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21. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Ke Xiaogang Heidegger's Da and Hegel's Diese: A Destructive Reading of Hegel's "Sense Certainty"
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Heidegger diff erentiates the aspect of referencing from the aspect of substituting in the demonstrative pronoun “this.” This is a hermeneutic of “This” from the phenomenology of “Da.” On the contrary, Hegel determines “Da” from the logic of “This.” Through a reading of Hegel’s analysis of sense certainty in Phenomenology of Spirit, this paper tries to lay bare the free time-space of “Da,” in which the Hegelian dialectic movement of “this” or “meaning [Meinen]” could then be possible to take place. The pivot of this reading is to bring the Hegelian speculation of “meaning” or consciousness back onto the ground of lifeworld.
22. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Holenstein Elmar Natural Ethics: Legitimate Naturalism in Ethics
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It is no accident that the anti-naturalistic objections to an inference from is to ought emerged in the modern era. They presuppose an extremely lean ontology. They presuppose that nothing is necessarily what it is, and accordingly that everything that occurs in sequence is similarly contingent in this sequence. In particular, they presuppose that there is no natural teleology. The objections to the foundation of the ethically good in happiness, pleasure, utility, conduciveness to life, harmony with nature, and the like are similarly guided by predilection for simple concepts. An autonomous value independent of natural desires is presupposed.
23. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Lester Embree, Ion Copoeru, Yu Chung-Chi Preface for All Volumes + Introduction
24. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Cheung Chan-Fai Phenomenology and Photography: On Seeing Photographs and Photographic Seeing
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Although photography is believed to be a copy of reality and an icon for memory, it has attracted scrutiny from philosophers concerned with its semiotic structure and its phenomenological impact. Husserl, Heidegger, and Sartre have made reference to the photographic image without any detailed phenomenological analysis. With the help of Roland Barthes’s refl ection on photography, this essay attempts to give a phenomenological description of photographs as seen and on seeing in photographing.
25. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Cho Kah Kyung Husserl and Kant on Intuition
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Husserl recognized the question of the possibility of object in general as the common de jure problem of knowledge for Kant and himself. By insisting that object must be “received” (Kant) or “self-given” (Husserl), both philosophers turned to intuition as the focal point of their inquiry. However, concerning the actual function and range of intuition, their views grew apart. Kant restricted intuition to sensibility, thus erecting the barrier between phenomenal and noumenal world. Husserl, on the other hand, held essence inseparable from fact. Accordingly, intuition crosses over from a merely receptive function of fact to “ideate” or grasp the essence of fact and factual world. Husserl’s intuition is not only “intellectualized,” but also expanded in such a way as to make the division between concept and sensibility—even theory and practice questionable.
26. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Kimura Masato From Intimacy to Familiarity: On the Political Constitution of the Life-World
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The correspondence between A. Schutz and E. Voegelin finally came into print in 2004 through the editorial efforts of Gerhard Wagner and Gilbert Weiss. Taking the comments made by the political philosopher on Schutz’s theory of multiple realities as a clue, this contribution will cast light on the political character of our daily lives possibly delineated by a phenomenological approach. We will especially turn to Schutz’s concept of familiarity which provides us a scope to grasp the political beyond the “animal” description of the life-world.
27. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Jin Xiping Had he to understand the meaning the Being, so far as he is a human?: A critical assessment of Heidegger’s Idea on language in 1928
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Heidegger said in 1928: “die Frage nach dem Sein [ist] keine beliebige und [wird] nicht von aussen dem Menschen zugetragen, sondern in ihm mehr oder minder wach ist, sofern er ueberhaupt als Mensch existiert…” The author is very critical of this assertion. If it is really the case, are the people who speak non Indo-European language still human beings or not? Is it possible the non-Indo-European language speaking people could have latent understanding of the meaning of being without the word being at all in their language? If the second one were a reality, could the assertion of Heidegger be correct that Sprache is “das von Sein ereignete aus ihm durchgefuegte Haus des Seins”?
28. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Hama Hideo Sauntering through HIROSHIMAs
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While “HIROSHIMA,” as the symbol of “Japan, the first and only atom-bombed nation in the world,” is a centripetal force that mobilizes people to nationalism, it is at the same time a centrifugal force that scatters people. HIROSHIMA exists as the arena where those centripetal and centrifugal forces encounter one another. I sauntered through HIROSHIMA as that arena on August 6, atomic bomb memorial day.
29. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Huang Shin-Yang The Social Formation of Psychic Systems
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The sense of solitude is the special feeling that people have on occasion. How is the sense of solitude created? For Luhmann, the operation of conscious systems will oscillate between consciousness and phenomenon, that is, between self-reference and hetero-reference. Husserl considers that philosophy is the privacy of the meditator. This means that the meditator has to live a solitary life, because everything in question can be sought only in his mind.
30. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Inagaki Satoshi Ich, Leben und Trieb: Das Problem des Ich und des Bewusstseinsstroms bei Husserl
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In the Phenomenology of Husserl it is certain that the concept of “I” frames an important sphere of problems. But it is still difficult to say that his concept of “I” is clearly defined. Therefore, in my paper I will illuminate the definition of Husserls concept of “I”. According to Husserl the following thesis is fundamental: The transcendental “I” is always presence (dabei) in all experiences of consciousness. Nevertheless this does not mean that “I” constitutes all experiences of consciousness. Consciousness is nothing else than the consciousness of “I”, but even “I” generates in some kind from consciousness. In the analysis of the stream of consciousness the “generation” of “I” is implicated. During the progress of the genetic analysis it becomes clear, that the stream of consciousness can not be analysed detailed by the egological approach. In the stream of consciousness a phenomenon occurs, alongside the passive synthesis of consciousness, which Husserl described as “Life of drive”.
31. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Kwan Tze-wan The Over-dominance of English in Global Education: The Contemporary Relevance of Leibniz’s Notion of “Language Care”
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It a commonplace that the English language has over the past century become the dominant lingua franca of our increasingly globalized world. In face of this dominance of English, peoples of the world can hardly aff ord to underestimate the importance of English, in whatever walk of life, if they do not want to be marginalized by the global community. Yet, while the dominance of English today is unavoidable, the world is now facing an additional challenge—the over-dominance of English. By the “over-dominance” of English, I mean the danger of individual languages being self-estranged through an overemphasis on English at the cost of the mother tongue. While dominance is an externally imposed challenge, over-dominance is largely a self-infl icted endangerment of their mother tongue by peoples of various linguistic communities. In addition to widely discussed issues of language policies and language planning, the paper makes a detour via some German experience while introducing the notion of “language care,” which was proposed by Leibniz at a time when the prospect of German as an academic language was heavily overcast by the dominance of French. In the main section, this paper refl ects on the various background factors and consequences of this socio-linguistic phenomenon of the overdominance of English and proposes some “glocal” responses for the consideration of the global educational community.
32. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 1
Kodama Hakaru Grundwort ≫Gerechtigkeit≪: Heideggers Nietzsche-Interpretation
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In this essay I will investigate justice, which is one of the five fundamental words in the metaphysics of Nietzsche, as Heidegger points out in Nietzsche II. Compared with the other four words, this word ‘justice’ is the one most worthy of note. Through the confrontation with Schopenhauer Nietzsche sees justice as sincerity for oneself based on superfl uous power-feelings. In this case, justice means truly knowing. Heidegger sees the justice as truth in the meaning of correctness, but this truth forgets the original sense, i.e. ‘unconcealment,’ and accordingly insists that Nietzsche is the last metaphysician.
33. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Vakhtang Kebuladze Transformation des Intentionalitatsbegriffs in der Phanomenologie und ihre Relevanz fur die Sozialwissenschaft
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At the very beginning of my article I explain the concept of intentionality in the realm of Husserl’s transcendental phenomenology. In this explanation I analyse the phenomenological concepts of noesis, noema, sense, appresentation, object and try to show the relationship between intentionality, temporality, and intersubjectivity as transcendental structures of experience. Than I review a tendency in phenomenological literature (namely in the works of Heidegger, Sartre, Hildebrand, and Schmitz) which lead to a radical transformation of the concept of intentionality. In the last part I examine a possibility of usage of this transformed concept in the conception of Alfred Schutz’ finite areas of meaning.
34. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Gediminas Karoblis The Question Concerning Dance Technique
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The notion of “dance technique” is so widely used among dancers that it cannot be ignored. A few different meanings of technique are encountered in a dance practice: (1) techniques of the preparation for a dance, (2) dances might be considered as techniques for some other purposes, and, obviously, (3) the dance is distinguished from other dances by implementation of the particular technique. In this essay, the question concerning dance technique is raised following Heidegger’s reflections. Dance technique is the mode of revealing, and cannot be renounced in dance as the profanation of the sacred pureness of it. But the dance vanishes, when there is a non-conscious marionette left, instead of Consciousness of Dance as the Medium between the Music and the Body.
35. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Mădălina Diaconu Der Konsumtempel als postmoderner Mythos und als verwirklichte Utopie der Posthistoire
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“The temple of consumption as a postmodern myth and the materialized utopia of post-history” deals with imaginary motifs connected with the shopping mall, which is currently called in German “temple of consumption.” A mall makes real somewhat the mythical Schlaraffenland (pays de Caucagne) of the late Middle Age. The architecture of the mall is postmodern, while that of the classical department store, is modern. Time manifests itself fourfold: as the subjective duration of shopping, the qualitative calendar of celebrations, the prohibition of history and the folding up of the past, present and future into the present. Finally, the customers’ behaviour expresses an escapist desire to desire and a perverted katharsis.
36. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Thomas Franz Die Pluralität des Menschen: Die Anthropologien Eugen Finks und Heinrich Rombachs im Vergleich
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Martin Heidegger was the famous reviver of philosophical anthropology based on the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. In his critique of the European anthropological tradition he conceptualizes human being as “Existenz” and “Dasein.” Following Heidegger, Eugen Fink (1905-1975) and Heinrich Rombach (1923-2004) developped a pluralistic anthropology within the concept of basic phenomena. For Eugen Fink there are five existential and co-existential phenomena: death, love, work, power and play, which are dialectically connected. These five phenomena are the transhistorical and transcultural constant factors of human persons as individual and social beings. Despite Fink’s criticism of Heidegger’s anthropological formalism, his anthropological conception can be defined as existential-ontological anthropology. Heinrich Rombach deepens this conception. There is no fixed existence of the basic phenomena for each person. Rombach argues, that each person has to find his own basic phenomenon. These phenomena are different in each historical epoch and culture. For example, love in the Roman Empire is totally distinct from love in postmodernism. There is no fixation on five basic phenomena, though each phenomenon can have the function of a basic phenomenon for a human being. Finally, Rombach makes the distinction between basic individual and social phenomena. While Rombach’s philosophy is focussed on a functional and processual ontology, which he himself calls structure ontology, his anthropological conception can be characterised as a structure anthropology at all.
37. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Alexei Chernyakov Heidegger and “Russian Questions”
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In this paper I attempt to connect Heidegger’s analysis of human existence in Sein und Zeit with important themes of Russian concerning the concept of personality and inherited from Byzantium Theology and Greek Patristic
38. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Jonna Bornemark Alterity in the Philosophy of Edith Stein: Empathy and God
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In this article I will examine Stein’s discussions on alterity. In her early writings Stein develops the theme of alterity mainly in relation to the concept of empathy (Einfuhlung) and thus in relation to the other person. In her later writings the theme of alterity mainly relates to God. I will discuss the continuity and discontinuity between these two areas. I will claim that alterity in her early writings can be understood as invisibility within visibility whereas alterity in her later writings can be understood as visibility within invisibility.
39. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Beate Beckmann-Zöller Adolf und Anne Reinach: Edith Steins Mentoren im Studium und auf dem Glaubensweg
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Adolf and Anne Reinach influenced Edith Stein (1891-1942) as mentors in her studies in Gottingen and in her religious experience. From 1909-1917 Adolf Reinach (1883-1917) held an important position as assistant professor to Edmund Husserl. After his early death in the First World War, his magnificent way of passing on the phenomenological method of Husserl’s Logical Investigations was confirmed by Roman Ingarden, Dietrich von Hildebrand, Hedwig Conrad-Martius, and other scholars. In this essay the biographies and works of the couple Adolf and Anne will be described in the perspective of Edith Stein, who helped to edit Reinach’s works (Gesammelte Schriften, Halle 1921).
40. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 4 > Issue: Part 1
Wolfhart Henckmann Uber die Ündefinierbarkeit des Menschen und die Grenzen der Weltanschauungen
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The article deals with three questions: What is to be understood by the undefinability of man? In which sense do worldviews have limits? What is meant by the “and” between undefinability and the limits of worldviews? A distinction is to be drawn between comparative and absolute undefinability. The former means that sciences have not yet come to an acceptable definition of man, the latter means that undefinability is the ground of existence of man, as it is experienced in border experiences (“Grenzerfahrungen”). A worldview can be understood as the apprehension of a meaningful coherence of man and world. A worldview is anthropocentric and is distinct from others in respect to the existential standpoint from where the connection of world and man is apprehended. From an unreflected lived worldview can be distinguished a reflected worldview. It is possible that it discovers a radical break between man and world. In quite different ways this is done by Dilthey’s interpretation of the border experiences of birth and death, by Nietzsche’s concept of the soul of nations (“Volksseelen”), and by Kant’s concept of “unsociable sociability.” The assumption of an absolute undefinability of man can be understood as the ground of a universal solidarity by which the antagonistic contradictions of different worldviews seem to be reconcilable, because it limits the claim on absoluteness of worldviews.