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21. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Richard L. Lanigan Special Issue Introduction: Defining the Human Sciences
22. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Lori K. Schneider The Experience of Phenomenological Place: The Architecture of Local Workers in Global Work Place
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This hermeneutic phenomenological study of how remote workers in global corporations experience and interpret local place is based on Heidegger’sthinking about space, place, and dwelling, Giddens’ conception of globalization as “time-space distanciation,” and recent research and theory related to remote work and architecture. Study participants are knowledge workers in the United States and Europe who work full time from home as employees of large global corporations. The analysis reveals several insights about remote workers’ lived experience of place, including the importance of managing the threshold between work and home and the need to create spaces for interaction at work. Some remote workers learn to shape, choose, or create places that better suit them, while others prefer to remain in place. Some become more involved in their local communities, helping these communities become more globally-connected while retaining their unique local qualities. The analysis reveals five themes that suggest that place is both spatial and temporal. A place is a specific location within physical space that acquires personal meaning, arising from a person’s past history and evolving with ongoing or repeated experience. Individuals make meaning of place as Center (groundedness or rootedness), Setting (activity, convenience or purpose), and Source (generativity, inspiration or transcendence). We shape and respond to places; places shape us as our lives take place within them.
23. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Luann D. Fortune Essences of Somatic Awareness as Captured in a Verbally Directed Body Scan: A Phenomenological Case Study
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Somatic awareness is bodily sensation imbued with consciousness. Directing and cultivating somatic awareness is a practice fundamental to many therapeutic and spiritual enterprises. Recent developments in neuroscience attempt to explain the operational aspects of somatic awareness. But it has long been a topic of conversation in other paradigms, from philosophy to health care. Somatic input provides information for use in wellness treatment applications, including therapeutic bodywork. Yet few massage therapy scholarly investigations aim to capture the quality of body awareness experience. The essence of the experience and its associated language remain imprecise and under-explored holistically.This article implements the therapeutic practice technique of the Body Scan to capture the essence of an inner body exploration (proprioception and interoception). Based on a narrative collected during a verbally self-directed exercise, a phenomenological description is explicated to represent one incidentof internal body experience. The pilot study suggests that the Body Scan offers potential as a research tool, as well as a modality for therapeutic intervention.
24. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Mary Beth Morrissey Expanding Consciousness of Suffering at the End of Life: An Ethical and Gerontological Response in Palliati Ve Social Work
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This analysis explores the phenomenology of suffering and temporal, genetic and social developmental aspects of suffering for seriously ill older adults. A phenomenological account of suffering is advanced using oral history data from in-depth interviews with a seriously ill, frail elderly woman. The analysis evaluates how a phenomenological account of suffering may inform ethics in end-of-life decision making, and may provide a further basis for an integrated ethical and gerontological response to suffering in palliative social work practice with seriously ill older adults at the end of life. Levinas’s ethical philosophy and conceptualizations of the non-totalizing relation of self to other, disinterest, and radical passivity are employed to help reframe an approach to the ethical relation and the nature of obligation in end-of-life care, expanding consciousness of suffering and its meanings in an intersubjectively experienced world. Differences in Husserl’s account of the other and the concept of alterity in Levinas’s ethics are explored in the context of phenomenology as a descriptive science that respond directly to the pragmatic concerns of the analysis.
25. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Michael Gubser The Terror and Hope: Jan Patočka’s Transcendence to the World
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This essay examines Czech philosopher Jan Patočka’s phenomenology as a philosophy of freedom. It shows how Patočka’s phenomenological conceptof worldliness, initially cast within a largely philosophical framework as the domain of human action and transcendence, turned toward a philosophical history of the modern age, viewed as increasingly post-European. Patočka hoped for the moral renewal of a fallen modernity, led first by non-Europeans after the era of decolonization and then by a “solidarity of the shaken” during the dark 1970s of Czechoslovak normalization. The essay starts and concludes by considering the relation between his thought and his dissidence, a link that is more tenuous and indirect than some commentators suggest.
26. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Bryan Smyth Generating Sense: Schizophrenia and Phenomenological Praxis
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The aim of phenomenology is to provide a critical account of the origins and genesis of the world. This implies that the standpoint of the phenomenologicalreduction is properly extramundane. But it remains an outstanding task to formulate a credible account of the reduction that would be adequate to this seemingly impossible methodological condition. This paper contributes to rethinking the reduction accordingly. Building on efforts to thematize its intersubjective and corporeal aspects, the reduction is approached as a kind of transcendental practice in the context of generativity. Foregrounding the psychotherapeutic encounter with persons suffering schizophrenic delusion as paradigmatic of the emergence of shared meaning, it is argued that this is where we may best come to terms with the methodological exigencies of phenomenology’s transcendental aim. It follows that phenomenologists across all disciplines may have something important to learn from how phenomenology has been put into practice in the psychotherapeutic domain.
27. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Jacqueline Martinez Interdisciplinary Phenomenology and the Study of Gender and Ethnicity
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The study of gender and ethnicity (or, equally, sexuality and race) is complicated by the basic ambiguity regarding the meaning and signifying capacity of each of these designations. A phenomenological approach aids in explicating the specific social, cultural and historical terms in which the designations of gender and ethnicity come to have different meanings and signifying capacities. Such an explication reveals variously contested boundaries of knowledge-production, and allows for a return to concrete world where meaning, culture, and history are embodied. The present work examines the study of gender and ethnicity as it has developed in relation to the postmodern and postcolonial challenges leveled against social science, and argues for an interdisciplinary and decolonial phenomenology that neither ignores the existential and embodied reality as experienced by those who are designated objects of scientific study, nor valorizes the experience of social objectification or dehumanization. The present work argues that an interdisciplinary and decolonial phenomenology, provides the basis for a full recognition of the intersubjective conditions in which human recognition (and non-recognition) are possible, as well as a critical approach in assessing how the relationship between experience and perspective leads to the truly insightful understanding emerging in this particular time and this particular place.
28. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Roger Koppl, Mie Augier Alfred Schutz Interview on Economics and Politics
29. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Maureen Connolly Choreological Explorations of Carnal Poetics
30. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Jonathan Parsons Form, Content, Function: Phenomenology and/in Sign Language Poetry
31. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Maureen Connolly Show Me a Sign: A Communicology of Bodily Expression at the Intersection of Deaf and Hearing Cultures
32. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Frank Macke Deception, Sin, and The Existential Bargain of Adolescent Embodiment: Identity, Intimacy, and Eroticism
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This essay pursues the psychological and communicological problematic of “lying” from the standpoint of Nietzsche, Bataille, and the psychoanalytic study of family systems. For purposes of this essay, “lying” will be defined as a conscious misrepresentation of one’s own experiential memory. The essential argument of the essay, closely following Bataille’s concept of eroticism and communication, will be that the transformation of selfhood from childhood to adolescent sexual embodiment necessitates the performance of the lie as a necessary “crime” against the home-world of the family system. Herman Hesse’s novel, Demian, serves as a critical source of illustration for the existential bargain of adolescence.
33. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Amedeo Giorgi Phenomenology: From Philosophy to Science
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Phenomenology is a philosophy and it will always remain one. However, philosophies are also foundations for sciences and thus far in the West some form of empiricism or other has been the primary foundation for all sciences. Phenomenological philosophy has been developing for about a century now and is mature enough to serve as a basis for a science, especially the human sciences. This article articulates how phenomenological philosophy can serve as a foundation for the science of phenomenological psychology and it indicates how its key concepts are better able to clarify and develop a proper understanding of human reality in a rigorous scientific way.
34. Schutzian Research: Volume > 3
Thomas D. Craig This Body I Call Mine as Transgressive Sign
35. Schutzian Research: Volume > 4
Ken’ichi Kawano Reformulation of “How Is Society Possible?”
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“How is society possible?” posed by Georg Simmel has been one of the fundamental problems in sociology. Although various attempts have been madeto solve it, I conceive that “society” in the problem remains to be articulated. Simmel provides us with two concepts of society—“society as interaction” and “societyas unity”—to be distinguished. Some research traditions in sociology have been concerned with the former, others have dealt with the latter. On the other hand, Simmel maintains continuity between them. In this sense, his concept of “society” has “ambiguous” characteristics. It seems to me that in the ambiguous style Simmel had intended to reveal the secret of “society,” but in the end could not have got to it. In my opinion, in order to unveil the secret, it is required that, drawing on Schutzian phenomenologically oriented sociology, sociologists or social scientists make a differentiation between the society which is realized or brought about by partners with no need of an observer, “the social,” and the society which an observer recognizes by use of the concept. In this article, from a Schutzianpoint of view, I wish to articulate “society” and to indicate four phases of “society.” These investigations lead to a reformulation of the problem of “how is societypossible?” and sociology (or the social sciences) which makes possible the deeper understanding of society.
36. Schutzian Research: Volume > 4
Hermílio Santos Action and Relevance: Making Sense of Subjective Interpretations in Biographical Narratives
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This paper analyses biographical narratives as a possibility of getting access on how individuals interpret their life-world, that is, the subjective interpretationin biographies of actors on their social context. Here biography is understood as the description made by the individual himself. It is of processes and experiencesthat extended through the course of life, that is, written or oral presentation of the history of life. In this sense, biographies and biographical trajectories are notpurely individual phenomena, but social ones. The biographical narrative offers important elements for the analysis not only on the narrator´s life, but especially on the connections between the individual and his group or community, considering however that any narrative is an interpretation based on a specific biographical situation. In this sense, the access to the experiences accumulated and consolidated in their biographies permits the analysis of the subjective interpretation of the actors.
37. Schutzian Research: Volume > 4
Tetsuya Sakakibara Phenomenological Research of Nursing and Its Method
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The aim of this paper is to clarify what “phenomenological” means in the phenomenological researches of nursing and what “method” is or should beadopted in phenomenological researches of nursing. The essay first defines a traditional classification of the phenomenological researches of nursing by Cohen and Omery, and then gives a new attempt to classify the phenomenological approaches in the theories of nursing. On this basis, the essay reviews some representative “phenomenological” researches of nursing today and addresses critical comments to them. Finally, the essay will make clear what “phenomenological” should mean in the phenomenological research of nursing and what kind of “method” should be adopted in those researches.
38. Schutzian Research: Volume > 4
George Psathas On Garfinkel and Schutz: Contacts and Infl uence
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Th is paper considers the relation between Harold Garfinkel and Alfred Schutz. Reference will be made to their correspondence as well as to some of Garfinkel’s writing. Garfinkel, who was a graduate student at Harvard at the time, first met Schutz at the recommendation of Aron Gurwitsch. Their meeting led tofurther exchanges including papers that Garfinkel sent to Schutz. When his book, titled Studies in Ethnomethodology, appeared in 1967 he specifically cited Schutz as one to whom he was “heavily … indebted” in his work. In later writings he no longer made such citations and moved away from his earlier position.
39. Schutzian Research: Volume > 4
Denisa Butnaru Crossing Cultures of Knowledge: Alfred Schütz’s Heritage and the Contemporary Social Science of the Individual in France
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The aim of the present article is to draw attention on a historical development in the French sociological tradition. Being a heritage of the Germanintellectual context, the tradition of the comprehensive sociology was not among the main trends in France. Furthermore, the phenomenological orientationin social theory mostly associated with the work of Alfred Schütz was also a side interest until the 1980s. From this decade on, a new paradigm becomesgradually institutionalized, a paradigm which gathers different intellectual and theoretical positions and which partly rehabilitates the comprehensive and thephenomenological heritage. My intention is to analyze how this new orientation in the French social science used the comprehensive legacy in order to proposea new culture of knowledge.
40. Schutzian Research: Volume > 4
Lester Embree Two Concepts of Type in the Work of Alfred Schutz
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Schutz not only adapted Max Weber’s “ideal types” but also Edmund Husserl’s prepredicative “types,” which must have been “empirical types,” in hiswork. With care, these terms can be kept distinct. The former term refers to concepts used in common-sense thinking as well as cultural science, while the latterrefers to vague material universals or eidē. This essay studies how “type” is used in these two different ways by Schutz after he had read Husserl’s Erfahrung undUrteil by 1940.