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21. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Mohammad Hassan Khalil Ibn Taymiyyah on Reason and Revelation in Ethics
22. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
J. Vahid Brown Andalusī Mysticism: A Recontextualization
23. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Ham idrez a Ayatollahy Principality of Existence and the Problem of Evil
24. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Ali Sadeghi Utopia, the Philosopher, and the Pir: A Comparative Analysis of the Ideas of Plato and Rumi
25. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 3
Edward Omar Moad A Significant Difference Between al-Ghazālī and Hume on Causation
26. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 3
Mehdi Aminrazavi Mullā Ṣadrā’s Divine Occasionalism and David Hume’s Critique of Causality
27. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 3
Germana Porcasi On the Islamic Judicial Logic in al-Ghazālī’s ’Asās al-qiyās
28. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 3
Muhammad Hozien On Defining the Field: Islamic Philosophy, Arabic Philosophy, or Muslim Philosophy?
29. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 3
Kirk Templeton Avicenna, Aquinas, and the Active Intellect
30. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 4
Simin Rahimi Divine Command and Ethical Duty: A Critique of the Scriptural Argument
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What is the relationship between divine commands and ethical duties? According to the divine command theory of ethics, moral actions are obligatory simply because God commands people to do them. This position raises a serious question about the nature of ethics, since it suggests that there is no reason, ethical or non-ethical, behind divine commands; hence both his commands and morality become arbitrary. This paper investigates the scriptural defense of the divine command theory and argues that this methodology is wrong as any interpretation of the text stands on a complex web of ethical and non-ethical presuppositions and as these presuppositions change so does the interpretation.
31. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 4
Chelsea C. Harry Ibn Bājja and Heidegger on Retreat from Society
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Aristotle claimed that man is by nature social. Later philosophers challenged this assertion, questioning whether man is necessarily social or simply socialized. Ibn Bājja, a twelfth-century philosopher from Muslim Spain, and Martin Heidegger, a twentieth-century German philosopher, approached this question in paradoxical terms, claiming in their respective works that despite having been born into social origins (a necessary framework of existential and social conditions), human beings are able—and even mandated—to escape these origins, and thus society, to some degree. Through Ibn Bājja’s book, The Governance of the Solitary, and a portion of Heidegger’s magnum opus, Being and Time, I present what each of these thinkers posit to be a person’s social origins, and the respective epistemological justifications they provide to suggest that man should work to depart from them. To conclude, I appropriate the claims of Ibn Bājja and Heidegger to address the “real world” plausibility and potential benefits—both to society and to man himself—of man’s departure from society.
32. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 4
Carol L. Bargeron On Ghazālīan Epistemology: A Theory
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This work examines, through al-Munqidh, the ways and reasons of al-Ghazālī’s association with skepticism. Was he a skeptic on a Humean model, what was his approach to human knowledge, and what is the nature of al-Ghazālī’s critique of rational knowledge?
33. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 4
Lisa Farooque About Celestial Circulation: Averroes’ Tahafūt al-tahafūt and Aristotle’s De Caelo
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For Averroes, celestial circulation is evidence of a divinely mandated rational universe. This paper follows Averroes’ account on cosmic contact between the eternal and the temporal, in Tahafūt al-tahafūt contra al-Ghazālī. It argues that the polemical perspective of the Tahafūt al-tahafūt frames Averroes’ appeal to Aristotle’s account of cosmic motion. Consequently, Averroes’ exceptional account of the universe contrasts Aristotle’s exemplary account of the mutual participation of intellect and nature. Their accounts of celestial circulation implicate the status of human nature conditioned by cosmic nature. As such, the possibility of human freedom rests on the nature of causality between divine intellect and cosmic manifestation. The convergence and divergence of Aristotle and Averroes regarding celestial circulation reveals Averroes’ politics that guide a rational argument for a strong cosmic causal connection between the unmoved mover and the universe, against al-Ghazālī’s rationally inaccessible divine will.
34. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 4
Saba Fatima An Examination of the Ethics of Submissiveness
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This paper examines the trait of submissiveness within the framework of virtue ethics. Submissiveness is generally regarded as a vice, particularly when evaluated in reference to patriarchal systems. This paper argues that there is something valuable about the trait of submissiveness—when it functions as a virtue—that is lacking in secular contexts, and this lack detracts from the possibilities of a good life.
35. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 4
Aytekin Özel Al-Ghazālī’s Method of Doubt and its Epistemological and Logical Criticism
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The method of doubt has been used in philosophy and theology by both philosophers and theologians, among them al-Ghazālī. Al-Ghazālī’s method conveys the process of how he was cured of his epistemological and existential crisis. This study analyzes each phase of the process in terms of epistemology and logic; it explains the problems and how they appeared to al-Ghazālī.
36. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 5
Mohamad Nasrin Nasir On God’s Names and Attributes: An Annotated Translation from Mullā Ṣadrā’s al-Maẓāhir al-ilāhiyya
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This article examines ḥikma as it was practiced by Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī, or Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1640), in explaining the connection between the divine names and the attributes of God. This is done via a translation of the fourth part of his al-Maẓāhir al-ilāhiyya fī asrār al-ʿulūm al-kamāliyya [The loci of divine manifestations in the secrets of the knowledge of perfection]. Ḥikma, philosophy, as it is defined here, is the combination of rational demonstrations and spiritual unveiling. Shīrāzī’s philosophy is a synthesis of Ibn ʿArabī’s school of metaphysical unveiling, the Ishrāqī school led by Suhrawardī, and the rational school of the Peripatetics. The text is translated here for the first time, and includes annotations.
37. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 5
Thérèse-Anne Druart Editorial
38. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 5
Muhammad Hozien A Philosopher’s Toolkit: A Review Essay
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In this review essay we focus on what we call a philosopher’s toolkit: a number of books that will help those studying Islamic philosophy texts. These books are both primers on Islamic philosophy, as well as texts that are essential to keep on one’s desk or in close reach.
39. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 5
Kevjn Lim God’s Knowledge of Particulars: Avicenna, Maimonides, and Gersonides
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This article offers a comparative study of three thinkers from almost as many intellectual and cultural traditions: Avicenna, Maimonides, and Gersonides, and discusses the extent of the knowledge of particulars which each one ascribed to God. Avicenna de-reified Aristotle’s abstract and isolated Prime Mover and argued that God can know particulars but limited these to universals. Maimonides disanalogized divine from human knowledge, arguing that the epistemic mode predicated of mankind cannot be equally predicated of God, and that God knows particulars qua particulars even as his Knowing encompasses all of eternity in a single act of knowledge. Attempting an intermediate path between the former’s highly discursive reasoning and the latter’s more scriptural approach, Gersonides postulated that God can know particulars qua particulars—as is befitting a Perfect Being—but this He does ‘mediately’ as it were, via the emanative ordering comprising the separate intelligences and culminating in the Active Intellect.
40. Journal of Islamic Philosophy: Volume > 5
Hulya Yaldir Ibn Sīnā and Descartes on the Origins and Structure of the Universe: Cosmology and Cosmogony
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This article begins with an examination of Ibn Sīnā’s conception of emanation and its origin within the Greek and Islamic philosophical traditions. Secondly, I present his view of the multiplicity of the universe from a single unitary First Cause, followed by a discussion of the function of the Active Intellect in giving rise to the existence of the sublunary world and its contents. In the second part of the article, I consider Cartesian cosmology, without, however, going into detail about what Descartes calls the ‘imaginary new world,’ the problems arising from the mechanical worldview. Note is made of the conflict between Descartes and the Scholastic and Orthodox Christian concept of cosmos. This article provides an account and comparison of Ibn Sīnā’s and Descartes’ portrayal of the origins and structure of the universe of both philosophers.