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21. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Victor N. Kulbizhekov Audial Conceptual Image
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This paper discusses for the first time the problem of the concept of music in aesthetics. All discoveries and inventions in the creative activity necessarily involve the appearance of a new concept, so productive and creative activity involves development and transformation of the conceptual sphere. The concept in music (we call it audial) is the general logical type expressing laws of musical forms. The definition of ‘audial’ that can be regarded as a cultural code is fundamentally new, synthesizing acoustic and conceptual spheres. All concepts as categories are expressed in language forms (in a musical text), but the musical sense is not limited only by speculative categories and concepts that can merge or dissolve in the acoustic space. The recipient perceives such space both sensually and emotionally. Therefore, musical concepts necessarily suggest figurative, sensual-perceptual (aesthesis) segment and imaginative aspects. So, we think that to reveal the particularities of the concept we should introduce the appropriate definition – an audial conceptual image. The category of “audial conceptual image” dialectically expresses the idea of synthesis of sense (aesthetic) and rational (logical) aspects. Audial conceptual image, being a result of a musical experiment, creates a complete picture of the universe and is also a tool in studying the musical shape of the era.
22. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Chara Kokkiou The Aesthetics of Place in Plato’s Phaedrus
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This paper focuses mainly on the aesthetics of the physical landscape in Plato’s Phaedrus. Although Phaedrus depicts basically the microcosm of the human soul, which strives to reach the forms in a superheaven realm, this paper remains well-rounded and focused on the physicality of the natural beauty of the place, which embraces in a unique way the mythical imagined beauty of the Muses’ art (performance). The first and biggest part of the paper is devoted to the characteristics of the natural beauty of the surroundings, where the dialogue between Socrates and Phaedrus takes place. The second part pays attention to the beauty of the Muses’ art, included in the cicadas myth that Socrates narrates. The link between the beautiful natural space and the beautiful song and dance of the Muses is the pleasant cicadas’ song. But, while the beauty of the place is omnipresent and depicted in a most lively and vigorous way, the performance of the Muses is restricted to the realm of the imagination and its beauty is more implied than indicated. How does this general beauty work for the two protagonists? Why does Plato give so much emphasis on the aesthetic description of the natural space?
23. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Shail Kumari The Contributions of Indian Philosophy to Aesthetics
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The term ‘Aesthetics’ has been considered in Indian Philosophy as Saundaryash a-stra or Nandansh a-stra which is a branch of philosophical enquiry and precisely means the philosophical study of ‘Beauty’ and ‘Sublime’. In my selected topic, I have tried to explain in brief the views of some best art-thinkers of India who described philosophical similarity between sculpture, painting, poetry, music and dance. Here, the foundation stone of saundaryash a-stra enlarges upon the maxim, Vibha-va, Anubha-va, Vyabhi­ca-ri samyoga-d rasnishpattih. It gets its origin in drama, reaches its culmination of growth in poetics and is developed in architecture and music. This maxim contains in it the psychological reality of a member of the audience as well as the contents of artistic expression which transforms the mental state of an individual. How an artistic expression works on audience as well as on actor or performer or creator has been presented through this maxim. According to it an artistic presentation transforms one’s emotions into a purely aesthetic transcendental feeling i.e., divine bliss. It is the transformation of mood (bha-va) into its essence - Rasa. Vibha-va is the means by which an emotion is activated. The outward manifestations as a result of vibha-va are the anub­ha-va. Vyabhica-rí or sancha-ri bhava-s (complementary states) are feelings which develop the permanent mood (Sthayibha-vas). The prime philosophical concept of ‘Time’ conceived in several schools of Indian philosophy as a portion of time and in any musical performance (including instrumental and dance) is actually measured in terms of time and named as ka-la-khanda. The aesthetic pursuit is primarily the pursuit of ‘Ka-ma’, which in wider sense as a constituent of the interactive relationship with the others, it could be linked to love or the aesthetic equivalent ‘S′rin·g a-ra’ and taken as a movement towards ‘moks′a’. Most of the aesthetic-thinkers of India consummate in bliss that is the goal of aesthetics. So, all explanations have been attempted to show how this purpose is served in different schools of Indian philosophy at various stages of their development.
24. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Chengji Liu The Agricultural Trait of Chinese Aesthetics and its Manifestation in Landscape
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Chinese classical aesthetics are based on agricultural civilization; it leads to the typical agricultural trait of Chinese traditional aesthetics specifically manifested as follows: first, the reliance of agricultural productive mode on nature bringing the relation between man and nature to the center of concern of Chinese aesthetics. Secondly, natural materials such as soil (vegetation etc.) concerned with agricultural production are the most fundamental materials employed by Chinese artistic creation. Thirdly, the reliance on the earth of agricultural production has shaped the Chinese conception of time and space, which is of distinctive aesthetic characteristics. Fourthly, nature dominates Chinese environmental cognition and landscape fancy, and “moving nature home” is the fundamental idea of landscape design.
25. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Hong-Bin Lim What is the Matter With the Idea of Infinity?
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I argue that the metaphysical idea of “sub specie aeternitatis” might have a heuristic function for aesthetic reflection. This means, simply, that various conceptions of infinity are constitutive to the configuration of artworks. From this perspective, we need to focus on the tension between two concurring conceptualizations of time in the history of fine arts. The concept of infinity will be contrasted with duration, which is mostly motivated by the will to consider artworks as entities or symbolic systems. After the collapse of traditional metaphysics, a modern substitute for the idea of infinity has been proposed by many avant-garde artists. One of the conceptions of infinity might already be employed in modern artists’ idea of ephemerality. In the representation of ephemerality, we observe the artists’ critical attitudes toward the traditional concept of duration. The temporality of space, self-expressiveness of the matter itself, and reconstruction through media are the symptoms of late postmodern art. However, the well-known postmodern rejection of the metaphysical ideal might fail because postmodernism is not in control of infinity as an aesthetic idea. The alleged insistence on the fragmentary, differential, and contingent character of artistic self-understanding indicates toward their despair regarding the infinity problem.
26. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Sandra Makowiecky Aesthetics and Philosophies of Art: Art and Culture
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This article was motivated by a critic material received from Etienne Boulba (2007), independent art critic, in which was said that the AICA International Congress (Art Critics International Association) that took place in Paris in 2006 showed a crisis in this profession in front of a selection difficulty which only grows, because a displacement is noticed - every time larger - of the aesthetics for the sociology and the anthropology. This last sentence drew attention, because the main idea matches some statements found in the Art Congresses agenda worldwide. The continuous interest is detected in the 20th century art, upcoming for practices and thoughts that seem to surpass their competence. These art concerns would produce constant indefinitions towards their disciplinary view, their group of knowledge, their episteme. What would impel and characterize this way of thinking and acting of art as well as their productions? How can we locate this problem act? Could we suppose that art would not have more specificity? Would the art specifics not have a disciplinary specificity? In the last National Meetings of Plastic Art researchers’ topics were already pointing to this matter and now are intended to displace the center to the implications due to the extent of the visual field in relation to production and research of the multiple study concerns, and this article intends to contribute to this subject.
27. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Pablo Cesar Martin Freedom of Imagination as Foundation for Aesthetic Judgement and Teleological Judgement
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Kant divides philosophy into theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy. Theoretical philosophy tackles the study of nature, while practical philosophy tackles morality. Both spheres of knowledge remain separated from each other. The Critique of Judgement aims to join both spheres through reflective judgement. Reflective judgement has two variants: the judgement of taste and teleological judgement. In the judgement of taste freedom of the imagination allows artistic creation and in doing so, it also allows man to contemplate nature according to ends. In both variants of reflective judgement, the freedom of imagination is the necessary condition, which allows man to create art or to contemplate nature according to an end which embraces the whole nature. In our paper we try to demonstrate that without freedom of imagination, reflective judgement could not take place.
28. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Emmanuel Mavrommatis The Retrospective Construction of Derivation as Artistic Behaviour
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The analysis refers to the logical systems of historical evaluation and to the reconstruction of previous or even contemporary artistic works through their reference to “(their) appraisal through derivation” or to “interpretation of their new meaning through origin” in accordance to the theorem of Philippe Bruneau, Professor of Classical Archaeology, according to which art is identified as that which is derived from art etc. This notion was formulated in 1974 in his prophetic article “Situation méthodologique de l’histoire de l’art antique”, ([…] Il y a art si les usagers croient qu’il y a art […]), and coincided with the statements by contemporary American minimalist and conceptual artists, who at roughly the same time expressed the idea that ‘[…] A work of art is a tautology in that it is a presentation of the artist’s intention, that is, he is saying that a particular work of art is art, which means, is a definition of art. […]’ (1969, Joseph Kosuth) or that ‘[…] if someone calls it art, it’s art […]’ (Donald Judd) or that ‘[…] The idea becomes a machine that makes the art. […]’ according to Sol Lewitt (1967). The main characteristic of this tautological system of analysis is that the retrospective construction or pre-installation of a reference guarantees its subsequent artistic consequences, which in turn refer anew to the reference from which they derived from in order to reinterpret it, and so on. This system was initially installed by Kazimir Malevich, between 1924 and 1927 via his “additional element” (“élément ajouté”) theory according to which by interposing itself each time as something new in previous artistic formations, this element alters the conditions of the formation and causes new artistic conditions. That is how Malevich explained the transition from Cézanne to cubism, futurism and to his own artistic theory, suprematism. An equivalent system was supported by Alfred Barr Jr. in the preface of his classic book Cubism and abstract art (1936), in which via complex interconnections he recorded about 25 tendencies in contemporary art. The central idea of this - apparently obligatory transition from one movement to the other - revealed to both authors, the normative, educational, social and theoretical character of each artistic suggestion, since it replaced the ontological question “what is art” with the epistemological question “where does art comes from, how does art act and perform”, implying that this circular system is inevitable and therefore universal. Moreover, the theoretical choices of American art critic Clement Greenberg –inspired by the aesthetic categories of the Swiss Heinrich Wölfflin regarding the conditions of the transition from the Renaissance to Baroque – conceived a correspondingly obligatory transition from Analytical Cubism to American Expressionism. Later, the artists of the “Support/Surface” group in France established themselves as the successors of American abstract painting through the ideas of Malevich and, in 1972, the French art historian Jean Clair constructed a diagram of art in France during the 1960s, through a juxtaposition of neo-figurative and conceptual artists. Finally, in her renowned article entitled “A view of Modernism” (1972), American professor Rosalind Krauss distanced herself from the linear conception of the interpretation of art, and later juxtaposed it – through the curation, with Yve-Alain Bois of the “L’informe, mode d’emploi” exhibition in 1996 at the Centre Georges Pompidou– with the “entropy” of the material and its degradation regardless of the gaze, through references to Georges Bataille and Robert Smithson. Respectively and in the same year, American art historian Hal Foster, in his book The Return of the Real, offered a similar critique of the linear system of interpretation via the identification of the correlation of the involvement of both the gaze and its object in the same public relation and public operation. The author of the papaer concludes that there is a correspondence between the ideas expressed by Foster and those voiced by French encyclopaedist Denis Diderot, according to whom the idea of the relation and the engagement of the relation itself is the foundation of Beauty (of art).
29. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Matthew Meyer Nietzsche’s Naturalized Aestheticism
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In recent years, a divide has emerged in Anglo-American scholarship between Alexander Nehamas’ reading of Nietzsche as an aestheticist who eschews the dogmatism implicit in the scientific project and Brian Leiter’s reading of Nietzsche as a hardnosed naturalist whose project is continuous with work in the natural sciences. In this paper, I argue that this divide is a false one. This is because Nietzsche thinks that a certain worldview, which he associates with the philosophy of Heraclitus, is conducive to the flourishing of art, and rather than avoiding the dangers of dogmatism in presenting this view, he turns to the natural sciences to show why everyone should accept it. As a result, the crucial divide in Nietzsche’s thinking is not between naturalism and aestheticism and so science and art, but between the naturalism and aestheticism that flourished during what Nietzsche calls the tragic age of the Greeks and the metaphysics and morality characteristic of the Platonic-Christian tradition.
30. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Konstantinos Moraitis Landscape Interpretation Through Schematism: Schematism as a Theory Concept and its Correlation to Landscape Aesthetics and Landscape Design
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The essay presented attempts to correlate aesthetical validation and design of landscape with the broader theoretical scope of modern Western societies, having as initial period of reference that of the 18th century. By that time representations and formations concerning landscape had already been organized in the European developed societies, offering to philosophical inquiry a corpus of perceptional references. At the same time the theoretical proposal of Schematism had been formed, indicating the terms of mental control over external reality. The evolution of the initial concept of Schematism through subsequent periods indicates similar transformations of control conditions exerted on natural reality; the latter, having to do either with mental or material constructions, as in the case of concepts, representations and forma­tions concerning landscape. The transition from static Euclidean Schematization to algebraic description or to Schematization concerning transformation terms, such as those described by topological or parametric approaches, can be respectively traced in changes that appeared at the same time in landscape concepts and in design. More extensively they can be seen as equivalent to changes related to the overall interpretation of the environment, both natural and man-made and by modern and contemporary culture in general.
31. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Quynh Nguyen On the Beautiful and the Creative of Commonplace
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The aesthetic or experience of the beautiful, coming from our everyday taste, does not capture the meaning of thing-in-itself and, essentially, it cannot be independent from social, economic, cultural, educational and political factors. However, out of such a paradox we realize the exigency of liberating ourselves for our creative and individual pursuit. In this paper I will argue that our experience of the beautiful deserves its ideological right against the dominion or hegemony of the ruling power. Furthermore, I will briefly discuss Marx’s aesthetic theory that nurtures ‘revenge’ due to ignorance and tyranny. I will turn to the concept of beauty initiated by the Neomarxists. I will also agree with Buber’s ideologically individual taste that could reveal something creatively never existed before. This allows me to investigate the ontology of creative technique and the transfiguration of the common objects from the experiences of Chardin, Duchamp and the pop artists. As such, our experience of the beautiful has reality, but no category. Finally, inclusively for this report only, I will support the idea of “the creative without creation” held by Benjamin’s aesthetic of aura - whether it is absurd or not - we can preserve what we believe to be true.
32. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Vicente Ordonez Roig “Freilich Hängen Musik und Bücher Zusammen”: Brahms’s Music in Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophy
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Challenged by the decline of Western culture, Wittgenstein wrote some reflections on music. The aim of this paper is to consider in detail the role that music, more specifically, the music of Brahms, played in Wittgenstein’s thought. To this end, the author studies Wittgenstein’s impressions on classical and modern music. Special attention is given to Wittgenstein’s comparison between the works of Brahms and other composers’ works, such as Bruckner’s or Mahler’s. In addition, the author reflects on the function that classical music could play as a means to express values or ethical principles.
33. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Maria João Neves The Phenomenon of Inspiration in Maria Zambrano’s Aesthetics
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My research on María Zambrano’s phenomenology of dreams has been going on for some years, having involved students of Clinical Psychology, researchers in the Laboratory of Sleep Studies, Chronobiology and Telemedicine at the University of Lisbon Medical School and also of the Neurology Department at Faro Hospital. The results of the applications of this theory in peoples’ lives have already been published in several articles and, finally, condensed in the book Método RVP (Raciovitalismo-Poético), Prática Filosófica no Quotidiano, Institute Piaget, Lisbon 2009. The research direction now evolves into testing Zambrano’s dream phenomenology thesis, regarding inspiration and artistic creativity. Focusing on the third stage of Zambrano’s phenomenology of the dream form - the lucidity stage - we find that the artist already knows the completion of the work still to be created, and precisely this realization of the work of art would dictate the necessary procedures for the construction of the object of art. The beginning would be informed by the end, meaning that the artist would follow information that is being supplied from the future, the already complete piece of art guiding its own creation. Exactly this paradox is how we can understand the phenomenon of inspiration in Zambrano’s aesthetics.
34. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Anna Carolina Domínguez Pallach Food and Philosophy Through José Vasconcelos’s Aesthetics
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Food is an essential part of human life; it shows the most elementary way of socializing and mixing elements for them to reach the most pleasure possible. But that is not enough to defend food as aesthetically relevant. Vasconcelos’s aesthetics introduce the concepts of harmony, proportion and experience to make a defense of the sense of taste. His purpose is to show that pleasures in food go beyond the necessity of eating. When searching for pleasure itself, the end of eating changes and leaves the alimentary aspect as mere accidental. These pleasures are related with the way the ingredients are cooked and disposed on the table, not only revealing the aesthetic part of the sense of taste, but also the social and anthropological root of human nature.
35. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Debora Pazetto Ferreira Art or Works of Art: An Ontological Approach of Arthur Danto and Vilém Flusser
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When we investigate what are the philosophical meanings of art or works of art, it is advisable to search for the background conceptions inherent to the practice and common language concerning art. In this paper, I suggest that there are, generally speaking, at least two basic conceptions used to approach art: one, more rigorous and more restricted, considers art as a series of works of art circumscribed in the history of art, made by individuals known as artists, and frequently located in artistic institutions. The other, vaguer, but more comprehensive, considers art as the innovative or creative element existent in every culture. The philosophy of art of Arthur Danto is presented as an example of ontological definition based on the first conception. The philosophy of Vilém Flusser, on the other hand, is a competent conceptual development representing the second approach. Nevertheless, both of them are grounded in common language and practice, which includes both meanings of the word art. I propose that clarifying these different meanings, comprised by the same word “art”, is an interesting way to start a philosophical investigation on art.
36. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Mihaela Pop Some Aspects of the Performance: Art and the Bodily-Being-in-the-World
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This paper aims at highlighting some changes in the meaning of certain traditional aesthetic concepts used in analyzing performance art events. We consider that Nietzsche’s philosophy of life as well as the phenomenological analysis of perception and the bodily involvement in the world described by M. Merleau-Ponty light the way to a better understanding of this contemporary art. Associated terms, such as artist-spectator, subject-object, art-nature, art-culture or concepts as perception, culture, time, space, presence, self-referentiality, constitutive acts, artistic ‘aura’ or art as a way of “sculpting people” will be analyzed, considering the fundamental condition of bodily-being-in-the-world. In our opinion performance art succeeds in keeping its autonomy not only because of its institutional evaluation, but also because of the cumulative cultural meaning of these events. The performance artist succeeds in the “transfiguration of the commonplace” in a symbolic action, using his body not only as an object, but also as the human way of being-in-the-world.
37. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Constantinos V. Proimos Immanence and the Tragic Scission: Reiner Schürmann’s Phenomenology of Ultimates
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In this paper I plan to draw on Reiner Schürmann’s book Broken Hegemonies posthumously published, in 1996, after his death. I shall examine the role that Schürmann attributes to tragic denial of the law for the generation of law in general. Schürmann’s model for tragic denial is the Greek tragedy. In many instances, besides the study under consideration, Schürmann finds recourse to Agamemnon, Oedipus, Antigone and other tragic heroes in order to delineate the hero’s mortal dilemma in front of two intersecting and conflicting laws. In front of the tragic scission the hero is obliged to select without avoid­ing committing hubris and to a certain extent blindly and not after rational or moral deliberation. Agamemnon’s destitution of paternal duty makes him a sovereign leader of the Hellenic fleet. The story is used by Schürmann in order to model the function of all laws. Combining the late Ludwig Wittgenstein and Jean Francois Lyotard, Schürmann defines the situation of conflicting laws as a contradiction or a differend out of which the law emerges as such. Schürmann employs the same model to phenomenologically explain the emergence of all ultimate foundations of experience: he apparently uses his own precept to read Heidegger from the end towards the beginning and thus employs Heidegger’s term Ereignis, appropriation, as the original strategy of being, controlling its appearance and withdrawal in terms of ultimate foundations. Schürmann refers to hegemonic phantasms in order to describe the transmutations by which a referent is declared sovereign by philosophers. Such transmutations depend upon but also describe our tragic condition, namely that always one but in contrast to itself being which we confusedly summon and fantasize upon. Drawing from a close reading of some of Schurmann’s seminal texts, I shall characterize Schürmann’s thinking as immanent and will inquire in the role of singulars therein.
38. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Evi Prousali The Translation of Existentialist Concepts into Scenic Signification
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The world-renowned Italian theatre director Romeo Castellucci and his company, named Societas Raffaello Sanzio, has created over the past 20 years theatrical performances, imbued in philosophical thinking. In the summer of 2011 they presented, in different European cities – including Athens – his performance entitled On the concept of the face, regarding the Son of God. A performance strongly influenced by the existential philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre as this is expounded in his essay Being and Nothingness. Taking the statements of Theodor W. Adorno as our guide that “aesthetic form is sediment content” and that “only artworks that are to be sensed as a form of comportment have a raison d’être” we shall approach the above theatrical performance, which seems to satisfy both these statements. It is a performance that is not based on the text, but one which is structured exclusively on “scenic images” amounting to specific and “iconoclastic” gestures. The scenic signs of these images directly refer to fundamental concepts of the existential philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre: the look, we-object, us-subject, freedom in situation, being and doing, expounded in his essay Being and Nothingness. The present announcement attempts to demonstrate the way by which these concepts are being transcribed into scenic-signification in this particular performance.
39. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Dan Ratiu The State of Aesthetics: Between Art and Everyday Life
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Today there are various claims that aesthetics should be redefined and practised differently than the former branch of Western philosophy dealing with ‘fine’ arts. One major discontent regards the continuous association between aesthetics and art by which the aesthetic dimension and the artistic institution are conflated, then insulated from ordinary human life. This paper analyses some recent strategies to rethinking aesthetics and its status: from accounts that hold a ‘naturalistic’ approach of aesthetic facts whose proper horizon is anthropological (Schaeffer) or try to redefine aesthetic thinking in accord with the new regime of contemporary art thus extending it from an “art of seeing” to some ontological and sociological language-games (Michaud), to those - mostly in Anglo-American space - that tend to expand the realm of aesthetics by focusing on the aesthetic character of everyday life and argue that this should be examined on its own terms (Saito). My claims are, firstly, that anthropological-sociological challenges do not dismiss philosophical aesthetics; secondly, that extending the scope of aesthetics towards everyday life does not dismiss concepts of the aesthetic and aesthetic experience as shaped in relation to the arts. Instead, the corresponding practices of everyday life and contemporary art should be examined through a comparative approach that could disclose both their common features and specific modes of manifestation. I conclude that for overcoming tensions and inconsistencies within these accounts, a broader conception of aesthetics is needed, able to include both art and everyday life in a compelling conceptual framework.
40. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Rosy Saikia The Aesthetics of Creative Process: A Cross-Cultural Study of Visual Art and Literature in Rainer Maria Rilke
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The term ‘aesthetics’ consists of the philosophical study of a system that appeals to the senses. It deals not only with the nature and the value of the Arts, but also with those responses to natural objects that find expression in the language of the beautiful and the ugly. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926) was one of the leading poets and philosophers of European modernism. Rilke was embedded with German aesthetics since his childhood. This paper addresses the relationship between Rilke’s poetry and the visual arts, which involves an intimate transference of aesthetic means and definitions of the form in the creative process of writing. Rilke’s connection with Auguste Rodin made him learn that a person who can ‘see’ things, could realize the beauty of a ‘thing’ and could, subsequently, write. To ‘see’ the ‘thing’ or ‘object’ rather than representing emotion was considered as more important by Rodin and that was the way he cracked the old aesthetic mould. It will also look at how Rilke created own poetics against the background of German aesthetic tradition. Rilke admitted to the constant reference to the Bible, the books of the Danish poet Jens Peter Jacobsen and Auguste Rodin, who all had given him the experience of the essence of creativity, its depths and eternity. Rilke’s association with philosophers, such as Nietzsche, and artists, starting from Worpweders and Rodin to Cezanne’s paintings, made him almost an ap­prentice in visual art.