration of the building. The pavilion, placed in the middle of the pond caused Taman Ujung was different from the traditional Balinese garden in general. The Pavilion, called Gili, became a sign of the influence of modern western architecture. The use of concrete construction and decorative concrete mold were signs of the influence of western technology. Their decorative Karang Bentala and a lion with a crown were related to the Royal Dutch symbol mark. This sign implies the meaning of good relations between Karangasem Kingdom and Netherlands‟ Kingdom in the past.
224. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Ulani Yunus Symbols of Cross-cultural Communication in Kasepuhan Palace Indonesia
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The purpose of this study is to illustrate how art and culture in the Kasepuhan Palace can be interpreted as a form of cross-cultural communication. The inquiry addresses two research questions: What are cultures that interact in the 15th century in Indonesia? and How does this interaction appear in Kasepuhan Palace. The results show interactions with culture from India, China, Egypt and Europe. Among the motives: trade, the spread of religion and international politics.
225. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Luqman Hakim, Siti Mutiah Setiawati Building Up Trust in Peaceful and Democratic One Asia
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Globalization cannot be stopped nor denied. Sometimes it may have not only a positive impact but also a negative one, as rivalry among nations may ensue. Economic and political rivalry leads to break up of the conducive environment of political security. Unresolved territorial claims and boundary disputes may become triggering factors. Superpowers’ interference may had to the conflict. The purpose of this article is to explain the possibilities of building up trust in peaceful and democratic One Asia Community by systematically and effectively introducing educational programs to enhance awareness of cultural differences, teach conflict resolution techniques, and promote an ideal of ethical responsibility and unselfishness.
226. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 1
Nicolito A. Gianan Cross-Cultural Semiotic Dialogue and the Spoliarium
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The trade-offs of “meaning-making” between East and West may be regarded as an aggiornamento (“updating”) for any culture in contact. But since aggiornamento entails a wide range of subjects, the essay situates the meaning-making within the scope of masterpieces in diverse formats, from the printed literary text to the painted image (e.g., Spoliarium). Specifically, the essay offers a rethinking of the cross-cultural semiotic dialogue, paving the way for recognizing the homo significans. However, the customary framing of the Spoliarium does not seem to warrant its conscious knowledge and understanding as a text and a visual art. For this reason, the essay endorses its reframing and its aggiornamento, which is induced by the rapid advancement of science and technology.
227. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Hamid Andishan Incommensurability in Global Ethics, The Case of Islamic Aniconism and Freedom of Speech
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Can all values be reduced to one or a few fundamental ones? Two values may neither exceed the other in importance nor be equal. In such situation, they cannot be reduced to each other or to a third value, and we can call such values as ”incommensurable”. Drawing on the concept of incommensurable values and what recently is called ”global ethics”, I will argue that if two values from two different cultures conflict, one must pay enough attention to the idea of ”incommensurability of values” in order to avoid a bias judgment of either. I will show how this is the case in the conflict between the Islamic ethics and the secular ethics, examining a specific case: Islamic prohibition on images of Mohammed and the liberalist reverence for freedom of speech.
228. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
N.N. Trakakis Love and Marriage, Yesterday and Today
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Taking as its starting-point Eva Illouz's sociological study Why Love Hurts (2012), this paper develops a philosophical framework for understanding love and marriage, particularly in their contemporary manifestations. To begin with, premodern practices in love and marriage during the ancient Greek and Byzantine eras are outlined and contrasted with modern forms of love, whose overriding features are (according to Illouz) suffering and disappointment. To cast some light upon this great transformation in the fortunes of love the discussion takes an axiological and metaphysical turn by placing the transformation within the context of the kind of relational morality and metaphysics proposed by many idealist philosophers.
229. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Corneliu C. Simuţ Ecodomical Attempts to Ideologically Transform the World into a Protective Realm for All Human Beings through Using the Concept of Goodness in Dealing with the Reality of Religion
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This paper investigates the possibility of identifying various ecodomical or constructive possibilities which have the potential to ideologically transform the world at a global scale in the sense that they can promote a set of ideas with positive connotations in dealing with the extremely complex issue of religion. Whether religion is good or bad, positive or negative has nothing to do with this article’s basic methodology which seeks to isolate various theoretical attempts aimed at approaching the issue of religion through a common denominator. For this paper, this common denominator is the human being and, by association, the notion of goodness which will be used in order to demonstrate that, concerning religion, it can provide not only a theoretical framework for positive discussions about religion but also an ecodomic possibility whereby humanity can transform the world into a safer environment for persons of all races and convictions. Four such ecodomical attempts to use the notion of goodness will be analyzed in connection with the reality of religion: John Shelby Spong who promotes goodness in order to free society of religion so for him religion is useless, Ion Bria for whom goodness cannot be detached from religion so religion is vital, Vito Macuso whose conviction is that goodness exists with or without religion so religion is neutral, and Desmond Tutu who believes that goodness can turn religion, any religion for that matter, in a positive reality, so in his understanding religion is positive.
230. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Weilin Fang Studies on Civil Emotionalism and the Modern Transformation of Chinese Tradition
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This article focuses on the study of the emotional discourses contained in the Chu bamboo slips dating back to the Chu kingdom of the Warring States period, and announces a newly discovered tradition of Emotionalism in ancient China. In addition to the two main traditions of Confucianism and Taoism, there is a third tradition of Emotionalism that has hitherto not attracted adequate attention and has not been sufficiently studied. I propose that rather than perceiving traditional Chinese culture through the binary looking glass of the dichotomous concept of “Complementation of Confucianism and Taoism,” Chinese culture may be represented more accurately if viewed in the light of a “Threefold Coexistence of Confucianism–Legalism, Taoism–Buddhism and Civil Emotionalism,” along with other lesser-known schools of thought. The uncovering of the hidden tradition of Emotionalism will reveal new perspectives on the modern transformation of traditional Chinese culture. This third tradition represents a conviction of civil liberalism that is of great importance to the transformation of ancient Chinese tradition into a modern constitutional culture.
231. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Inna Valerievna Miroshnichenko, Elena Vasilievna Morozova Networking Mechanisms of Identity Formation
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The authors prove and describe the action of new networking mechanisms of formation of identities which arise in the context of societal transformations of the modern society. The networking mechanisms of identity formation represent a complex of interrelated and interdependent practices in global information and communication space, promoting individual and collective identification, interiorization and reflection. The complex includes the mechanism of network communication, mechanism of reflexive involvement of a person into the public space, mechanism of network topos-structuring and mechanism of public crowdsourcing. The results of the empirical research show that the functionality of the mechanism of network communication for reproducing/positioning traditional identities and projecting new identities resides in its digital nature (readiness and openness for changes) and a network ethos (orientation to the integration into the community of different value orientations and statuses of actors and provision of cooperation between them on the basis of the development of the uniform complex of values and standards). The mechanism of reflexive involvement of individuals into the public space enables individual and collective actors to project the independent social worlds requiring the creation of their own virtualized public spaces that are closely linked with the common social space. The mechanism of network toposstructuring and mechanism of public crowdsourcing, forming situation and problem identities, have the high mobilization potential to update the activity of network communities in the form of individuals’ initiatives and large-scale civil movements where new sustained identities form which can also gain the protest nature. The authors come to conclusion that the complex of network mechanisms produces the dynamic matrix of the identity of a modern person allowing to take the opportunities for its development in the contemporary conditions of new social reality formation. At the same time, the complex of networking mechanisms is not stable; its content depends on those institutional practices which determine further conditions, processes and results of formation of identities, requiring their conceptual understanding and empirical research in social sciences.
232. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Bina Nir Western Culture and Judeo-Christian Judgement
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Judeo-Christian Western culture recognizes a legislating, judging and punishing God. The view that a judge separate from man indeed exists, constitutes, among other things, cultural motivation for the pursuit of success, on the one hand, and fear of failure, guilt, on the other. The human-being fears the consequences of judgement, especially those entailing punishment, and attempts with all his might to succeed in the eyes of the judge. This study‟s underlying assumption is that judge-ment constitutes a deep structure in Western culture and that its religious origins are in the culture‟s Jewish and Christian sources. Although religious judgement under-goes processes of secularization throughout the culture‟s history, it remains a deep cultural construct; while worldviews are deeply embedded in the religious expe-rience, as Jung (1987) contends, they have a latent capacity for preservation in the secular experience. A genealogical methodology will be applied to examine the con-cept of judgement. While genealogy deals with the past, its aim is to understand and critique the present reality. The genealogy will scrutinize the Jewish judgement (as portrayed in the biblical doctrine of rewards), the Catholic judgement and the Calvinist judgement, while calling attention to their similarities and differences.
233. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Mónica Gómez Salazar Onto-Epistemological Pluralism, Social Practices, Human Rights And White Racism
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Based on onto–epistemological pluralism and social practices this work maintains that the proclamation of cultural neutrality originating in the idea of equality without any distinction of color, sex, language, religion or political opinion, really favors white racism and cultural imperialism of the liberal way of life.This article argues that the process of reasoning which justifies human rights is distorted by particular interests, such as the colonization of American territory in the case of the Declaration of the Good People of Virginia in 1776. As no–one questioned the reasons upon which the false belief that some human beings were classified as inferior or superior according to their physical features, it was reiterated as if it were a truth and, consequently acted upon, thereby fixing this belief in stereotypes. In this article I argue that the present Declaration of Human Rights is the result of continuing inherited presuppositions from the 18th Century. These have not been questioned and have constituted the world in which we live as a racist world in which the liberal tradition has consolidated its political power.
234. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Motsamai Molefe Individualism in African Moral Cultures
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This article repudiates the dichotomy that African ethics is communitarian (relational) and Western ethics is individualistic. „Communitarianism‟ is the view that morality is ultimately grounded on some relational properties like love or friendship; and, „individualism‟ is the view that morality is ultimately a function of some individual property like a soul or welfare. Generally, this article departs from the intuition that all morality including African ethics, philosophically interpreted, is best understood in terms of individualism. But, in this article, I limit myself to the literature in the African moral tradition; and, I argue that it is best construed in terms of individualism contrary to the popular stance of communitarianism. I defend my view by invoking two sorts of evidences. (1) I invoke prima facie evidence, which shows how both secular and religious moral thinkers in the tradition tend to understand it in individualistic terms. And, (2) I invoke concrete evidence, I show that the two terms that can be said to be definitive features of African ethical framework, namely: personhood and dignity, are individualistic. I conclude by considering possible objections against my defense of individualism as a central feature of African ethics.
235. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 14 > Issue: 2
Perihan Elif Ekmekci, Berna Arda Interculturalism and Informed Consent: Respecting Cultural Differences without Breaching Human Rights
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Interventions in medicine require multicenter clinical trialson a large rather than limited number of subjects from various genetic and cultural backgrounds. International guidelines to protect the rights and well-being of human subjects involved in clinical trialsarecriticizedforthe priority they place on Western cultural values. These discussions become manifest especially with regard to the content and methodology of the informed consent procedure. The ethical dilemma emerges from the argument that there are fundamental differences about the concept of respect for the autonomy of individuals in different cultures and religions. Some communities prioritize the consent of community leaders or the head of family –usually men – over the voluntary and free consent of the individual. The aim of this work is to discuss this ethical dilemma to determine a base for a consensus that satisfies the sensibilities of different cultures without damaging the rights and autonomy of human subjects.
236. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Emmanuel Ifeanyi Ani The Question of Immanence in Kwasi Wiredu’s Consensual Democracy
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Kwasi Wiredu, arguably the most influential African philosopher, has proposed a democracy by consensus as an alternative to the majoritarian democracy African countries inherited from their colonial masters. His proposal has generated a lot of debates, and these debates have spanned several aspects of his proposal. In this paper, I focus on the debate regarding his attribution of immanence to the practice of consensus in traditional African social relations. Bernard Matolino has recently written an article defending Wiredu's employment of the word immanence in describing the traditional African attitude to social relations. In this article, I find Matolino's defense to be unsustainable.
237. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
I Gede Mugi Raharja Heritage, Knowledges and Memories on Pura Penulisan Architecture Bali at Ancient Mount Batur Caldera Area
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Bali island’s beautiful nature in Indonesia are the result of volcanic activity under the sea, more than 23 million years ago. The geology of Bali island lies in the Sunda mountains arc, part of the volcanic rings of Pacific ring of fire. This causes the condition of Bali island is often unstable in ancient times, due to the shocks of volcanic eruptions. One of the beautiful areas caused by ancient volcanic activity is the Caldera of Mount Batur. On the northwestern side of the caldera of the ancient Mount Batur, the archaeological traces of statues in sacred venues have been found since the prehistoric Balinese civilization. The holy place built on the hill at the highest peak of this ancient Batur Mountain caldera, often called Pura Penulisan. This holy place is designed in accordance with local wisdom, the concept of punden berundak, a concept of the original architectural space of Indonesia since prehistoric times. The shape of the architectural space design follows the topography of the hills, in form of leveled terrace and equipped with plaza. Archaelogical of Pura Penulisan merges with the caldera of Mount Batur, which was formed due to eruption 5,500 years ago. Therefore, Pura Penulisan architecture and the ancient Batur Mountain caldera, are both a valuable heritage, containing knowledge, and can knit memories.
238. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Vaida Asakavičiūtė Cultural Crisis as a Decline in Human Existential Creativity
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The article analyzes cultural crisis as a decline in human existential creativity. A review of the problematic nature of the conception of creativity shows that this concept is not strictly defined. Non-classical philosophers were among the first to theoretically ground the importance of creativity for an individual, their quality of life, the well-being of society, and the development of culture. From this philosophical perspective, it is shown that a human being has, as a natural creative faculty, an innate ability to create. This existential human creativity can be defined as the self-development of one's personality, the creation of one's life and environment. The causes and consequences of a decline in creativity are analyzed in the context of Spengler's conception of cultural crisis. The conclusion is reached that creative activity and creativity can be taken to be the most profound goal of a personality and its most perfect form of existence. From this existential creativity stems an authenticity of life, a creation of spiritual values, and an improvement and development of cultural forms. The disjunction of culture and civilization reveals that the establishment of an era of civilization and mass culture marks the decline of authentic culture as regards vibrant existential creative activity.
239. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Arianti Ayu Puspita, Agus Sachari, Andar Bagus Sriwarno, Jamaludin Knowledge from Javanese Cultural Heritage: How They Manage and Sustain Teak Wood
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Centhini manuscript is one of the ancient manuscripts from Kesultanan Surakarta Hadiningrat (Royal Kingdom) in the 19th century which has had a role in the cultural and ecological aspects in regulating the use of teakwood. Therefore, deep study into utilization of teak wood in Centhini Manuscript will be conducted as cultural heritage from Indonesia. Narrative methods is used in this research to present thematic results. Direct observation is conducted on various artifacts to analyze the symbolic value of teakwood. The results show that in the past, religious considerations, alertness and well-being is an important factor in the selection of teak in the Javanese community. Selection of teak is carried out strictly as accountability to the environment. The purpose of this research is to build cultural values as strategy on teak wood utilization in Indonesia and to develop ecology-minded design in the future.
240. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 15 > Issue: 1
Mohd Faizal Bin Musa The Memory of Tanzimat and How the Malay World Could Have Learned from It
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This paper is diagnostic type rather than a solution one. There are claims among certain quarters that The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR 1948) is a Western mould human rights. However, I will argue that human rights are benchmark for modernization and progress in democracy, and it is traceable within Islam. Using Syed Hussein Alatas‘s Ideal of Excellence (Cita Sempurna Warisan Sejarah) as thereotical framework, my attempt is to highlight the memory of Tanzimat during Ottoman empire as one triumph heritage and successful story of human rights modernization within Islam, and not the moment or starting point of failure for the Ottoman. Unfortunately, this modernization does not reflected in the Malay world as it is perceived as the weakening process of Ottoman. Today, similar challenges faced by Ottoman are being faced by the Malay world. Legalistic Islam and Wahhabism are among others that slowing down the modernization of human righs within Malay world.