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21. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Xavier Pavie Ancient Spiritual Exercises in Contemporary Philosophy: Actualization of Philosophy as a Way of Life
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The goal of this paper is to understand in what way contemporary philosophy apprehends spiritual exercises as they were conceived, shared and practiced by ancient philosophers. Aimed at self-improvement and self-trans-formation, spiritual exercises were intended to enable one to live a philosophical life. As such they represented an essential element in the main concerns of antique schools. Thus philosophers elaborated doctrines and theories, while maintaining a real and daily practice of these views. Indeed, the axis theôria/praxis is one the most important of spiritual exercises and is also a connecting thread in this paper leading to a better understanding of the notion of “spiritual exercise” itself. Pierre Hadot is the one who discovered traces of spiritual exer-cises - their construction and implementation in ancient philosophy. However, philosophy goes far beyond the antique philosophers, to our contemporary era. As a result, for more than 2,500 years spiritual exercises have been ques-tioned, reorganized by their environment, notably the religious environment. Consequently, the aim here is to determine the very essence of the antique spiritual exercises in the evolution of philosophy in a general sense, and more particularly in contemporary philosophy. Keeping in mind both theory and daily practices we can notice that there has been a certain re-introduction and actualization of ancient philosophy. First, in America through Pierce’s pragmatism, which tends towards melioration and self-transformation, and through Stanley Cavell’s thoughts - notably his “ordinary” theory - which questioning the very existence of contemporary popular spiritual exercise. And then in the old continent through Nietzsche, Wittgenstein or even Foucault, who seems to have defined spiritual exercises with his aesthetics of existence.
22. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Kasem Phenpinant Lévinas, the Lapse of Time and the Clamor of the Other: Re-Opening Totality and Infinity
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How does Being justify itself? Emmanuel Lévinas poses this question in order to claim that ethics is the first philosophy. The answer is not only an attempt to search for the right to do justice with a human existence, but it also leads us to consider the relation of the one to the other. Subsequently, the question directs us towards the clamor of the other. In this paper I argue that, in Totality and Infinity, Lévinas still locates his philosophical demonstration in the shadow of Heidegger’s Being and Time. He transcendentally demonstrates the other by requiring ontology to facilitate the one-for-the-oth-er as significantly as the understanding of Being. By doing so, Lévinas uses the lapse of time to designate the ontology of the present as a revelation of the other. Although Heidegger demonstrates that Being discloses itself in its presence, Lévinas claims that Being is passively preceded by the relation to the other. He later insists on this procedure by making a polemic against the Hedeggerian notion of death. Heidegger examines death as the possibility of the impossibility of Being, whereas Lévinas disputes that death is the impossibility of possibility. Lévinas seizes death as the presence of Being’s virility, while turning Being around the passivity of the present. Consequently, time becomes the horizon in which the invasion of the other ruptures the existential meaning of Being. It pulls Being back to justify its own existence in relation to the other. Lévinas considers this justification as self-assurance of human existence in the face of the other, while the lapse of time makes the relation to the other as living.
23. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Derya Aybakan Saliya Feminism, Gender and Representation
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Judith Butler criticizes the feminism for it assume universal category of women. According to her category women don’t have coherent and stable meaning. Therefore she thinks that idea of political representation in feminist policy should be discussed. Besides she opens the concepts of identity and gender up for discussion for according to her the categories of gender and identity don’t say about our inherent coherent. In terms of Butler gender is a norm so it serves to regulate and normalize to subjects. In this context she thinks that gender categories create abnormal and unintelligible fields. So she warns feminism about exclusionary policies because for her if feminism accept universal category of women it may ignore different expe-riences of women.
24. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Karla Pinhel Ribeiro Law and Violence in Hannah Arendt and Walter Benjamin
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The paper investigates concepts of law and violence in Hannah Arendt and Walter Benjamin, especially in their works On violence and Critique of violence. The main objective of the research is to find similarities and differences between the definitions of these concepts in the thought of these philosophers. The main thesis of the research is the understanding that concepts of law and violence for Hannah Arendt are very different and the other hand, concepts of law and violence for Walter Benjamin apparently are the same.
25. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Zhenlin Wang Contemporary Practical Philosophy and Life-World Theory
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Life-world is a basic fact concerning our life. By inventing the concept of life-world, the importance of the problem of practice was distinguished and the traditional understanding that theory overweighs practice was reversed. Thereupon, the rational agent is charged, and philosophy of practice revived. The revival of philosophy of practice demonstrates the transformation of the mode of philosophical thinking and the changing of philosophical problematic. The mode of practical thinking means reflecting the human behavior and all the relevant basic problems from the perspective of human practice and the understanding of this practice. This is the inevitable tendency in the development of philosophy in the process of self-critique, self-transcendence, and self-renewal.
26. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
William Schultz Progress in Contemporary Continental or Speculative Philosophy: Lyotard’s Criticism and Development of Derrida’s Philosophy
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Contemporary French philosopher, Jean-Francois Lyotard, claims to have developed a new system based on the ideas of Jacques Derrida. I present Derrida’s three main dialectical a priori concepts structuring his phi-losophy, following the patterns that I call canonical, classical, or traditional.” Each of these three concepts is a model for any object of knowledge, and they are related in an increasing development of his theory of knowledge. Although the third dialectical a priori concept (the supplement) does guarantee the con-sistency of his previous concepts, it leads to a dilemma that is unsolvable on the basis of an implicit faulty presupposition. The only way for philosophy to progress, in Lyotard’s view, is to transform the faulty presupposition into a new hypothesis about knowledge. I present all three of Derrida’s dialectical a priori concepts because the new start by Lyotard is a change of Derrida’s philosophy as a whole, and even of all of the history of philosophy. I present the passage in which Lyotard claims that epistemology should be based on the idea of figurality in discourse; in Discourse, Figure (1971) he also calls this the “figure image,” which in a general way is analogous to the start of Derrida’s philosophy: both (Derrida’s difference and Lyotard’s figurality in discourse) are new beginnings in philosophy; both are dialectical a priori concepts; and both lead to a philosophical system having a tripartite structure. This paper, thus, focuses on Lyotard’s new idea of figurality in discourse as a transforma-tion of Derrida’s supplement.
27. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Alexander Ch. Zistakis Paul Virilio’s Phenomenology of Perception
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In this paper I examine some aspects and elements of the work of Paul Virilio that specifically concern the changes in perceptual and representational practices and structures in contemporary western societies. To that effect, I situate his thought in relation to his most immediate and direct predecessors, e.g. some elements of Kant’s philosophy and of the work of earlier phenomenologists, most notably Husserl and Merleau-Ponty. In addition to that, throughout the text references are being made to certain key concepts of Virilio’s theory of perception, reproduction and representation, such as: the logistics of perception, the vision machine and the aesthetic of disappearance, then also the concepts of critical space and the lost dimension, as well as the key themes and concepts of speed and acceleration. These concepts establish Virilio’s general position with regard to contemporary communication and information technologies, providing a path for his general understanding of time as the main (and the only remaining) dimension of consciousness and perception.
28. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Shoji Ishitsuka Le tournant ontologique et l’éthique
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Dans cette communication, je voudrais montrer qu’un grand tournant ontologique a traversé toute la philosophie occidentale du 20 ème siècle à partir de l’oeuvre de Gyôrgy Lukacs (1885-1971) Histoire et conscience de classe (Berlin, 1923) via Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) avec son oeuvre principale L’être et le temps (1927) jusqu’aux ontologistes Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950), Roman Ingarden (1893-1970), Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), Etienne Gilson (1884-1978), Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973) Louis Lavelle (1883-1951 ) et d’autres le tournant ontologique dans la philosophie contemporaine. Une deuxième thèse que je voudrais éga-lement avancer dans cette communication est que ce motif du tournant ontolo-gique prend cette orientation caractéristique dans le dernier livre principal de G. Lukacs L’ontologie de l’être social (1964-1971) publié en deux volumes en 1984 et 1986 par monsieur le professeur Frank Benseler aux Editions Luchte-rhand, bien que l’oeuvre principale d’Emmanuel Lévinas (1904/5-1995) Tota-lité et infini (1960) nous ait très bien montré cette marche vers l’éthique.
29. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Constança Marcondes Cesar La recherche d’une nouvelle voie pour l’éthique: Ricoeur, Lévinas, Jonas
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Ricoeur déinit les contradictions de la société contemporaine: le progrès dans la direction de la rationalité est accompagné d’un progrès dans le sens inverse; les bénéices de la planétarisation de la technique portent des risques pour la survie de l’humanité. Il propose une nouvelle perspective de l’éthique, à partir de son dialogue avec Jonas et Lévinas, pour surmonter cette menace.
30. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Louis Perron La philosophie comme “forme de vie” selon Jean Ladrière
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The paper examines Jean Ladrière’s (1921-2007) understanding of philosophy as a “form of life”. Drawing from various sources (Kant, Husserlian phenomenology, Wiitgenstein, Blondel, Weil), the Belgian philosopher understands philosophy as a “form of life according to reason” and as a process in which existence constructs itself as a destiny of its own. In his own way then, Ladrière participates in today’s recovery of philosophy as a “way of life”.