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221. Augustinianum: Volume > 47 > Issue: 1
Ilaria Ramelli Origen’s Interpretation of Hebrews 10:13: The Eventual Elimination of Evil and the Apocatastasis
222. Augustinianum: Volume > 48 > Issue: 1
Ilaria L.E. Ramelli Origen’s Exegesis of Jeremiah: Resurrection Announced Throughout the Bible and its Twofold Conception
223. Augustinianum: Volume > 49 > Issue: 2
Siver Dagemark Natural Science: its limitation and relation to the liberal arts in Augustine
224. Augustinianum: Volume > 49 > Issue: 2
A. Pelttari Donatist self-identity and 'The Church of the Truth'
225. Augustinianum: Volume > 50 > Issue: 1
Matthew Alan Gaumer The Development of the Concept of Grace in Late Antique North Africa
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This article identifies the context of Augustine's theology of grace. His disappointing experiences as a priest and young bishop impacted his theological notions of gratia, especially as they would mature during the Pelagian crisis. Using Cyprian as an authority, Augustine argued against the Donatist idea of grace solely through membership in the 'pure' church and sacramental grace only via ministers free from ecclesial-sin (traditio). Instead, Augustine argued that all grace is solely through God and that all humanity and the earthly Church was a mixed body of the fallen and blessed and in need of divine grace.
226. Augustinianum: Volume > 50 > Issue: 1
Susan Wessel The Morality of Disgust in Jerome and John Chrysostom
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Jerome and John Chrysostom explored the disgust and revulsion that people often feel when confronted with the suffering of another human being. Theyattempted morally to reform their listeners by showing them that they were just as vulnerable as those whom they disparaged, and by breaking down false barriers between the self and other. Jerome presented graphic details of one woman’s ministry to the sick and poor, while Chrysostom criticized the aloofspectator who encouraged the sick and poor to perform. Disgust was thereby re-conceived as an inappropriate response to human suffering.
227. Augustinianum: Volume > 50 > Issue: 2
Salvatore R .C. Lilla Andrew C. Itter, Esoteric Teaching in the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria
228. Augustinianum: Volume > 50 > Issue: 2
Bengt Alexanderson Books 1-16 of the De Civitate Dei: the Question of an Archetype, the Oldest Manuscripts L, C and V compared with later ones
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The paper discusses how the oldest manuscripts (L, C, V) of De civitate Dei are related to the more recent ones. The problems that emerge concern theexistence of an archetype; the relationship between L and C; the question whether the earlier manuscripts may be right (they sometimes are). In quite a few passages the readings preferred by editors are questionable, and others are proposed. It is shown that interpolation and revision of the text play an important role, and that the context must take priority in attempting to establish the text. We should not put excessive trust in the older manuscripts, yet, at the same time, we should be aware of the uncertainty of our choices.
229. Augustinianum: Volume > 50 > Issue: 2
John Moorhead What names did the Anti-nicenes use for Catholics and Arians?
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The parties involved in the Trinitarian disputes that led to and followed the Council of Nicaea are generally referred to as Catholics and Arians. But suchterminology reproduces that of the party that was ultimately victorious, and this paper utilizes the evidence of Latin texts from the fourth to the sixth centuries to enquire into the language used by the other side. It will draw attention to the use of such terms as Homousians and Romans for those better known as Catholics, and the application of such general concepts as lex and religio.
230. Augustinianum: Volume > 50 > Issue: 2
Anastasios G. Maràs The Issue of Rhetoric for Christian Apologists in the Second Century
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Viewing rhetoric as a product of pagan culture, the Apologists take a negative stance toward it. For Justin the art of persuasion may be useful in all areas ofpublic life but it is useless when it comes to the metaphysical truth of Christianity. The strength to teach or interpret Christianity, Justin posits, comes from God, not rhetoric. For his part, Tatian dismisses forensic rhetoric on the grounds that it often subverts Christian ethics by defending injustice, sycophancy and money-making, in effect promoting that which is not virtuous. As for Theophilus, he places greater value on the substance and meaning of Christian purposes and less on the orator’s virtuosity and linguistic means of expression.
231. Augustinianum: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Geoffrey D. Dunn The Development of Rome as Metropolitan of Suburbicarian Italy. Innocent I’s Letter to the Bruttians
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Innocent I (402-417) addressed Epistula 38 to two Bruttian bishops, Maximus and Severus, in response to a complaint from Maximilianus, an agens in rebus,that these southern Italian bishops had failed to take action against presbyters who fathered children contrary to the requirements of celibacy after ordination and claimed to be ignorant of any policy on this matter. Innocent reminded the two bishops that they needed to attend to their duties. This letter is among the earliest evidence for how the Roman bishop operated in practice as metropolitan of Suburbicarian (and possibly Annonarian) Italy and so this article examines the growth of Rome’s metropolitan authority and concludes from an examination of both context and content of the letter that Innocent did not refer to any formal authority,which grew over time but seems to have been limited to presiding over synods, approving the election and ordination of new bishops, and hearing appeals from deposed bishops outside his province, but was exercising a practical authority as the leading bishop of the area, which he expressed in surprised tones, to direct them to do their duty.
232. Augustinianum: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Angelo Di Berardino Christian Liturgical Time and Torture (Cod. Theod. 9,35,4 and 5)
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On the 3rd of March 380, Theodosius, moved by the qualitas (pro reverentia religionis) of the pre-paschal period, a special time of preparation for Easter,mandates the suspension during Christian Lent of all penal trials which normally resulted in torture (Cod. Theod. 9,35,4 = Cod. Iust. 3,12,5). Lent is a specifically Christian time which developed to a large degree in the course of the fourth century, but which varied in duration and organization in the various churches. The law adapts the judicial calendar for the administration of justice to the rhythms of Christian liturgy. Theodosius in 389 (Cod. Theod. 9,35,5; 9,35,7) decrees that during Lent supplicia corporis could not take place, due to the sacredness of those days intended as a salutary penance which culminates in Easter reconciliation. Since the duration of Lent varied within the various churches, civil authorities of the provinces were to be informed by local Christians of the beginning and end of Lent.
233. Augustinianum: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Ilaria L.E. Ramelli Early Christian Missions from Alexandria to “India”. Institutional Transformations and Geographical Identifications
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This article first deals with Pantaenus’s mission to India, which began in Alexandria through the private initiative of Pantaenus, the teacher of Clement who was also well known to Origen. In the age of Athanasius (fourth century), another mission to India was organised in Alexandria, and this time the bishop himself took the initiative to send missionaries. Meanwhile in Alexandria the episcopacy had gained strength, and the head of the Didaskaleion – Didymus, a follower of Origen – was then appointed by the bishop, whereas neither Pantaenus nor Clement were so appointed. The article also discusses to which “India” the mission was directed. Generally, it is considered to have been Ethiopia, but in fact it might have been India.
234. Augustinianum: Volume > 51 > Issue: 2
Dan Batovici Contrasting ecclesial functions in the second century: 'Diakonia ', ' Diakonoi ', ' Episkopoi ' and ' Presbyteroi ' in the Sheperd of Hermas and Ignatius of Antioch's Letters
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The collection of texts we read today under the name of Apostolic Fathers has proved to be a very productive source for surveys of the second century Christianity. Due to its heterogeneity, it is hardly a surprise that the question of diakonia, in this corpus, forms a composite image. The aim of this paper is to reassess on comparative basis the material on diakonoi, episkopoi and presbyteroi in the Shepherd of Hermas and Ignatius of Antioch‟s Letters.
235. Augustinianum: Volume > 51 > Issue: 2
Mark DelCogliano Origen and Basil of Caesarea on the Liar Paradox
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Both Origen and Basil of Caesarea report that some people saw Ps. 115,2 LXX – “ I said in my alarm, ' Every human being is a liar ' ” -- as an expression of the Liar Paradox and formulated a version of the paradox based upon it. But Ps. 115,2 is actually not susceptible to the Liar paradox, despite Origen and Basil believing it to be so. Not realizing this, both sought to undermine the possibility that Ps. 115,2 did express the Liar paradox by offering a contextual exegesis, in which they argue that the speaker of the verse, David, can be considered a god, not a human being.
236. Augustinianum: Volume > 51 > Issue: 2
Andrew Hofer The Reordering of Relationships in John Chrysostom's « De sacerdotio »
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John Chrysostom’s De sacerdotio offers a reordering of social relationships that can be seen in comparison with the life and writings of Gregory of Nazianzus.Chrysostom understands that the priest’s relationship with Christ carries the priest above the laws of relationship governing earthly society, such as in friendship and family. By emphasizing the priesthood’s transcendent character even further than what Gregory had done, Chrysostom frees the priest from the pressures of constricting social laws so that the priest may live according to Christ alone. Chrysostom’s dialogue thus prepares us to encounter his own ministry, known by both admirers and detractors for flagrant disregard of elite society’s expectations.
237. Augustinianum: Volume > 52 > Issue: 1
Walter Dunphy Ps-Rufinus (the “Syrian”) and the Vulgate: Evidence Wanting!
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The name of Rufinus the Syrian (as presumed author of the Liber de Fide) is frequently given for the hitherto unidentified translator of part of the Vulgate New Testament. The evidence of the text of the Liber, however, does not support the claim that it is a witness to a Vulgate text. Furthermore, the biblical text in the Liber is frequently independent of even the Vetus Latina tradition, and shows close dependence on a Greek original. The use made of biblical proof-texts further points to Greek sources for the theology and anthropology presented in the Liber de Fide.
238. Augustinianum: Volume > 52 > Issue: 1
Ellen Scully The Soteriology of Hilary of Poitiers
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Hilary of Poitiers is an anomaly in the standard scholarly classification of Patristic Greek and Latin soteriology, for, though he is Latin, his soteriology shows such resemblance to Greek mystical theory that he is considered one of its major proponents. Since Harnack, the Greek mystical model is said to depend upon Platonism. However, this paper argues that Hilary teaches a "Greek" mystical model of redemption based on Christ‘s assumption of all humanity without recourse to Platonism. Hilary‘s soteriology is instead a development of Latin Stoicism and a literal exegetical understanding of the Pauline Adam-Christ parallel.
239. Augustinianum: Volume > 52 > Issue: 1
Sever J. Voicu Is phôtistêrion a constantinopolitan Neologism?
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The earliest instance of φωτιστήριον « baptistery » in Antioch appears in the year 517, in a Syriac gloss to one of Severus’s homilies, perhaps in connectionwith his pastoral policies. Even if φωτιστήριον was formed according to same pattern as βαπτιστήριον, both nouns seem independent. John Chrysostom and an Antiochian Pseudo-Chrysostom do not mention at all the baptistery, but only the font (κολυμβήϑρα). The evidence indicates that during the 5th century φωτιστήριον was almost exclusively used in Constantinople and might have been created there. Some texts indicate that the word might have been the preferred name for the baptistery of a « cathedral » church, at least in Constantinople.
240. Augustinianum: Volume > 52 > Issue: 1
Geoffrey D. Dunn The Call to Perfection, financial Asceticism, and Jerome
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The encounter between Jesus and the rich young man in Mt. 19,16-30 (with parallels in Mc. 10,17-31 and Lc. 18,18-30) provides the setting for the teachingon the attaining of perfection, which is presented as a three-step process: the selling of one’s possessions, the distribution of the proceeds to the poor, andthe following of Christ (Mt. 19,21; Mc. 10,21; Lc. 18,22; and the unique Lukan saying in 12,33). It was a passage to which Jerome appealed frequently in hiswritings and which Finn, in his recent monograph, believes demonstrates Jerome’s extreme views. In this paper I shall examine Jerome’s references to this biblical passage in his letters and treatises to evaluate whether the first two steps in the process (self-dispossession and almsgiving) were consideredequally virtuous by Jerome.