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21. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 61 > Issue: 4
Deborah Savage Deborah Savage
The Centrality of Lived Experience in Wojtyla’s Account of the Person
Fundamentalne znaczenie przeżycia w Karola Wojtyły ujęciu osoby

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The aim of this paper is to illuminate the centrality of lived experience in Karol Wojytla’s account of the person and identify its significance for philosophy and praxis in the contemporary period. Specifically the author intends to pursue the meaning of Wojtyla’s claim that “the category of lived experience must have a place in anthropology and ethics—and somehow be at the center of their respective interpretations.” The paper seeks to recover an important insight into the task of philosophy: according to Karol Wojtyla, if philosophy is to perform its essential function in the recovery of our culture, we have no choice but to turn our attention to the subjectivity of human persons—and this can only be done by taking up the somewhat risky challenge of studying the reality of lived human experience. The paper will analyze Wojtyla’s argument that the problem of human subjectivity is at the epicenter of debates about the human person and will argue that his solution reconciles the dilemma posed by the historical antinomies that have characterized anthropology and epistemology, viz., the “objective” or ontological view of the human being and the “subjectivism” often associated with the philosophy of consciousness, and their corollaries, realism and idealism.At least in the English speaking context, where the validity of individual experience has risen to the level of almost dogmatic significance for social and political life, Father Wojtyla’s claim appears either to have gone unnoticed or to have been rejected. And perhaps, at least on the surface, this is not without reason. The modern interest in human subjectivity is blamed for many contemporary maladies, including subjectivism, relativism and the pride of place now given to any individual point of view, no matter how ill informed. Claims about the existence of truth or an objective moral order often cannot find a foothold when confronted with the argument that such realities do not resonate with a particular individual’s personal “experience.” The priority given to subjective personal experience in determining what constitutes right thinking and moral human behavior, assuming that question is even asked, is now a commonplace assumption; it is something alternately deplored or celebrated both by intellectuals and the “man on the street.”Given this situation, that a philosopher of Father Wojtyla’s stature and obvious moral authority should make such an argument is a matter of critical importance, especially for those who seek to ground human action in objective moral norms in an era where an arguably flawed account of human subjectivity clearly has taken center stage. The paper shows that Wojtyla is not adverting to experience as an adjunct to moral relativism or personal preference as an approach to questions of the true and the good. On the contrary, the author shows that the philosopher Karol Wojtyla provides a way to remain grounded in the metaphysical and ontological categories that not only comprise our intellectual heritage, but refer to real and profound truths, while simultaneously accounting for the subjectivity and dynamism of the person. The paper concludes with an argument that this account provides a key hermeneutical device for understanding the enormous importance of the work of Pope John Paul II.
22. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 61 > Issue: 4
Adam Gadoski Adam Gadoski
On Some Striking Example of Jan Czochralski, and His Scientific Achievements, Allowing to Underline His Year 2013 in Poland
Na temat uderzającego przypadku Jana Czochralskiego i jego osiągnięć naukowych pozwalających podkreślić ważność roku 2013 dla upamiętnienia tej postaci

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A question has been addressed, and then partly answered, namely, to what degree Jan Czochralski, an eminent and well-recognized abroad Polish crystallographer, chemist, and metallurgist, also a material (metal) scientist, should, when based on his achievements in research, belong to (physicochemical) metallurgy, or ought to be recognized rather as a (“pure”) chemist, working in a chemical fashion with metals and their impurities-containing alloys. The actual ground for trying to answer the intriguing question, relies on the fact that he performed his research entirely within physicochemical, or specifically, mechanochemical metallurgy of complex as well as very practical material systems that he was able to resolve successfully by his treatments. Its has been attempted to show that his type of research should be described as interdisciplinary, thus, being synergistically intermingled amongst a few crossdisciplines of technological and basic research. Astonishingly, his historical-context sensitive life, can also be viewed as the one being well networked amongst many areas of his activity, drawing him as inventor, university professor, owner, investor, art supporter, philanthropist, as well as some truly modest poetry author, or finally, husband and father of three children.
23. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 61 > Issue: 4
Antoni Szwed Freedom as an Uncertain Cause in Graham Greene’s Novels: A Philosophical and Literary Analysis
24. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Ewa Odoj Ewa Odoj
Is “The Presumption of Atheism” in Fact a Neutral Procedure?: A Critical Examination of Antony Flew’s Position
Czy „domniemanie ateizmu” jest faktycznie neutralną procedurą?

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This article examines the concept of “The Presumption of Atheism” by Antony Flew. Flew claims that at the beginning of a debate on the existence of God we should adopt a standpoint of atheism and the opus of proof lies on the theists. I question different requirements that Flew puts on the representatives of theism and atheism. In responding, I raise an epistemological issue concerning how strong evidence for a particular belief should be in order for one to hold that belief. I claim that this depends on a subject’s circumstances and on his or her individual conditions. By means of these deliberations I try to reveal how various persons could reasonably demand from a theistic belief a different degree of probability than they do from an atheistic one. This shows, I think, that Flew’s procedure does not have to be rational for others, although it could be in his own case.
25. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 62 > Issue: 3
Urszula Czyżewska, Grzegorz Głąb Urszula Czyżewska
Robert Louis Stevenson Philosophically: Dualism and Existentialism within the Gothic Convention
Robert Louis Stevenson filozoficznie

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Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) has often been regarded as a direct text in its dealings with a multi-dimensional conception of dualism, insecurity, anxiety and weakness. In the constrained moral atmosphere of Victorian England, where such issues were consciously or even intentionally avoided, the novel seemed to be articulating difficult themes about which society preferred to remain silent. A specific literary tradition, the history of Great Britain, scientific discoveries and lively, scientific debates of the 19th-century are ones of the most significant factors which make The Strange Case so original and memorable.The study poses a number of questions: Why does the history of the double return? What is a meaning of a double in a given context? What is so significant about this concept that it has inspired many others successors (e.g. Stephen King’s The Dark Half, 1989)? Why this motif is so popular? The project of delivering the answers to these questions in a one paper is not straightforward. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is limited to presentation and analysis of a conditionof men in the face of emerging Modernism with a close reference to philosophical ideas of the turn of the century. On such basis, it investigates the foundations of Stevensonian philosophy of dualism.
26. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 62 > Issue: 4
Adam P. Kubiak, Piotr Lipski Adam P. Kubiak
Getting Straight on How Russell Underestimated Frege
O tym, w jaki sposób Russell nie docenił Fregego

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Bertrand Russell in his essay On Denoting [1905] presented a theory of description developed in response to the one proposed by Gottlob Frege in his paper Über Sinn und Bedeutung [1892]. The aim of our work will be to show that Russell underestimated Frege three times over in presenting the latter’s work: in relation to the Gray’s Elegy argument, to the Ferdinand argument, and to puzzles discussed by Russell. First, we will discuss two claims of Russell’s which do not do justice to Frege: that we speak of a sense by means of quotation marks, and that all Frege does to cope with phrases that might denote nothing is define an arbitrary object as their reference. Second, we will show that Russell omitted the fact that Frege’s theory provided some answers for the puzzles presented by Russell in his essay.
27. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 62 > Issue: 4
Marian Kurdziałek, Hugh McDonald Mediaeval Doctrines on Man as Image of the World
28. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 1
Ibo van de Poel, Eulalia Smuga-Fries Teaching Ethics to Engineering Students: Interview with Professor Ibo van de Poel Made on 25th September, 2014 at the Technical University of Delft by Eulalia Smuga-Fries during Her Internship There
29. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 2
Agnieszka Kijewska Agnieszka Kijewska
Mystical Interpretation of the Exile and Return to Paradise in Eriugena’s Periphyseon
Mistyczna interpretacja wygnania i powrotu do raju w Periphyseon Eriugeny

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Over the recent years we have welcomed a number of significant publications (in particular the contributions by Peter T. Struck and Mikołaj Domaradzki) highlighting the importance of allegory and allegorical interpretation in ancient literary culture. The allegorical approach to literary text identifies the literary work as a puzzle, the solving of which introduces the reader to a profounder kind of knowledge, a knowledge that is hidden from the eyes of the “uninitiated.” This kind of interpretation implies a special understanding of the function of language, which “by revealing— conceals”. Allegorical interpretation assumed paramount importance in Neoplatonism, the philo- sophy which attributed religious functions to the philosophical endeavor of man (such functions as assimilation to God and return to man’s (spiritual) fatherland). The most salient features of the Neo- platonic allegorism have been presented by Peter T. Stuck in his article Allegory and ascent in Neoplatonism complete with the account of the role attributed to allegory as a guide along the path leading to mystical union.In this article attention has been focused upon those elements of the Neoplatonic allegorical exegesis, which may be of use in exploring the specifics of Eriugena’s interpretation of the themes of the exile from and return to the paradise.
30. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 2
Tomasz Stępień Tomasz Stępień
The Understanding of Symbols and Their Role in the Ascent of the Soul to God in Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite and Nicholas of Cusa
Rozumienie symboli i ich roli w drodze duszy ku Bogu u Pseudo-Dionizego Areopagity i Mikołaja z Kuzy

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This article considers the issue of changes in the understanding of symbols as an integral part of spiritual life in Neoplatonic philosophy. It seems that ancient Neoplatonic philosophers were the first who clearly realized the importance of symbols to spiritual life. However, it happened due to the influence of the mystical Chaldean and Egyptian thought transferred to philosophical investigation by the Chaldean oracles and Corpus hermeticum. The late Neoplatonic thought of Iamblichus and Eastern Neoplatonic schools used symbols and rituals as integral parts of philosophical investigation, understood as having a mystical goal. Especially mathematical symbols played a significant role, because they were used in the most advanced theurgical rituals. This analysis of the pagan Neoplatonic philosophy permits us to show properly the thought of Pseudo- Dionysius the Areopagite, who creatively transformed the teaching of his pagan predecessors, by incorporating ancient Neoplatonic tradition into Christian theology. Pseudo-Dionysius excludes liturgical symbols from the order of the cosmos and transfers them to the plane of Salvation grounded in Biblical Revelation. Only true symbols are used in the liturgy of the Church, and thus mathematical symbols are no longer needed in the ascent of the soul to unity with God. The third part analyzes the meaning of symbolism in the thought of Nicolas of Cusa. Thanks to the rediscovery of ancient pagan Neoplatonism and Pythagorean thought, Cusanus also brings new life to the mystical meaning of mathematics. Mathematical symbols once again become an im- portant part of the mystical ascent of the soul, but this time without their ritual context.
31. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 2
Barbara Grondkowska Barbara Grondkowska
The Stages of Love in Cusanus’ Sermon VII Remittuntur ei peccata multa
Stopnie miłości w Kazaniu VII Mikołaja z Kuzy Remittuntur ei peccata multa

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The article discusses one of the early sermons by Nicholas of Cusa—Sermo VII Remittuntur ei peccata multa, written in a dialogue form, uncharacteristic of the sermon genre. The main protagonist is Mary Magdalene, who was described on the basis of biblical and apocryphal stories. According to Sermo VII she is an allegory of the soul’s love for God. The article contains the analysis of Cusanus’ concept and terminology of love (amor, caritas, dilectio) as well as the description of the image of three and seven stages of love. Moreover, there have been identified intertextual relations between the sermon and sources attributed to Bonaventura such as De diaeta salutis by Guillaume de Lanicia and De septem itineribus aeternitatis by Rudolf von Biberach. Finally, there are also deeper semantic analyses of more difficult fragments.
32. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
Alexander R. Pruss Alexander R. Pruss
One Body: Overview
Jedno ciało: Przegląd treści

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I offer a reading of my book One Body on Christian sexual ethics as an application of Inference to Best Explanation based on theological and philosophical data.
33. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
N.N. Trakakis N.N. Trakakis
What’s Love Got to Do with It?
Co miłość ma z tym wspólnego?

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This paper contests an important assumption guiding Alexander Pruss’ One Body, that marriage is intimately connected with love, including romantic love. This assumption, I argue, is the product in part of a distinctively modern understanding of marriage. To show this, Pruss’ position is set against the premodern, and in particular the Byzantine Christian, view and practice of marriage, where marriage was not grounded to any significant extent on (romantic) love. Finally, some indication is provided as to why romantic love was disassociated from marriage in medieval Christian culture.
34. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
Mark C. Murphy Mark C. Murphy
Pruss on the Requirement of Universal Love
Pruss o wymogu powszechnej miłości

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Throughout his excellent book One Body, Alex Pruss relies upon the view that there is a requirement of universal love: each and every one of us is required to love each and every one of us. Although he often appeals to revealed truth in making arguments for his various theses, he supports the requirement of universal love primarily through a philosophical argument, an argument that I call the “argument from responsiveness to value.” The idea is that all persons bear a sort of nonrelational value, and because this value gives every agent reasons to respond to it positively, each and every person is bound to love each and every person. The aim of this paper is to criticize this argument. Pruss’s argument has two important gaps, one concerning the sort of reasons that the value of persons gives and one concerning whether the required response is the response of love.
35. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
Charles Taliaferro, Benjamin Louis Perez Charles Taliaferro
Feel the Love!: Reflections on Alexander Pruss’ Essay in Christian Sexual Ethics
Poczuj miłość!

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Throughout his excellent book One Body, Alex Pruss relies upon the view that there is a requirement of universal love: each and every one of us is required to love each and every one of us. Although he often appeals to revealed truth in making arguments for his various theses, he supports the requirement of universal love primarily through a philosophical argument, an argument that I call the “argument from responsiveness to value.” The idea is that all persons bear a sort of nonrelational value, and because this value gives every agent reasons to respond to it positively, each and every person is bound to love each and every person. The aim of this paper is to criticize this argument. Pruss’s argument has two important gaps, one concerning the sort of reasons that the value of persons gives and one concerning whether the required response is the response of love.
36. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
David Archard David Archard
One Body but Many Kinds of Sex and Procreation: A Liberal Response
Jedno ciało, lecz różne typy aktów seksualnych i prokreacyjnych

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I contrast a liberal and a conservative approach to the morality of sex, endorsing the former with a concession as to the special nature of sex, and note Pruss’ philosophical and theological endorsement of the latter. I criticize his argumentative strategy in three regards: first, he defends Christian love as equivalent to benevolence; second, he allows for only a moral evaluation of sex; third, he moves too quickly from some factual claims to others, and thence to normative conclusions. His account of the moral impermissibility of non-veridical pleasures trades on ambiguities in ‘real’ pleasure.I respond to three arguments Pruss offers against IVF : gamete donors can discharge their parental obligations; reproduction need not only be by coitus; and those who use fertility treatment need not thereby do wrong in treating any resultant child as an ‘artefact’.I conclude with critical observations about the distance between Pruss’ views and those commonly held by most people, including increasing numbers of Catholics.
37. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
Christopher Hamilton Christopher Hamilton
Alexander Pruss on Love and the Meaningfulness of Sex
Alexander Pruss o miłości i znaczeniu seksualności

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In this essay I explore Alexander Pruss’ conceptions of love and sexual desire. I argue that he fails to provide a convincing account of either and that one reason for this is that he ignores far too much relevant material in philosophy and the arts that needs to be taken into account in a thorough investigation of such matters. I argue further that Pruss’ understanding of love and sex is highly moralized, meaning that his discussion is not at all sensitive to the actual human experience of these, but consistently falsifies them. I also argue that the teleology to which Pruss appeals in order to ground his claim that, in the sexual act, the bodies of the lovers are striving for reproduction, is implausible and, further, that, even were it not, we could not infer from such teleology the moral conclusions that Pruss wishes to extract from it.
38. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
Paul J. Griffiths Paul J. Griffiths
On Alexander Pruss’s One Body
Wokół książki Alexandra Prussa One Body

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This essay considers one key aspect of Alexander Pruss’s One Body: An Essay in Christian Sexual Ethics (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2013), namely, his judgment that many, perhaps most, of the fleshly intimacies possible among human persons ought be evaluated and judged licit or illicit by their relation to the act whereby husband and wife become “one flesh.” This account of fleshly intimacies is too restrictive, indeed absurdly so, and particularly if considered according to natural lights alone and in abstraction from Christian revelation and doctrine, which is what Pruss claims to do in the book.
39. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
Erik J. Wielenberg Erik J. Wielenberg
Homosexual Sex and the One-Flesh Union
Stosunek homoseksualny a połączenie dwojga w jedno ciało

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I critically examine Alexander Pruss’s conception of the one-body union described in Genesis 2:24. Pruss appeals to his conception of the one-body union to advance two arguments for the conclusion that homosexual sex is morally wrong. I propose an alternative conception of the one- body union that implies that heterosexual and homosexual couples alike can participate in the one-body union; I take that implication of my account to be a significant advantage over Pruss’s account.
40. Roczniki Filozoficzne: Volume > 63 > Issue: 3
Tomasz Kąkol Tomasz Kąkol
So Pleasant, so Addictive: Some Remarks on Alexander Pruss’ Work One Body
Tak przyjemny, tak uzależniający

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In this article in a form of a review I analyze at length A. Pruss’ book One Body, pointing at where I agree with him and stressing several flaws in his arguments. The general line of thought, which is exploring the biblical metaphor of “being one body,” is ultimately sufficient for me from the theological, but not the philosophical point of view.