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21. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Jan Nuyts Intentions and the functions of language in communication
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This paper is concerned with the question which role intentions play in verbal action. In many (mainly cognitively oriented) branches of linguistic research, as well as in the philosophy of language, it is (often implicity) assumed that speakers' intentions are the most important element for the explanation of linguistic behavior. This position has also been challenged, however, mainly by anthropologically and sociolinguistically oriented scholars. In this paper I will try to adress this issue in the framework of a more general discussion concerning the functionality of language. In the first section I will briefly consider the framework sketched in the first part to discuss the arguments which have been put forward in the literature against the intention-dominated view of linguistic behavior.
22. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Roderick Chisholm Das Problem der Sätze der ersten Person
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I shall propose that the primary form of all references is that reference to ourselves that we normally express when we use the first-person pronoun. In the case of believing, this reference may be called 'direct attribution'. Our reference to all other things is by way of such reference to ourselves. I shall argue that; although we express ourselves in first-person sentences, the reference to ourselves that we thus express does not involve the acceptance of first-person proposition- for, I shall contend, there is no good reason to assume that there are such propositions. The primary form of believing is not a matter of accepting propositions; it is a matter of attributing properties to pneself I am the primary object of my own attributions and the properties are the content
23. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Peter-Paul König Kommunikation und Strategie: Anmerkungen zur Unterscheidung zwischen kommunikativem und strategischem Handeln bei Jürgen Habermas
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There has always been criticism against the "Theory of Communicative Action". Some aspects of criticism were terms such as "Communicative Action" or "Strategic Action", the postulate of "two distinct types of interaction" and the thesis of the "primacy of non-strategic communication".Habermas answered his critics in a number of essays and replies. The numerous modifications and reformulations don't make orientation in this field easier, however. In this essay the criteria which Habermas uses to characterize communicative and strategic action shall be named. It then has to be discussed whether these distinctive criteria are sufficient to justify the dichotomy of two types of interaction. Finally, Habermas' argumentation in favor of the primacy of non-strategic communication shall be outlined and scrutinized under the aspect of plausibility
24. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Maria Ulkan Kommunikative und illokutionäre Akte
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Illocutionary acts are best looked upon as being communicative acts. Reasons are eiven for this thesis) which is quite contrary to what classical Speech Act Theory (SAT) holds to be true. It is proposed to define illocutionary intentions via (some very special sort of) perlocutionary intentions. This is not to deny the importance of this central SAT- aistmction, to the contrary, it is suggested that this distinction be reconcilable with the basic concepts of a theory of communicative actions.
25. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Dirk Hartmann Konstruktive Sprechakttheorie
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It is shown that at least part of the terminology of the theory of speech acts can be methodically introduced within the constructive ortholanguage-programm. There is evidence that a methodical constraint leads the reconstruction of the basic speech-act-types from requests via statements to questions. Moreover there is evidence that requests and questions don't involve "propositional acts".
26. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Maria Ulkan Informations- und Aufforderungshandlungen
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Any classification of illocutionary acts to be well-founded has to be based on logical principles characteristic of the different types of these acts; and the relevant principles nave to be couched in terms of general action theory. This approach is specified for informatives and directives, and the essential connections between these two (most basic?) types of illocutionary acts are explicated and diagrammed - showing the primacy of informatives. Discussion of why, in talking about communicative acts, some divergence from ordinary language is to be recommended.
27. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Wilhelm Franke Konzepte linguistischer Dialogforschung
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The object of this paper is to provide an overview of several concepts of linguistic discourse research. The central question is the relationship between a Speech Act Theory (SAT) on the one hand and a Discourse Theory (DT) on the other, in the first section, Searle’s SAT is compared to Ethnomethodologv against the background of a brief explanation of linguistic discourse research in the 19th century. Following this is a review of two concepts, one which pleads for a ’pure' SAT without any reference to discourse (Motsch), and one which proposes replacing a SAT by a linguistic DT (Weigand). The article concludes with an overview of a range of concepts which attempt to mediate between a SAT and a DT.
28. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Dieter Mans Einige Anmerkungen zur Theorie der Argumentation
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Most texts on argumentation theory stress the importance of formal logic for the study of arguments. This paper raises some doubts about the usefulness of logic for the study of argumentation. In fact\ the basic analogy between logical proofs ana arguments in natural language does not seem to hold. There seems to be a basic circularity in everday arguments which cannot be reconstructed by the standard logical tools. Therefore we habe to look for some non-logical forms of representation. Some hints for this new type of argument representation are given.
29. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Gerhard Preyer Semantik
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Aim of the deliberation is to identify the presuppositions for the analysis of use of language on the level of semantic interpretation. Pragmatics has no self-sufficiency semantic core-theory. The requirements of theories in semantic are discussed ana further the consens and disserts of the approaches in semantic analysis is demonstrated. Special references are the problem of analytic and synthetic (W.v.O. Quine. J.J. Katz, S. Haack, H. Pumam, D. Davidson), the debat about B. Russells analysis of denoting and the critics of P.F. Strawson ana K.S. Donnellan. The non-self-sufficiency of the semantic conceptualization on the level of pragmatics is valid even though semantic is deliminated through pragmatics.
30. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Franz Hundsnurscher Streit spezifische Sprechakte: Vorwerfen, Insistieren, Beschimpfen
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This article tries to give a partial answer to the question how to analyse and describe verbal quarreling and squabbling by investigating three types of speech acts: reproaching, insisting and calling someone names. A distinction is being drawn between interaction in conflict and quarreling. Essential features of quarreling-specific speech acts are to be seen in their expressive ana offending quality in connection with certam situational factors. In a methodological perspective the focus is set upon the rules of emotion management in dialogical situations and on the relation of pragmatical linguistics to psychology and sociology.
31. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Wolfgang Kuhlmann Habermas und das Problem der Letztbegründung
32. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Klaus Günther Differenzierungen im Begriff der praktischen Vernunft Zu Jürgen Habermas' "Erläuterungen zur Diskursethik"
33. ProtoSociology: Volume > 4
Manfred Wetzel Kritische Bemerkungen zu Habermas’ "Erläuterungen zur Diskursethik" unter Bezugnahme auf Otfried Höffes Schriften zur Ethik und Politik
34. ProtoSociology: Volume > 5
Walter Biemel Gedanken zur Genesis der Lebenswelt
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In part lit will be analysed the genesis of the term "lifeworld" in context of E. Husserl’s philosophy. In the Crisis of European Science Husserl shows that the Doxa has a special significance compared to Episteme. This corresponds with Hussser's thesis that the world of science requires always the lifeworld. The lifeworld is the result of the anonymous cons- titution of the transcentental ego. This constitution should be demonstrated in Husserl’s "ontology of lifeworld".In part II it will be demonstrated the constitution of the lifeworld not in terms of the transcendental philosophy but in terms of the existencial philosophy. It appears that for the genesis of the lifeworld the experience of the confidence Has a constituent function, primary the confidence of the child in its mother. In this relationship the child improves the confidence. If this relationship will be broken so this has negative consequences for the following life.In Kafka’s story "Der Bau" will be demonstrated the situation in which the confidence is broken. The story shows that the lifeworld is the result of the individual experience.
35. ProtoSociology: Volume > 5
Elisabeth Ströker Lebenswelt durch Wissenschaft: Zum Strukturwandel von Welt- und Selbsterfahrung
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Life-world as the world of our concrete experiences is permanently modified by science. All experimental actions even of pure science are just as much scientific practice as a form of life-wordly practice. Above alt it is the technological consequences of science that reorganize life-world, and in such a way that we lack more and more understanding of what they realty are. This paper wants to show that several discrepancies and paradoxes, rising from this fact, contribute to structural changes in our experiences of the world as well as of our own self.
36. ProtoSociology: Volume > 5
Alexander Ulfig Präsuppositionen, Hintergrundwissen und Lebenswelt: Zur Rekonstruktion der Lebenswelt im Rahmen einer Präsuppositionsanalyse
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At first I discuss the role of the term "presupposition" in philosophy and linguistics. After introductory considerations to the term of presupposition I will come to the problems correlating with this term (presuppositions - conversational implicatures, the communicative function of presuppositions, presuppositions and conditions of happiness), in a further step some propositions to definitions and classifications of presuppositions will be discussed. Aim ofthe considerations is to extend the term of presupposition. This offers the possibility to put this term into the global context of implicite knowledge and thereafter to reconstruct the background knowledge of Lebenswelt (lifeworld) in the frame of an analysis of presuppositions. In my investigations I concentrate on the question what it means that a sentence/an utterance presupposes a certain background knowledge (J R. Searle). A reconstruction and discussion of the term of presupposition in the "Diskurs"-theory (J. Habermas) marks the end of the investigations.
37. ProtoSociology: Volume > 5
Ernst Wolfgang Orth ’Lebenswelt’ als eine unvermeidliche Illusion: Husserls Lebensweltbegriff und seine kulturpolitischen Weiterungen
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The term ’Lebenswelt’ appears as such only in Husserl’s later work, but is prepared in his early work: it represents a deepening and concretization of the ’Generalthesis der natürlichen Einstellungf (Ideen I) and is meant to contribute to the improvement of the transcendental reduction. The pretheoretical, elementary, and concretely practeced human world experience that is referred to by Lebenswelt, however; evades a stable fixation, as it always points to something seemingly beyond itself In connection with Husserl’s later cultural criticism and in relation to his manifold usage of the term ’Leben’ cultural-therapeutical expectations arise which can be instrumentauzea for politics, but overstrame Husserl’s concept of science. The widespread use of the word Lebenswelt ’ is certainly motivated by Husserl’s work, although the word appeared in single instances independently of him from 1908 until the 1920s.
38. ProtoSociology: Volume > 5
Hubert A. Knoblauch Soziologie als strenge Wissenschaft?: Phänomenologie, kommunikative Lebenswelt und soziologische Methodologie
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The notion of life-world is to be understood as a methodological concept which demands the grounding of scientific statements in the first order constructs of everyday experiences and actions. Whereas the methodological principles proposed by Schütz conceive of these experiences mainly from a subjectivistic point of view, the ’communicative turn' asksfor a reconceptualization of these principles. Taken together; the hermeneutics of the everyday life world, ethnomethodology and grounded theory methodology can account for the methodical and communicative production of scientific statements about everyday constructs and the respective degree of "derivatedness.
39. ProtoSociology: Volume > 5
Elmar Holenstein Kulturnation - eine systematisch in die Irre führende Idee
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Nationalism is an anthropological reality; nations in the German ethnic sense of homogeneous cultural wholes are not. 'Nation’ in this sense is not a 'natural-kind term'. Its defining properties do not co-vary. It does not even correspond to a classical ’ideal type'. Its properties do not tend unidirectionally to a coherent approximative realisation. For natural languages and cultures internal deviations from standard are as constitutive as conformity is. The idea of a homogeneous ’cultural nation' does not justice to the complexity of social diversification. Nationalism is less to be refuted because of its alleged incompatibility with an idealistic universalism than because of its much more painful incompatibility with an empirically adequate particularism. In conclusion: regionalism is a well-founded goal, nationalism is not.
40. ProtoSociology: Volume > 5
Rupert Scholz Die politische Union: Realisierungschancen von Bundesstaat und Staatenbund