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21. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Dr. Paul Shrivastava Ecocentering Strategic Management
22. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Kristin Shrader-Frechette Ethics and the Challenge of Low-Dose Exposures
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In a recent article in American Scientist, a Berkeley expert quips: “Chicken Little is alive and well in America.” Never in history have health and environment-related hazards been so low, he says, while “so much effort is put into removing the last few percent of pollution or the last little bit of risk.” He thinks we have monumental battles over negligible risks, battles that are extraordinarily expensive for the industries that must pay to control pollution or to reduce risk.
23. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Joel Reichart, Patricia H. Werhane, Patricia H. Werhane Introduction
24. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Michael E. Gorman Imaginative Design Challenges to “Do We Consume Too Much?”
25. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
George G. Brenkert Partners, Business and the Environment: Comments on Merchant’s Partnership Ethics
26. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
William McDonough A Boat for Thoreau: A Discourse on Ecology, Ethics, and the Making of Things
27. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
R. Edward Freeman, Joel Reichart Toward a Life Centered Ethic for Business
28. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Bryan G. Norton Clearing the Way for a Life-Centered Ethic for Business: A Response to Freeman and Reichart
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I agree with much of Freeman and Reichart’s paper; so, by way of comment, I will simply supplement his argument in two ways. First, agreeing with their conclusion that we can, and should, re-direct business toward environmental protection without embracing a nonanthropocentric ethic, I will show that the pre-occupation of recent and contemporary environmental ethics with the anthropocentrism/non-anthropocentrism debate is avoidable. It rests on a misinterpretation of possible moral responses to the arrogance with which Western science, technology, and culture has treated nature. A better understanding of the history of the idea of nonanthropocentrism will, I believe, strengthen Freeman and Reichart’s case for pluralism in environmental ethics and values. Second, I will emphasize several points that seem to me to fit well with Freeman and Reichart’s approach, and which would provide important detailing for the type of approach he sketches, arguing that much hard intellectual work stands between us and a satisfactory, and useful, but pluralistic, and life-centered ethic for business and the environment.
29. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Sandra B. Rosenthal The Four Good Reasons for Limiting Consumption: A Pragmatic Perspective
30. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Mark Sagoff Do We Consume Too Much?
31. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Rogene A. Buchholz Toward a New Ethic of Production and Consumption: A Response to Sagoff
32. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Gordon G. Sollars, R. Edward Freeman Sagoff’s Environmentalism: An Economic and Ethical Critique
33. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Ernest Partridge How Much Is Too Much?
34. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 2
Carolyn Merchant Partnership Ethics: Business and the Environment
35. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 3
Brad Brown Entrepreneurship and Ethics in the Chinese Context
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The importance of entrepreneurship in China’s emergence as a global economic power is acknowledged—but will Chinese entrepreneurs have a positive or negative effect on social justice and business ethics in China? Increased reliance on guanxi relationships to facilitate business transactions has been witnessed as the communist party relaxed its grip on many segments of the economy. Although decentralizing control of the economy has produced rapid growth, there are many inequities as large numbers of Chinese citizens are exploited by Chinese entrepreneurs, who only know how to compete by keeping costs as low as possible.
36. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 3
Martin Calkins Silicon Valley’s Next Generation of Entrepreneurs
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This article focuses on the next generation of entrepreneurs likely to emerge in Silicon Valley. It profiles two tech-savvy college students and describes the Valley’s demographics and subculture to show how previous models of the entrepreneur (the pre-Internet and geek subculture varieties) are blending to form a new sort of entrepreneur for a computer industry in transition.
37. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 3
R. Edward Freeman, Sankaran Venkataraman Introduction
38. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 3
Richard P. Nielsen Business Citizenship and United States “Investor Capitalism”: A Critical Analysis
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There are several different types of capitalist political-economies and business organizations. Consequently, the implications for business citizenship behaviors are also quite different. In the older “large family owned business” and “managerial capitalism” forms there are important structural opportunities for a social contract and balancing of the needs of various stakeholder groups. In the “investor capitalist” form which emerged in the 1980s and has come to dominate the U.S. political-economic system, there is a dominant priority toward optimization of the shareholder wealth criterion which makes it very difficult for such business organizations to engage in authentic citizenship behaviors.
39. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 3
S. Venkataraman Stakeholder Value Equilibration and the Entrepreneurial Process
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This lecture explores the possibility of a useful dialogue between the fields of entrepreneurship and business ethics for mutual benefit. Although these two fields have much to offer each other, they have developed largely independently of each other. The lecture argues that entrepreneurship has a role to play in stakeholder theory and, relatedly, that stakeholder theory enriches our understanding of the entrepreneurial process. The lecture introduces the idea that a firm is an equilibrating mechanism, and then asks two questions, namely, “What are the properties of a fair and efficient equilibrating mechanism?” and “What alternative mechanisms would render the firm an effective reconciler of competing claims?” The lecture interprets the stakeholder literature to offer three alternative mechanisms to ensure a fair and efficient equilibrating system. The first mechanism is embodied in a person (the moral manager), the second is embodied in a process (the bargaining process), and the third is embodied in an external (to the firm) institution (the visible hand of law and government). To these three, the lecture adds a fourth mechanism from an entrepreneurship perspective, and explores the implications of this perspective to the stakeholder literature.
40. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics: Volume > 3
Robbin Derry Seeking A Balance: A Critical Perspective On Entrepreneurship and the Good Society
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Growth in entrepreneurial activity has been associated with the establishment of new markets, the development of new products, and increases in national and international income disparity. Before embracing all market activity as good and beneficial, we should carefully consider the environmental and social impacts that have followed the adoption of social values, which confer status with increased ownership and consumption. These impacts include severely entrenched poverty, increased consumption of disposable products leading to increased solid waste, increased consumption of nonrenewable resources, and high rates of personal bankruptcy. To counteract these trends, a balance of ecologizing and economizing drives is required within entrepreneurial activity.